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Pendahuluan: silabi matakuliah KOMPOSIT


Hands-out Dr. Eko Marsyahyo, ST., MSc ProdiTeknik Mesin S-1 ITN Malang 2012
P1. Pengenalan Bahan Composites P2. Klasifikasi Bahan Penyusun Komposites P3. Perilaku Mekanika Komposit Lamina I P4. Perilaku Mekanika Komposit Lamina II P5. Perilaku Mekanika Komposit Laminated (Berlapis) I P6. Perilaku Mekanika Komposit Laminated (Berlapis) II P7. Perilaku Mekanika Komposit Serat Pendek dan P7 Efektivitas Pembebanan P8. PengenalanTeori Kegagalan (Failure) Komposit P9. Desain dan Manufaktur Komposit I P10. Desain dan Manufaktur Komposit II P11. PengujianMekanis Bahan Komposit P12. PengujianMekanis Bahan Komposit P13.Aplikasi Bahan Komposit.
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P14.Quiz dan Tugas-Tugas Mata Kuliah P15/16.UTS dan UAS

Sistem penilaian hasil PBM


Penilaian hasil ujian UTS 40% UAS 60% Syarat kelulusan, batas minimal nilai C (skala angka 56) Kehadiran minimal 90% SEMUA tugas MK dikerjakan dan dikumpulkan tepat waktu (ada 5 paket tugas MK )

Daftar Pustaka
y Kaw, Autar K., 2006, Mechanics of composite materials, ed.

2nd , CRC Press

Ingin diskusi di luar acara tatap muka di kelas? Via email: mesin@itn.ac.id Atau join facebook add: eko marsyahyo, atau hp. 08123315824.
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Pertemuan I. Apa itu Bahan Komposit?


y Composite Material adalah A combination of two or

y y y y y

more materials to form a new material system with enhanced material properties Merupakan gabungan bahan Reinforcement + Matrix = Composite Fungsi bahan penguat adalah memperbaiki sifat-sifat sifat sifat mekanis Fungsi bahan matrik adalah sebagai perekat bahan penguat Fungsi bahan penguat + matrik sebagai penahan beban sekaligus transfer beban dari antar serat, antar serat-matrik dan antar matrik Selain bahan penguat, komposit tersusun dari bahan pengisi yang berfugsi meningkatkan rasio kekuatan terhadap berat komposit dan dihasilkan bahan yang kuat dan ringan.
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Sifat umum Bahan Komposit


y A combination of two or more materials (reinforcement, resin, filler, etc.), differing in form y

y y

or composition on a macroscale. The constituents retain their identities, i.e.., they do not dissolve or merge into each other, although they act in concert. Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between each other. Artificially produced multiphase materials yakni Matrix Phase: Polymers, Metals, Ceramics Also, continuous phase, surrounds other phase (e.g.: metal, ceramic, or polymer) ; Reinforcement Phase: Fibers, Particles, or Flakes Also, dispersed phase, discontinuous phase (e.g.: metal, ceramic, or polymer) D i materials Design i l with i h properties i b better than h those h of f conventional i l materials il ( (metals, l ceramics, or polymers). usually man-made, that are a threedimensional combination of at least two chemically distinct materials, with a distinct interface separating the components, created to obtain properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone. are combinations of two materials in which one of the materials, called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibers, sheets, or particles, and is embedded in the other materials called the matrix phase. The reinforcing material and the matrix material can be metal, ceramic, or polymer. Historical or natural examples of composites are abundant: brick made of clay reinforced with straw, mud wall with bamboo shoots, concrete, concrete reinforced with steel rebar, granite consisting of quartz, mica and feldspar, wood (cellulose fibers in lignin matrix), etc.

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Advanced composite
y Adalah refereed to those composite materials

developed and used in the aerospace industries. They usually consist of high performance fibers as reinforcing phases and polymers or metals as matrices.

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Perkembangan Bahan Komposit


y Jaman dulu y Masa kini

y Komposit non-teknik

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Masa depan: Dominasi bahan komposit

aerospace

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y Perbandingan umum

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Perbandingan antara Komposit dan Bahan Logam

Keunggulan dan Kelemahan Komposit


Advantages: a. Specific tensile strength is 4 to 6 times greater than steel or Aluminum b. Specific modulus is 3 to 5 times that of steel or aluminum p thermal conductivity y 40 times that of copper pp c. Specific d. Greater fatigue resistance than steel or aluminum e. Greater design flexibility than homogeneous materials f. Potential for corrosion is significantly reduced g. Minimize part count and simplified fastening methods Disadvantages: a. Raw material cost (advanced composites) b. Lack of clear-cut design rules c. Lack of high productivity manufacturing methods

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Tugas I
y Susun daftar sifat-sifat mekanis, thermal dan elektrik bahan

komposit. Bust tabel yang berisi minimal 50 jenis bahan komposit dan sifat-sifat utama seperti kekuatan tarik modulus elastisitas, massa jenis, konduktivitas panas/listrik dan lainlain.

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Pertemuan II. Bagaimana cara menyusun bahan komposit
partikel) dan bahan matrik
y Klasifikasi bahan komposit adalah:
y Pengelompokkan berdasarkan jenis bahan matrik y Pengelompokkan berdasarkan jenis bahan penguat y Pengelompokkan berdasarkan bentuk penguat y Pengelompokkan berdasarkan asal usul bahan

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Berdasarkan jenis Bahan Matrik

y Bahan komposit tersusun dari bahan penguat (jenis serat atau

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Types of Composites
Matrix phase/Reinforc ement Phase Metal Metal Ceramic
Polymer

Contoh sifat mekanis PMC


Cermets (ceramicmetal composite)

Powder metallurgy parts combining immiscible metals Cermets, TiC, TiCN Cemented carbides used in tools Fiber-reinforced metals t l

Brake pads

Ceramic

SiC reinforced Al2O3 Tool materials

Fiberglass

Polymer Elemental (Carbon, Boron, etc.)


Fiber reinforced metals Auto parts aerospace

Kevlar fibers in an epoxy matrix Rubber with carbon (tires) Boron, Carbon reinforced plastics

MMCs
Metal Matrix Composites

CMCs
Ceramic Matrix Comps.

PMCs
Polymer Matrix Comps

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Contoh sifat mekanis MMC

Contoh sifat mekanis CMC

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Definisi bahan matrik

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Fungsi utama matrik


Function y Binds fibers together y Acts as a medium through which externally applied stress is transmitted and distributed to the fibers y Protects fiber from surface damage y Separates fibers and prevents a crack from one fiber from propagating through another

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Komposit berdasarkan Matrik Polimer

Kriteria bahan matrik


y Ductile y Lower E than for fiber y Bonding forces between fiber and matrix must be high
y otherwise fiber will just pull-out of matrix

y Generally, only polymers and metals are used as matrix

material (they are ductile)

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Komposit berdasarkan Jenis Bahan Penguat

Bentuk bahan penguat/pengisi

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Serat buatan
K l tape Kevlar C b tape Carbon Gl roving Glass

The weight or volume ratio of percent fiber to percent resin based on 100% of a composite material. Advanced composites contain more than 50% fiber

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Perbandingan kualitas jenis serat buatan

Basalt roving

Kevlar woven roving


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Carbon woven roving

Glass Roving

Basalt Chopped

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Serat alam: bahan penguat ramah lingkungan

Sumber bahan sangat melimpah

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Contoh sifat mekanis serat alam


Properti mekanis Densitas, gr/cm3 Perpanjangan, % Kekuatan tarik, MPa Modulus tarik, GPa Jute 1,5 1,8 773 28,5 Abaca 1,5 n/a 980 n/a Coir 1,25 15 220 6 Kenaf 1,5 1,5 295 22 Flax 1,54 3,2 935 27,6 Cotton 1,51 5,3 400 12 Hemp 1,5 1,6 Ramie 1,5 3,8

Definisi serat penguat

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Bentuk fisik serat penguat

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690 50 1050 61,5
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Kriteria pemilihan bahan serat penguat

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Komposit berdasarkan Bentuk dan Orientasi Bahan Penguat

Bentuk bahan penguat komposit

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Komposit struktur Sandwich: tersusun dalam lapisan inti berbentuk honeycomb dan kulit (face sheet), banyak diaplikasikan untuk struktur pesawat terbang.

Serat panjang Kontinyu Searah (Unidirectional composite

Komposit berlapis (laminated composite)

Penguatan partikel
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Penguat flake

Serat pendek random

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Parameter Bahan Penguat Serat Panjang Kontinyu

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Berdasarkan asal bahan

Distribution

Concentration

Orientation

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Shape

Size

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Rangkuman
Composites are classified according to:

-- the matrix material (CMC, MMC, PMC) -- the reinforcement geometry (particles, fibers, layers).
Composites enhance matrix properties:

Pertemuan III: Mekanika Lamina I


y Apa yang terjadi jika komposit lamina mengalami tegangan

-- MMC: enhance sy, TS, creep performance -- CMC: enhance Kc -- PMC: enhance E, sy, TS, creep performance Particulate-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus can be estimated. -- Properties are isotropic. Fiber-reinforced: -- Elastic modulus and TS can be estimated along fiber dir. -- Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic. Structural: -- Based on build-up of sandwiches in layered form.
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arah aksial?

Definisi Rule of Mixtures: jumlah fraksi bahan penguat yang tertanam di dalam bahan matrik
(iso-strain)
Upper bound

Volume Fraction in Fiber Composites


y Elastic modulus is dependent on the volume fraction of

* ** * *
E- matrix

Ec = EmVm + E fV f
EmE f Ec = E fVm + EmV f

fibers
y Rule of mixtures equation
y E - elastic modulus, , V- volume fraction, , m- matrix, , f- fiber y upper bound: orientasi serat longitudinal

Lower bound

(iso-stress) conc. of fibers Actual Values


E - fiber

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d i . c E E a . n E t = i . n E V +E V i s e rs-m
(iso(iso -strain)
y lower bound: orientasi serat transversal

Ec = EmVm + E fV f
m f c f m m f

(iso(iso -stress)

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Mengalami tegangan arah transversal:

Komposit Isostrain dan Isostress

Also of importance is the response of the composite to a load applied transverse to the fibre direction. The stiffness and strength of the composite are expected to be much lower in this case, since the (weak) matrix is not shielded from carrying stress to the same degree as for axial loading. Prediction of the transverse stiffness of a composite from the elastic properties of the constituents is far more difficult than the axial value.The conventional approach is to assume that the system can again be represented by the "slab model". A lower bound on the stiffness is obtained from the "equal stress" (or "Reuss") assumption.
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Kondisi Isostrain

Kondisi Isostress

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Perbandingan Kekuatan komposit lamina isostrain dan Isostress dengan fraksi volume serat jumlah tertentu

Example
y Calculate the composite modulus for polyester reinforced with

60 vol% E-glass under a. iso-strain and b. iso-stress conditions.


y Epolyester = 6.9 x 103 MPa y EE-glass = 72.4 x 10 3 MPa

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Tugas II

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Ec = (0.4)(6.9x103 MPa) + (0.6)(72.4x103 MPa) = 46.2 x 103 MPa 1/Ec = (0.4)/(6.9x103 MPa) + (0.6)/(72.4x103 MPa) = . MPa

Pertemuan IV. Mekanika Komposit Lamina II


y Material Isotropik: Hukum Hook teori klasik hubungan

antara tegangan dan regangan di daerah elastis


F F

F = k.u

Daerah berlakunya hukum hook

=E = F/A = DL/L

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Hukum Hooke
2
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y Tegangan sij menimbulkan regangan eij, yaitu

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deformasi di titik tsb. Regangan normal bila i=j dan regangan geser bila i<>j y Menurut hukum Hook, hub. Tegangan dan regangan adalah : sij = fij(eij) Sehingga untuk bahan yang elastik linier terdapat 9 tegangan dan 9 regangan, sedangkan konstantanya ada 9 x 9 = 81 konstnta

3 Tegangan = ij i = j tegangan normal i = j tegangan geser

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Komposit: material anisotropy

Komposit ortotropik

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Komposit ortotropik

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Pembebanan arah aksial

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Pembebanan arah transversal

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Pembebanan Geser

Apa bedanya dengan Material isotropic: Logam

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Pertemuan V: Apa itu Laminated, Banyak Lapis atau banyak lamina?

Analisis Laminated: Mekanika Mikro dan Makro

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Tinjauan mekanika mikro komposit

Densitas

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Pembebanan arah Longitudinal

Pembebanan arah Transversal

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Contoh soal

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Jawab:

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2. Fraksi massa serat dan matrik:

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Contoh Soal UTS


y Tentukan kekuatan tarik dan modulus lamina serat

glass/matrik epoksi (lihat data Tabel 3.1 dan 3.2) jika fraksi volume serat divariasi sebesar a).40%, b).50% dan c)60%? Gambarkan grafik hubungan antara fraksi volume serat g kekuatan dan modulus elastisitas komposit p tersebut, dengan gunakan kondisi ROM isostress dan isostrain.

Hitung dan periksa kembali dengan persamaan berikut ini:


Vf = volume fraction of fibers Wf = weight of fibers Wm = weight of matrix f = density of fibers m = density of matrix

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Pengaruh sudut orientasi/arah serat


When fibers are aligned
y properties of material are highly anisotropic y modulus in direction of alignment is a function of the volume

fraction of the E of the fiber and matrix


y modulus perpendicular to direction of alignment is considerably less

(the fibers do not contribute)

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Pertemuan VI: Pengaruh orientasi sudut serat penguat dan urutan setiap lapisan
y Two dimensional sheets or panels

Pertemuan VII. Komposit berpenguat serat pendek (acak)


Syarat utama pemanfaatan serat pendek
y Memiliki aspek rasio ukuran efektif untuk transfer beban y Melampaui aspek ukuran panjang kritis

with a preferred high-strength direction


y Q. What is a natural example of this? y A. AW Wood d y Q. What is a man made example

y A. Plywood - Layers are stacked and

subsequently bonded together so that the high strength direction varies

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Influence of Fiber Length
y Mechanical properties depend on:
y mechanical properties of the fiber y how much load the matrix can transmit to the fiber
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Influence of Fiber Length


y Critical fiber length - lc
y Continuous fibers l >> 15 lc y Short fibers are anything shorter

depends on the interfacial bond between the fiber and the matrix

15 lc

lc = fd/2c
where
No Reinforcement

y Critical fiber length - depends on


y fiber diameter, fiber tensile strength y fiber/matrix bond strength

d = fiber diameter c = fiber-matrix bond strength f = fiber yield strength


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Randomly Oriented Fibers


y Properties are isotropic
y not dependent on direction

Serat Pendek (Discontinuous Fibers)


y Aligned (Tersusun)

c = fVf(1-lc/2l) + mVm c = (lc/d)Vf + mVm


y Random (Acak)

for l > lc for l < lc where K ~ 0.1 to 0.6

y Ultimate tensile strength g is less than for aligned g fibers y May be desirable to sacrifice strength for the isotropic nature

Ec = KEfVf + EmVm

of the composite

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Pertemuan VIII. Pengenalan Teori Kegagalan (Failure) Komposit

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Modulus spesifik komposit

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Kegagalan serat dan matrik

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Pertemuan IX. Desain dan Manufaktur Komposit I

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Material Forms and Manufacturing


y Objectives of material production
y assemble fibers y impregnate resin y shape product y cure resin

Sheet Molding Compound (SMC)


y Chopped glass fiber added to polyester resin mixture

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y Highly automated
y low manufacturing costs if high

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Question: Is SMC isotropic or anisotropic?

Manufacturing - Filament Winding


throughput
y e.g., Glass fiber pipe, sailboard

Prepregs
y Prepreg and prepreg layup
y prepreg - partially cured mixture of fiber and resin y Unidirectional prepreg tape with paper backing y wound on spools y Cut and stacked y Curing conditions y Typical temperature and pressure in autoclave is 120-200C, 100 psi

masts

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Manufacturing - Layups
compression molding

Resin transfer molding (RTM)


y Dry-fiber preform placed in a closed mold, resin injected

into mold, then cured

y Textile forms y Braiding g or weaving g


vacuum bagging

y Tubular braided form y can be flattened and cut for non-tubular products

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Pultrusion

Material Forms
y Pultrusion y Fiber and matrix are pulled through a die, like extrusion of metals -- assembles fibers, impregnates p g the resin, , shapes p the p product, , and cures the resin in one step. y Example. Fishing rods

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Pertemuan X. Desain dan Manufaktur Komposit II

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Pertemuan XI. Pengujian Mekanis Bahan Komposit I

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Pertemuan XII. PengujianMekanis Bahan Komposit II

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y y y y y y

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Pertemuan XIII. Aplikasi Bahan Komposit


Carbon fiber material has a wide range of applications, as it can be formed at various densities in limitless shapes and sizes. Carbon fiber is often shaped into tubing, fabric, and cloth, and can be custom-formed into any number of composite parts and pieces. Familiar products made of carbon fiber include:
High-end automobile components Bicycle frames Fishing rods Shoe soles Baseball bats Protective cases for laptops and iPhones

y The angle of the weave, as well as the resin used with the fiber, will

More exotic uses can be found in the:


y y y y y
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Aeronautics and aerospace industries Oil and gas industry Unmanned aerial vehicles Satellites Formula-1 race cars

Carbon fiber is, exactly what it sounds like fiber made of carbon. But, these fibers are only a base. What is commonly referred to as carbon fiber is a material consisting of very thin filaments of carbon atoms. When bound together with plastic polymer resin by heat, pressure or in a vacuum a composite material is formed that is both strong and lightweight.

determine the strength of the overall composite. The resin is most commonly epoxy, but can also be thermoplastic, polyurethane, vinyl ester, or polyester. y Alternatively, a mold may be cast and the carbon fibers applied over it. The carbon fiber composite is then allowed to cure, often by a vacuum process. In this method, the mold is used to achieve the desired shape. This technique is preferred for uncomplicated forms that are needed on demand. Once the material is cut out from the cloth-like roll, it is taken to a design room and placed into molds. The position of the cloth within the mold is important, as it affects the strength of the final component. y Many of the carbon fiber components are built with a light aluminum honeycomb interior, around which the cloth is wrapped, to strengthen the final component

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Aplikasi Komposit Berpenguat Serat Alam (Natural Fibers)


y Racing cars used to be made of the same sort of materials as road
y Definition: Natural fibers include those of vegetable origin constituted of

cars, that is steel, aluminum and other metals. In the early 1980s, however, Formula 1 underwent the beginnings of a revolution that has become its hallmark today: the use of carbon composite materials to build the chassis. y Today, most of the racing car chassis - the monocoque, suspension, wings and engine cover - is built with carbon fiber. This material has four advantages over every other kind of material for racing car construction:
y It is super lightweight. y It is super strong. y It is super stiff. y It it can be easily molded into all kinds of different shapes.

cellulose, a polymer of glucose bound to lignin with varying amounts of other natural materials. They include the hard leaf fibers such as abaca (Manila hemp), sisal and henequen; bast fibers from the soft bast tissues or bark such as flax, hemp, jute, and ramie; and seed-hair fibers including cotton, kapok and the flosses. y Natural fibers of cellulose have been used as a reinforcement material, e.g., in polyester composites. composites One disadvantage is the lack of strength of interfacial bonding. Another approach is to employ networks of cellulose fiber containing a polyethylene matrix. Wood fiber itself is a composite of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the unidirectional cellulose microfibrils constitute the reinforcing elements in the matrix blend of hemicellulose and lignin. The structure is built as a multi-ply construction with layers of cellulose microfibrils at different angles to the fiber axis. Cellulosic fiber materials containing 10-20% of polyethylene can be thermally bonded by melting the polyethylene at 150C.

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Pertemuan XIV. Quiz 1 dan 2

Lampiran
y 2 jenis serat utk HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPOSITE2

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KEVLAR

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What is it
y 1965, Dupont y Stehanie Kowlek & Herbert Blades y Aromatic polyamide y Symmetrical radial orientation

What is it Properties Uses

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Properties
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Available grades: Kevlar 29, Kevlar 49, and Kevlar 149

Uses
y Performance Apparel y Adhesives and Sealants y Belts and Hoses y Composites

Dadvantages High Tensile Strength at Low Weight 5X stronger than stronger than steel (equil weight basis) Low Elongation to Break High Modulus (Structural Rigidity) Low Electrical Conductivity High Chemical Resistance Lo Thermal Shrinkage Low High Toughness (Work-To-Break) Excellent Dimensional Stability High Cut Resistance Flame Resistant, Self-Extinguishing Impact resistant Disadvantages Fibers absorb moisture Poor compressive properties Difficult to cut 140

Fiber-Optic and ElectroMechanical Cables y Friction Products and Gaskets Protective Apparel Tires

Uses
y Ropes and Cables

Uses
y Ballistics& y Defense

Protection Level: Colors: Sizes:


Navy Blue

IIIA - $945.00

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Referances
y From: y From:

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Medium
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http://www.lbl.gov/MicroWorlds/Kevlar/KevlarClue1.html

http://www.chem.vt.edu/RVGS/ACT/Questions_00.html Fro m: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/story082.htm y From http://www.spylife.com h // lf y http://denbrook.crosswinds.net/Motorcycles/KevlarClutch

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What is Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic?


y Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP) is a lightlight-

Plastics and Fibers Used


y Epoxy (Most commonly used) y Polyester y Such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) y Vynilester y Nylon y Kevlar y Aluminum

weight, high strength, composite material. y Depending on the task, carbon fiber reinforced plastic is made with different kind of plastics and fibers. y A number of factors depend for the process of CFRP, CFRP molds are usually made from aluminum or fiberglass. For low volume parts, it can be made by putting carbon fiber fabric and resin into a mold and allowing to harden in a vacuum. To create larger volume parts, compression molding is used.

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MEEN 4385 / 5303 (Advanced) Fabrication of Composite Structures

Material Properties
High Modulus 1.9 370 1.79 0.5
Table for carbon fibers

CFRP Applications
In cars, CFRP is used in

TypicalProperties Density(g/cm3) Young'sModulus(GPa) TensileStrength(GPa) TensileElongation(%)

HighStrength 1.8 230 2.48 1.1

UltraHigh Modulus 2.0 2.1 520 620 0.2


Fuselage mold section of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner

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Advantages
y Reduces weight. y Improves fuel efficiency. y Easier to mold and work. y Reduces drag. y Reduces pollution. y Lesser material used. y Longer lifetime. y Less maintenance.

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1.03 1.31
Tail of an RC helicopter, made of CFRP

doors, hoods, fenders, chasis, chasis , and support frames for the engine and transmission. In airplanes, CFRP is used in fuselage sections called barrels. Other applications, racing bicycles, rackets, fishing rods,

References
y http://www.aip.org/dbis/stories/2006/15132.html y http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2006/0211-

cars_of_the_future_plastic_makes_perfect.htm
y http://www.conceptsalesinc.com/carbon-fiber-reinforcedp p

plastic.htm
y http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/BRIDGE/frp/frp197.cfm y Peel, Dr. Larry., MEEN 4385 / 5303 (Advanced) Fabrication of

Composite Structures. http://www.engineer.tamuk.edu/departments/ieen/faculty/Dr LPeel/Courses/composites_fab_class.html. Spring 2008.


A cars pollution

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Polypropylene

y Polypropylene was first polymerized by Dr. Karl Rehn in Germany in 1951 but sadly y It was then rediscovered on March 11, 1954 by Giulio Natta. y has a high melting temperature 160C (320F) which enables it to be exposed to

Polypropylene Discovery

didn't recognize the importance of his discovery Advantages

greater temperatures and keep its same shape. Example, dishwasher safe tupperware y Environmentally safe so it can be used in everyday life y is a thermoplastic h l polymer, l can b be recycled, l d number b 5
y Polypropylene is liable to chain degradation from exposure to UV radiation y The polymer can also be oxidized at high temperatures, a common problem during y Quaternary ammonium biocides was found by researchers to be leaking out of

Disadvantages

molding operations

John Caballero
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polypropylene plastics used in laboratory experiments (A biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing living organisms)

Practical Applications
y Biaxially Oriented polypropylene (BOPP) sheets are used to make a wide

Manufacturing
y The largest company to produce Polypropylene is Lyondell-Basell and Dow

variety of materials including clear bags like the bags at a department store
y highly colorfast, is widely used in manufacturing rugs and mats to be used at

Chemical Company
y Polypropylene is commonly spun into fibers, injection molded, cast into thin films,

home
y used in ropes, distinctive because they are light enough to float in water y used to make bottles bottles, Plastic pails, pails car batteries, batteries wastebaskets wastebaskets, cooler

extruded into sheet and profiles and blow molded


y the fiber market accounts for the largest share of polypropylene usage y Polypropylene has a high tensile strength when the molecules are oriented, and a

containers, dishes and pitchers, retreading automobile tires

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Sources
y Wikipedia, "Polypropylene." 11 Nov 2008

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Composite Wood

relatively low melt strength; these are the primary requirements for fiber markets.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypropylene>. <http://www.plasticsmachining.com/magazine/199806/polypro.html>. <http://www.recycledproductsonline.co.uk/bullions >.

y BASTIAN, KEVIN. "Polypropylene Offers More for Less ." 11 Nov 2008 y recycled items online. 12 Nov 2008

y "safety y gear." g 12 Nov 2008 <http://www.newrivernets.com/nrn/safety.htm p y >. y "new and used lab equipment." 12 Nov 2008 y "recreational dynamics." 12 Nov 2008 y "Polypropylene Plant." 12 Nov 2008

<http://www.crscientific.com/plasticbottles.html >. <http://www.recreationdynamics.com/shots/UPE-1003.php >. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/96634714@N00/255431640/>.

Juan de Dios Hernandez Dr. Larry Peel

y "swico." 12 Nov 2008 <http://www.swicofil.com/asotaantifirecrackfiber.html>.

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What is it?
y Composite Wood is made from a combination of

Composite Lumber VS. Wood


Initial Cost and Maintenance over the years

plasticpolyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and or polyvinyl chloride (PVC ). y Plastic shields wood from moisture and insect damage. y The wood protects the plastic from UV damage. y The cost compared to regular wood is almost the same, but composite wood offers superior quality and resistence.

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Benefits of Composite Wood


y Splinter Free y Skid Free y Resists weathering y Does not deform y No insect damage y No maintenance required y Stays new for years

Disadvantages of Composite Wood


y Decolorize y May not look real

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Where is it used?
y Due to its resistance to weathering and diversity of

d i . c a . n t i . n i s e rs-m
y Flexible in hot weather y Rigid in cold weather

y Sometimes weighs more

References
y www.trex.com y www.timbertech.com y www.fibercomposites.com www fibercomposites com y www.compositesworld.com/ ct/issues/2003/June/136

colors, it is often used in decks, railings, around pools & hot tubs.

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