Approach
H.F. Ho, Y.K. Wong and A.B. Rad
Department of Electrical Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong
email: {hfho.ee,eeykwong,eeabrad}@polyu.edu.hk
Abstract
An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm is
proposed for a class of continuous time unknown nonlinear
systems. In contrast to the existing sliding mode control
(SMC) design, where the presence of hitting control may
introduce problems to controlled systems, the proposed
adaptive fuzzy logic controller takes advantages of both
SMC and proportional integral (PI) control. The chattering
action is attenuated and robust performance can be ensured.
The stability analysis for the proposed control algorithm is
provided. Two nonlinear system simulation examples are
presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed
method.
1 Introduction
Fuzzy logic control is a technique of incorporating expert
knowledge in designing a controller. Past research of
universal approximation theorem [1] shown that any
nonlinear function over a compact set with arbitrary
accuracy can be approximated by a fuzzy system. There
have been significant research efforts on adaptive fuzzy
control for nonlinear systems [2][4].
It is well known that the sliding mode control method
provides a robust controller for nonlinear dynamic systems
[5], [6]. However, it inherits a discontinuous control action
and hence chattering phenomena will take place when the
system operates near the sliding surface. One of the
common solutions for eliminating this chattering effect is to
introduce a boundary layer neighboring the sliding surface
[6], [7]. This method can lead to stable closed loop system
without the chattering problem, but there exists a finite
steady state error due to the finite steady state gain of the
control algorithm.
The adaptive fuzzy controller incorporating the fuzzy logic
and the sliding mode control (SMC) [8][10] for ensuring
stability and consistent performance is an active research
topic of the fuzzy control. In particular, this research work
integrates the fuzzy approximation theory and the SMC into
the fuzzy logic controller. These approaches are similar in
the aspect of directly approximating the sliding mode
control law by fuzzy approximators. One of the advantages
of this control strategy is insensitive to modeling
uncertainty and external disturbances. Many adaptive fuzzy
sliding mode control (AFSMC) schemes have been
proposed and the chattering phenomena in the controlled
system can be avoided by using the fuzzy sliding surface in
the reaching condition of the SMC [1113]. However, these
features make the number of fuzzy rules increasing with the
complexity of the fuzzy sliding surface involved. As the
sliding mode control law can separated into two parts i.e.
the equivalent control and the switching control [10]. The
role of the controller is to schedule these two components
under different operating conditions. In order to improve
the steady state performance of the AFSMC, an adaptive
fuzzy logic controller combining a proportional plus
integral (PI) controller and the SMC is considered in this
paper. The proposed control scheme provides good transient
and robust performance. Moreover, as the proposed
controller integrates the PI control with the SMC, the
chattering phenomenon can be avoided. In this paper, it is
proved that the closedloop system is globally stable in the
Lyapunov sense and the system output can track the desired
reference output asymptotically with modeling uncertainties
and disturbances.
This paper is organized as follows. First, the problem
formulation is presented in Section 2. A brief description of
fuzzy logic system is included in Section 3. In section 4, the
adaptive fuzzy sliding control is proposed. Simulation
results for the proposed control concept are shown in
Section 5. Finally, the paper is concluded in Section 6.
2 Problem Statement
Consider a general class of SISO nth order nonlinear
systems as follow form [5]:
x y
t d u t x g t x f x
n
=
+ + = ) ( ) , ( ) , (
) (
(1)
where f and g are unknown nonlinear functions,
n T
n
T n
R x x x x x x x e = =
] , , , [ ] , , , [
2 1
) 1 (
is the state
vector of the systems which is assumed to be available for
measurement, R u e and R y e are the input and the
output of the system, respectively, and ) (t d is the unknown
external disturbance. We have to make an assumption that
) (t d have upper bound D , that is, D t d s  ) (  . We require
the system (1), to be controllable, the input
gain 0 ) , ( = t x g is necessary. Hence, without loss of
generality, we are assumed 0 ) , ( > t x g . The control
problem is to obtain the state x for tracking a desired
state
d
x in the presence of model uncertainties and external
disturbance with the tracking error
n T n
d
R e e e x x e e = =
] , , , [
) 1 (
(2)
Define a sliding surface in the space of the error state as
e c
e e c e c e c e s
T
n n
n
=
+ + + + =
) 1 ( ) 2 (
1 2 1
) (
(3)
where
T
n
c c c c ] 1 , , , , [
1 2 1
= are the coefficients of the
Hurwitiz polynominal
1
2
1
1
) ( c c h
n
n
n
+ + + =
, i.e. all
the roots are in the open left halfplane and is a Laplace
operator. If the initial condition 0 ) 0 ( = e , the tracking
problem
d
x x = can be considered as the state error vector
remaining on the sliding surface 0 ) ( = e s for all 0 > t . A
sufficient condition to achieve this behavior is to select the
control strategy such that
0 ,  )) ( (
2
1
2
> s q q s e s
dt
d
(4)
The system is controlled in such a way that the state always
moves towards the sliding surface and hits it. The sign of
the control value must change at the intersection between
the state trajectory and sliding surface.
Consider the control problem of nonlinear systems (1), if
) , ( t x f and ) , ( t x g are known. The SMC input
*
u guarantees
the sliding condition of (4).
(
+ =
_
=
) sgn( ) , (
) , (
1
) (
1
1
) ( *
s x t x f e c
t x g
u
n
d
n
i
i
i
q (5)
where
<
=
>
=
0 for 1
0 for 0
0 for 1
) sgn(
s
s
s
s (6)
Let the Lyapunov function candidate defined as
) (
2
1
2
1
e s V = (7)
Differentiating (7) with respect to time, V
(8)
Hence the SMC input
*
u guarantees the sliding condition of
(4). It is obvious that in order to satisfy the sliding condition,
a hitting control term
sw
u must be added. i.e.
sw eq
u u u =

.
where
(
+ =
_
=
) (
1
1
) ( 1
) , ( ) , (
n
d
n
i
i
i eq
x t x f e c t x g u (9)
) sgn( ) , (
1
s t x g u
sw
q =
(10)
However, f and g are unknown, it is difficult to apply the
control law (5) for an unknown nonlinear plant. Moreover,
the switchingtype control term
sw
u will cause chattering
problem. To solve these problems, we propose the adaptive
fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm using the fuzzy logic
system and the PI control law in section 4.
3 Fuzzy Logic System
In this section, the fuzzy logic system is briefly described.
The basic configuration of the fuzzy logic system [1]
includes a fuzzy base, consists of a collection of fuzzy IF
THEN rules is written as:
l
l
n n
l l
B y
F x F x R
is Then
is and and is IF :
1 1
) (
(11)
The fuzzy logic system performs a mapping
from
n
n
R U U U _ =
1
to R , where the input vector
n T
n
R x x x e = ] , , [
1
and the output variable R y e denote
the linguistic variables associated with the inputs and output
of the fuzzy logic system.
l
i
F and
l
B are labels of the input
and output fuzzy sets respectively. Let n i , , 2 , 1 = denotes
the number of input for fuzzy logic system and
m l , , 2 , 1 = denotes the number of the fuzzy IFTHEN
rules. By using the singleton fuzzification, product
inference and center average defuzzification, the output
value of the fuzzy system is
_[
_ [
=
=
=
m
l
n
i
i F
m
l
n
i
i F
l
x
x y
x y
l
i
l
i
1
1
) (
) ) ( (
) (
(12)
where ) (
i F
x l
i
is the membership function of the linguistic
variable
i
x , and
l
y represents a crisp value for which the
membership function j
B
reaches it maximum value.
(usually we assume 1 ) ( =
l
B
y j ). By introducing the
concept of fuzzy basis function (FBF)[1], equation (12) can
be rewritten as
u u
T T
x x x y ) ( ) ( ) ( = = (13)
where
T m
y y ] , , [
1
= u is a parameter vector and
T m
x x x )] ( , ), ( [ ) (
1
= is a regressive vector with the
regressor defined as
_[
[
=
=
m
l
i
n
i
F
i
n
i
F
l
x
x
x
l
i
l
i
1
) (
) (
) (
(14)
4 Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control
The result in (5) is realizable only
while ) , ( t x f and ) , ( t x g are well known. However,
) , ( t x f and ) , ( t x g are unknown an the ideal controller (5)
cannot be implemented. We replace ) , ( t x f and ) , ( t x g by
the fuzzy logic system (13). Moreover, we employ PI
control term in order to avoid chattering problem. The input
and output of the continuous time PI controller is in the
form of:
)
+ = sdt k s k u
i p p
(15)
p
k and
i
k are control gains to be designed. Equation (15)
can be rewritten as
) ( )  ( s s p
T
p p
u u = (16)
where
2
] , [ R k k
T
i p p
e = u is an adjustable parameters
during the control produce and
2
] , [ ) ( R dt s s s
T
e =
)
is a
regressive vector. In order to derive the SMC law (5), we
use fuzzy logic system to approximate the unknown
function ) , ( t x f , ) , ( t x g and employ an adaptive PI control
term to attenuate chattering action problem and improve
steady state performance .
Hence, the resulting control law is as follows:
(
+ =
_
=
1
1
) (
)  ( )  (
)  (
1
n
i
p
n
d
i
i f
g
s p x e c x f
x g
u u u
u
(17)
) ( )  (
x x f
T
f f
u u = (18)
) ( )  ( x x g
T
g g
u u = (19)
In order to avoid the chattering problem, the switching
control
sw
u is replaced by the PI control action when the
state is within a boundary layer u <   s and the control
action is kept at the saturated value when the state is outside
the boundary layer. Hence, we set
max
 )  (  e q u + + = D s p
p
when u >   s where u is the thickness of the boundary
layer and e
max
is the maximum approximation error of the
fuzzy system.
Theorem 1: Consider the control problem of the nonlinear
system (1). If control (17) is applied f
(20)
u x s
g
) (
2
u =
(21)
) (
3
s s
p
u =
(22)
Proof: Define the optimal parameters of fuzzy systems


.

\

=
e
O e

 ) , ( )  (
\

=
e
O e

 ) , ( )  (  sup min arg t x g x g
g
R x
g
n
g g
u u
u
(24)

.

\

=
e
O e

 )  (  sup min arg
sw p
R s
p
u s p
p p
u u
u
(25)
where
f
O ,
g
O and
p
O are constraint sets for
f
u ,
g
u and
p
u ,respectively. Define the minimum approximation error.
u x g t x g x f t x f
g f
))  ( ) , ( ( )  (
) , (
 
+ = u u e (26)
Assumption 1:
}   {
f f
n
f f
M R s e = O u u
}   0  {
g g
n
g g
M R s s < e = O u c u and }   {
2
p p p p
M R s e = O u u
where
g f
M M , , c and
p
M are prespecified parameters. And
assume the fuzzy parameters
f
u ,
g
u and the PI control
parameter
p
u never reach the boundaries
Then, we have
) (
1
1
) ( ) (
1
1
) (
1
1
) ( ) (
1
1
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( )  (
))  ( ) , ( ( )  (
) , (
) ( ) , ( ) , (
n
d p
n
i
n
d
i
i
n
i
g f
i
i
n
i
n
d
i
i
n
i
n
d
n i
i
x t d s p x e c
u x g t x g x f t x f e c
x t d u t x g t x f e c
x x e c s
+ +
+ + =
+ + + =
+ =
_
_
_
_
=
u
u u
e u   
e u u
u u u u u
e
u u u
+ + + + =
+ + +
+ =
+ +
+ =

 
 
) ( )  ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( )  ( )  (
)  ( ))  ( )  ( ( )  (
)  (
) (
)  ( ))  ( ) , ( ( )  (
) , (
t d s p s u x x
t d s p s p
s p u x g x g x f x f
t d
s p u x g t x g x f t x f
p
T
p
T
g
T
f
p p
p g g f f
p g f
where
p p
p
g g
g
f f
f
u u  u u  u u  = = =
  
, ,
Now consider the Lyapunov candidate
p
T
p g
T
g f
T
f
s V  
 
 
3 2 1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ + + =
(28)
The time derivative of V along the error trajectory (28) is
) 27 (
) ( )  (
1
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1 1 1
)) ( )  ( ) ( ) ( ) ( (
1 1 1
3
2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
t sd s s p s
s s u x s x s
t d s p s u x x s
s s V
h
p
T
p
T
p g
T
g
T
g f
T
f
T
f
p
T
p g
T
g f
T
f
h
T
p
T
g
T
f
p
T
p g
T
g f
T
f
+ + +
+ + + + =
+ + +
+ + + + =
+ + + =


e u  
  
  

 
 
 
e u   
 
 
 
e q  
 
 
e q  
 
 
e u  
 
 
s s s s
u x s x s
s t sd s D s s s
u x s x s
t d s s p s s s
u x s x s
p
T
p
g
T
g f
T
f
p
T
p
g
T
g f
T
f
h
p
T
p
g
T
g f
T
f
+ + +
+ + + <
+ + + + +
+ + + s
+ + + +
+ + + =

  ) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
) ( ) sgn( ) ( ) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
)) ( ( )  ( ) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
) ) ( (
1
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
1
1
where
f
f
u 
= ,
g
g
u 
= and
p
p
u 
= . Substitute (20)
(22) into (29), then we have
0   s s s s V q e
(30)
sincee it the minimum approximation error, (30) is the best
we can obtain. Therefore, all signals in the system are
bounded. Obviously, if ) 0 ( e is bounded, then ) (t e is also
bounded for all t . Since the reference signal
d
x is bounded,
then the system states ) (t x is bounded as well. To complete
the proof and establish asymptotic convergence of the
tracking error, we need proving that 0 s as t .
Assume that
s
s q s   , then equation (30) can be rewritten as
q e q q e          s s s V
s
s s
(31)
Integrating both sides of (31), we have
) )
+ + s
t
s
t
d t V V d s
0 0
  ) ) (   ) 0 ( (
1
  t e
q
q
q
t (32)
then we have
1
L s e . Form (30), we know that s is bounded
and every term in (27) is bounded. Hence,
eL s s , , use of
Barbalats lemma [14]. We have 0 ) ( t s as t , the
system is stable and the error will asymptotically converge
to zero. The adaptive fuzzy control system is shown in
Fig.1
Remark 1: The above stability result is achieved under the
assumption 1 that all the parameters boundness is ensured.
To guarantee the parameters are bounded. The adaptive
laws (20)(22) can be modified by using the projection
algorithm [1], [2].
d
x
(0)
) 0 (
) 0 (
p
g
f
u
u
u
(
+ =
_
=
1
1
) (
)  ( )  (
)  (
1
n
i
p
n
d
i
i f
g
s p x e c x f
x g
u u u
u
x y
t d u x g x f x
n
=
+ + = ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
1
x s
f
u =
u x s
g
) (
2
u =
) (
3
s s
p
u =
Step 4. Define
i
m fuzzy sets
i
F for linguistic variable
i
x and
the membership functions
i
F
is uniformly cover the
universe of discourse, for n i , , 2 , 1 =
Step5.Construct the fuzzy rule bases for the fuzzy
system )  (
f
x f u and )  (
g
x g u
Step 6. Construct the fuzzy systems ) ( )  (
x x f
T
f f
u u =
and ) ( )  ( x x g
T
g g
u u = in (13).
Step 7. Construct the control law (17) with the adaptive law
in (2022).
Step 8. Obtain the control and apply to the plant, then
compute the adaptive law (2022) to adjust the
parameter vector
f
u ,
g
u and
p
u
5 Simulation Examples
In this section, we apply our proposed adaptive fuzzy
controller for two cases. The first example is a regulation
problem to let the output of a first order nonlinear system to
track a constant trajectory. The second example is to let the
inverted pendulum to track a desired trajectory.
Example 1: In this example, we verify at the validity of the
design approach on the regulation control of a first order
) 29 (
nonlinear system. The dynamic equation of such system is
given by [2].
) (
1
1
) (
) (
) (
t u
e
e
t x
t x
t x
+
+
(33)
Two regulation simulations ) 0 (
d
x were used for
convectional sliding mode controller and the proposed
controller. Firstly, we defined , 0 =
d
x e s = the initial
state 5 . 1 ) 0 ( = x and step size 0.02s for both controllers.
Choose 2   )), 1 /( 2 ( ) ( , 1 ) (
) ( ) (
= s A + = A =
F f e e x f x f
t x t x
.
Hence, the convectional sliding control law
is ) sgn( ) ( ) (
) ) 5 . 1 ( exp( ) (
2
+ = x x
NM
) ) 5 . 0 ( exp( ) (
2
+ = x x
NS
) ) 5 . 0 ( exp( ) (
2
= x x
PS
) ) 5 . 1 ( exp( ) (
2
= x x
PM
))) 2 ( 5 exp( 1 /( 1 ) ( + = x x
NB
=
2
x .
The dynamic equations of such system are given by [1].
d u
m m x m l
m m x
m m x m l
m m x x mlx x g
x
x x
c
c
c
c
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
=
)) /( cos 3 / 4 (
) /( cos
)) /( cos 3 / 4 (
) /( sin cos sin
1
2
1
1
2
1 1 2 1
2
2 1
(34)
where
g acceleration due to gravity
m
c
mass of the cart
m mass of the pole
l halflength of pole
u applied force
The control objective is to maintain the system to track the
desired angle trajectory,
)) 3 sin( 3 . 0 ) (sin( 10 / t t x
d d
+ = = t u
.
The system parameters are given as m
c
=1kg, m=0.1kg,
l=0.5m, g=9.8m/s
2
, and d is assumed to be a square wave
with amplitude 0.5 and the period 2t. Choose the sliding
surface as e e c s + =
1
, 6
1
= c . The initial values of
parameters
p
u
are set by 10 ) 0 ( =
P
k and 20 ) 0 ( =
i
k .The
membership functions for system state
i
x , 2 , 1 = i are
selected as:
] )) 24 / /( ) 6 / (( exp[ ) (
2
t t + =
i i NM
x x
] )) 24 / /( ) 12 / (( exp[ ) (
2
t t + =
i i NS
x x
] )) 24 / /( ( exp[ ) (
2
t
i i Z
x x =
] )) 24 / /( ) 12 / (( exp[ ) (
2
t t =
i i PS
x x
] )) 24 / /( ) 6 / (( exp[ ) (
2
t t =
i i PM
x x
then there are 25 rules to approximate the system functions f
and g respectively. And initial consequent parameters of
fuzzy rules are chosen randomly in the interval [0.5,2]. Let
the learning rate 4 , 60
2 1
= = and 800
3
= . Choose the
initial condition
T
x ] 0 , 60 / [ t = and step size 0.01s,
Moreover, a Gaussian noise with mean zero and variance of
0.025 was injected at the output of the system. Fig. 4 shows
the simulation results. It can be seen that the tracking
performance is good even presence of noise and disturbance.
system output and desired input
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 5 10 15 20
t (sec)
control signal
8
4
0
4
8
0 5 10 15 20
t (sec)
trajectory of gains
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 5 10 15 20
t (sec)
Figure 4 Simulation results for the inverted pendulum using the proposed
controller.
6 Conclusions
In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding control algorithm
has been proposed for a class of unknown nonlinear
systems. We introduced the fuzzy sliding mode control and
proposed the robust control using the adaptive control
strategy. Moreover, based on the Lyapunov synthesis
approach, the PI control parameters can be tuned online by
the adaptive law. The drawback of chattering in sliding
mode control is avoided zero steady tracking error can be
ensured. The closed loop system is stable in the sense of
Lyapunov. Finally, the proposed method has been applied
to control the first order nonlinear system and the inverted
pendulum to track a reference trajectory. The simulation
results show that the adaptive controller can achieve desired
performance.
Acknowledgment
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of
the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
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