Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

32 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Gas Laws and Heat Engine
- FIRE and STRUCTURES the Implications of WTC Disaster
- BurdenFaires
- Finite Differences
- Schedules
- 2016 11 Sample Paper Physics 04
- Balloon in a Bottle.pdf
- 06-bubble-col.pdf
- CLB 10703- Physical Chemistry (Chapter 1) .pdf
- Model Studies of Mixing Phenomena in Stirred Melts
- Thermo Handouts 20110
- Thermodynamic
- Effects of Hydraulic Structures on Fish Passage
- Goldfish Homeostasis Lab
- Thermodynamics
- Analisis Computacional Sci en Camaras Frigorificas
- Engineering and Chemistry of the Glass-melting
- Topic 02
- Gas Physics Summary
- P0IITU10 - Kinetic Theory of Gases Qns

Anda di halaman 1dari 13

M. Mezhericher

a,b

, A. Levy

a,

, I. Borde

a

a

Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Bialik/Basel Sts., Beer-Sheva 84100, Israel

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 September 2009

Received in revised form 16 May 2010

Accepted 27 May 2010

Available online 4 June 2010

Keywords:

CFD

Drying kinetics

Heat and mass transfer

Pneumatic drying

Steady-state three-dimensional calculations of heat and mass transfer in vertical pneumatic dryer were

performed. The theoretical model of the drying process is based on two-phase EulerianLagrangian approach

for gas-particles ow and incorporates advanced drying kinetics for wet particles. The model was utilized for

simulation of the drying process of wet PVC and silica particles in a large-scale vertical pneumatic dryer. The

inuence of wall thermal boundary conditions was investigated by assuming either known value of the wall

temperature or adiabatic ow in the dryer. Analyzing the predicted particle drying kinetics, an uneven

product quality was predicted due to non-uniform drying conditions in the central and peripheral zones of

the pneumatic dryer. Moreover, for the case of non-insulated chamber walls such quality unevenness was

estimated to be substantially greater than for the case with thermally insulated drying chamber. The

examination of the predicted temperature proles within the silica and PVC wet particles showed that the

latter is subjected to higher temperature gradients potentially resulting in the greater rate of thermally-

degraded nal product.

2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Pneumatic (ash) drying is one of the widely used technological

processes in food, chemical, agricultural and pharmaceutical indus-

tries. Despite its apparent simplicity, the process of pneumatic drying

is a complex multi-phase transport phenomenon involving turbu-

lence ow of humid compressed gas and multicomponent wet

particles, heat and mass transfer between the wet particles and

drying gas, drying kinetics of the wet particles and thermal and

mechanical stresses in the dried particulate material.

Due to growing demand for the pneumatic dryer units and tough

design requirements regarding their efciency and low resource

consumption, extensive experimental and theoretical studies of the

pneumatic drying process have been performed during the last years

[110]. Two-uid theory is a typical approach used to model the

pneumatic drying. The two-uid model is based on EulerianEulerian

formulation which considers both the drying gas and the wet particles

as two pseudo continuous phases occupying each point of the

computational domain with their own volume fractions. Another

way to model the pneumatic drying is utilizing an Eulerian

Lagrangian approach like Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) [11,12]

or Discrete Phase Model (DPM) [1316]. The Discrete Phase Model is a

kind of Discrete Particle Model [1722] and it is suitable for systems

with large amounts of particles owing to the usage of the concept of

parcels: each parcel contains a number of identical discrete particles

with the same parameters simultaneously injected into the domain. In

contrast to the EulerianEulerian formulation, the EulerianLagrang-

ian models allowparticle trajectories tracking by treating the particles

as situated in discrete points of the domain whilst the drying gas is

assumed to be a continuous phase.

The aim of this study was to develop a steady-state three-

dimensional theoretical model of the pneumatic drying process using

Discrete Phase Model and Computational Fluid Dynamics technique.

The drying kinetics of wet particles is described with the help of an

advanced theoretical model validated for single wet particle drying

[22,23]. For comprehensive literature survey on drying of droplets and

wet particles the reader is referred to the paper [24].

2. Problem setup

For the purposes of the theoretical study the geometry of Baeyens

et al. [1] experimental setup is adopted. Hot dry air and wet particles

are supplied to the bottom of vertical pneumatic dryer with 1.25 m

internal diameter and 25 m height (see Fig. 1).

The following assumptions are used in the study:

steady-state drying process is considered;

gas-particle ow is dilute;

mass, momentum and heat transfer between particles themselves

are negligible;

continuous phase is an ideal mixture of vapour and dry gas;

Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: mezher@bgu.ac.il (M. Mezhericher), avi@bgu.ac.il (A. Levy),

borde@bgu.ac.il (I. Borde).

0032-5910/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2010.05.032

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Powder Technology

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ powt ec

continuous phase behaves like an ideal gas;

dryer walls are either thermally insulated or wall temperature

distribution is known.

3. Theoretical model

The continuous phase (drying air) is assumed to be an ideal gas

and it is treated by an Eulerian approach using the k- model for

turbulence description. The discrete phase of spherical particles is

considered using DPM Lagrangian formulation.

3.1. Continuous phase

For the continuous phase of drying air, three-dimensional steady-

state conservation equations of continuity, momentum, energy,

turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy

and species are applied [25]:

continuity

t

+

x

j

u

j

= S

c

: 1

Here the mass source termS

c

= n

p

dm

p

dt

, where n

p

and m

p

are num-

ber density andsingle particle mass of the discrete phase respectively.

momentum

t

u

i

+

x

j

u

j

u

i

=

p

x

i

+

x

j

e

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_ _ _ _

+ g

i

+ U

pi

S

c

+ F

gp

2

energy conservation

t

h +

x

j

u

j

h =

x

j

h

h

x

j

_ _

q

r

+ S

h

; 3

where the energy source term S

h

=hS

c

.

species conservation

t

Y

v

+

x

j

u

j

Y

v

=

x

j

Y

Y

v

x

j

_ _

+ S

c

: 4

turbulence kinetic energy

t

k +

x

j

u

j

k

_ _

=

x

j

k

k

x

j

_ _

+ G

k

+ G

b

5

dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy

t

+

x

j

u

j

_ _

=

x

j

x

j

_ _

+

k

C

1

G

k

C

2

_ _

6

The production of turbulence kinetic energy due to mean velocity

gradients is equal to:

G

k

=

T

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_ _

u

i

x

j

: 7

The production of turbulence kinetic energy due to buoyancy is

given by:

G

b

=g

j

T

T

x

j

; 8

where is the coefcient of thermal expansion:

=

1

T

_ _

p

; 9

Here the model constants are equal to: C

1

=1.44, C

2

=1.92,

k

=

h

=

Y

=

T

=0.9 and

e

, is

calculated by:

e

= +

T

; 10

where

T

is turbulent viscosity

T

= C

k

2

: 11

In the above expression C

=0.09.

The relationship between humid air temperature, pressure and

density is given by the ideal gas law:

p =

M

T: 12

3.2. Discrete phase

The motion equation of the discrete phase of wet particles is as

follows:

d

U

p

dt

=

g +

F

p

m

p

: 13

Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of vertical pneumatic dryer [1].

372 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

Here F

p

is the sumof the forces acting on the considered wet particle

from the gas phase and from other droplets/particles and walls of the

drying chamber as well. Since we deal with steady-state pneumatic

drying of non-charged micron-sized spherical particles with inlet

velocity close to terminal one, we can neglect all the forces arising

from eld gradients in the gas phase as well as from particle rotation,

acceleration and electric charging. Therefore:

F

p

=

F

D

+

F

A

+

F

B

+

F

C

; 14

where F

D

is the drag force, F

A

is the virtual (added) mass force, F

B

is the

buoyancy force and F

C

is the contact force.

The drag force is determined by [26]:

F

D

=

8

C

D

j

U

p

j

u

U

p

_ _

d

2

p

: 15

The drag coefcient, C

D

, is evaluated according to empirical

correlations [25].

The components of added mass (virtual mass) force, required to

accelerate the gas surrounding the droplet/particle, are determined as

follows [27]:

F

A

=

d

3

p

12

D

u

Dt

D

U

p

Dt

_

_

_

_

: 16

The buoyancy force is given by:

F

B

=

d

3

p

6

g: 17

The contact force due to collisions of a droplet/particle with the

walls of the drying chamber, F

C

, is calculated in terms of the

corresponding normal and tangential coefcients of restitution [15].

3.3. Drying kinetics model

The internal transport phenomena within the dried particles are

described with the help of original two-stage drying kinetics model

[23], which was successfully validated by comparison with the

published experimental and theoretical data in the case of single

droplet/wet particle drying in still air. The adopted drying kinetics

model is briey described below.

The drying process of wet particle containing solids is divided in

two drying stages. In the rst stage of drying, an excess of moisture

forms a liquid envelope around the particle solid fraction, and

unhindered drying similar to pure liquid droplet evaporation results

in the shrinkage of the outer diameter. At a certain time, the moisture

excess is completely evaporated and the second stage of a hindered

drying begins. In this second drying stage, two regions of wet particle

can be identied: layer of dry porous crust and internal wet core. The

drying process is controlled by the rate of moisture diffusion from the

particle wet core through the crust pores towards the particle outer

surface. As a result of the hindered drying, the particle wet core

shrinks and the thickness of the crust region increases. The particle

outer diameter is assumed to remain unchanged during the second

drying stage. After the point when the particle moisture content

decreases to a minimal possible value (determined either as an

equilibriummoisture content or as a bounded moisture that cannot be

removed by convective drying), the particle is treated as a dry non-

evaporating solid sphere. The concept of two-stage drying kinetics is

illustrated by Fig. 2.

To conserve the space, only basic equations of the two-stage

drying kinetics model are presented in the present report. For more

detailed description and validation of the drying kinetics model, see

Mezhericher et al. [22,23].

3.3.1. First drying stage

In the rst drying stage, the temperature of wet particle is assumed

to be uniformly distributed. The corresponding equation of energy

conservation is given by:

h

fg

m

v

+ c

p;d

m

d

dT

d

dt

= h T

g

T

d

_ _

4R

2

d

: 18

The time-change of wet particle outer radius is determined by [28]:

dR

d

dt

=

1

d;w

4 R

d

2

m

v

: 19

The mass transfer rate from the particle surface is determined

according to the mass convection law:

m

v

= h

D

v;s

v;

_ _

4 R

d

2

: 20

The coefcients of heat and mass transfer are calculated in terms of

the corresponding Nusselt and Sherwood numbers that are given by

following modied RanzMarshall correlations:

Nu

d

= 2 + 0:6Re

1 = 2

d

Pr

1=3

_ _

1 + B

0:7

; 21

Sh

d

= 2 + 0:6Re

1 = 2

d

Sc

1=3

_ _

1 + B

0:7

: 22

The particle mass is found by integration of Eq. (19):

m

d

= m

d;0

4

3

d;w

R

d;0

_ _

3

R

d

3

_ _

: 23

Finally, the value of particle moisture content on dry basis, X

d

, is

equal to:

X

d

= m

d;w

= m

d;s

= m

d

1 + X

d;0

_ _

= m

d;0

1: 24

The transition between the rst and second drying stages occurs in

the moment when the particle moisture content reduces to a critical

value. In the present study, this critical moisture content is evaluated

using the condition of formation of nal particle without internal void

[15]:

X

cr

=

w

1

: 25

Fig. 2. Two-stage drying kinetics of wet particle. D

0

initial particle diameter, D

p

nal

particle diameter, D

i

wet core diameter.

373 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

3.3.2. Second drying stage

In the second drying stage, the wet particle is considered as a

sphere with isotropic physical properties and temperature-indepen-

dent crust thermal conductivity. The crust region is assumed to be

pierced by a large number of identical straight cylindrical capillaries,

and the wet core region is considered to be a sphere with liquid and

solid fractions. The equations of energy conservation for the wet core

and crust regions are as follows:

wc

c

p;wc

T

wc

t

=

1

r

2

r

k

wc

r

2

T

wc

r

_ _

; 0 r R

i

t ; 26

T

cr

t

=

cr

r

2

r

r

2

T

cr

r

_ _

; R

i

t r R

p

: 27

Here R

i

is the internal radius of the interface between the crust and

wet core and R

p

is outer particle radius.

The boundary conditions for the above set of equations are:

T

wc

r

= 0; r = 0;

T

wc

= T

cr

; r = R

i

t ;

k

cr

T

cr

r

= k

wc

T

wc

r

+ h

fg

mv

A

i

; r = R

i

t ;

h T

g

T

cr

_ _

= k

cr

T

cr

r

; r = R

p

;

_

_

28

The crustwet core interface receding rate is tracked by the

following relationship:

d R

i

dt

=

1

wc;w

4R

2

i

m

v

: 29

The total mass transfer rate through the crust pores is the sum of

corresponding diffusion and forced mass ow rates:

m

v

= m

v;diff

+ m

v;flow

= h

D

v;s

v;

_ _

A

p

: 30

The mass ow rate of vapour diffusion is dened by:

m

v;diff

=

8

D

v;cr

M

w

R

p

R

i

T

cr;s

+ T

wc;s

_ _

p

m

p

v

p

v

p

m

r

p

m

p

v

r

_ _

31

The mass ow rate of forced vapour owis determined as follows:

m

v;flow

=

B

k

m

8R

p

R

i

M

m

p

m

T

cr;s

+ T

wc;s

_ _

p

m

r

: 32

The permeability B

k

is calculated according to well-known

CarmanKozeny equation:

B

k

= d

2

p

3

= 180 1

2

_ _

: 33

Similarly to the rst drying stage, the coefcients of heat and mass

transfer are calculated in terms of the corresponding Nusselt and

Sherwood numbers that are given by the modied RanzMarshall

correlations (see Eqs. (21) and (22)).

The particle mass is tracked using the following expression:

m

p

= m

d;0

= 1 + X

d;0

_ _

1

wc;w

=

wc;s

_ _

+ 4= 3

wc;w

R

3

i

+ 1 R

3

p

_ _

:

34

Finally, the particle moisture content is given by:

X

p

= m

w

= m

s

= m

p

1 + X

d;0

_ _

= m

d;0

1: 35

3.3.3. Final sensible heating

When the particle moisture content decreases to a minimal value

attainable under the given drying conditions, the wet particle turns

into a non-evaporating dry particle. This non-evaporating particle and

surrounding ow of the drying air continue the interaction by heat

transfer:

T

p

t

=

p

r

2

r

r

2

T

p

r

_ _

;0 r R

p

: 36

4. Numerical simulations

The developed theoretical model was numerically solved with the

help of Finite Volume Method and 3D simulations of pneumatic

drying were performed using the CFD package FLUENT 12.0.7. For

these purposes, the 3D numerical grid with 9078 distributed

hexahedral/wedge cell volumes was generated in GAMBIT 2.2.30

using the Cooper scheme (see Fig. 3).

The set of differential equations for drying air (continuous phase)

was numerically solved utilizing the 3D pressure-based steady-state

solver of FLUENT package. In particular, the pressurevelocity

coupling was realized by means of the SIMPLE algorithm [29].

Furthermore, the pressure equation was spatially discretized by the

PRESTO! scheme [29]. For all transport equations, a second-order

upwind spatial discretization method was applied and the turbulent

effects were taken into consideration by the standard k- turbulence

model.

The ow of wet particles in the pneumatic dryer was simulated

through 89 injections of spherical particles. Each injection began on

the bottom of the dryer at the centroid of one of the 89 bottom plane

mesh elements. The particle injections were normal to the dryer

bottom plane and parallel to each other.

The numerical simulations were performed in the following way.

First, the ow of drying air was simulated without the discrete phase

until converged solution. At the next step, wet particles were injected

into the domain and two-way coupled simulations were performed

until convergence.

The calculation of the discrete phase drying kinetics was

accomplished using the concept of user dened functions (UDF)

Fig. 3. Three-dimensional numerical grid.

374 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

which were attached to FLUENT. In this way, the rst drying stage and

the nal heating of non-evaporating dry particles (Eqs. (18)-(25))

were simulated using the FLUENT built-in UDFs responsible for

evaporation and sensible heating of droplets/particles. For the second

drying stage, Eqs. (26)(35) were solved numerically using an

original numerical algorithm developed by Mezhericher [15,22,23],

which is based on implicit nite differences method. The particle

temperature prole, diameter, mass, moisture content, positions of

inter-particle crustwet core interface and material characteristics

were stored in the computer memory for each particle at every

calculation time-step. This numerical procedure was implemented

and linked to FLUENT package via a set of original UDFs. The

transitions between the various drying stages for each particle were

made automatically, based on the local values of the particle moisture

Table 1

Properties of PVC and silica particles.

Name Diameter,

m

Primary

particles

diameter, m

Density,

kg/m

3

Specic

heat,

J/(kg K)

Thermal

conductivity,

W/(m K)

Thermal

diffusivity,

10

7

m

2

/s

Porosity Initial moisture

content, %

(dry basis)

Critical moisture

content (dry basis,

Eq. 25)

Final moisture

content, %

(assumed)

PVC 140 [1] 0.272 1195 [1] 980 [1] 0.14 [1] 1.195 0.3 36 [1] 0.357 5

Silica 140 0.272 [31] 1950 [31] 750 [31] 1.40 [32] 9.573 0.4 [31] 36 0.341 5

Fig. 4. 3D air ow elds for the case of silica drying (adiabatic ow). (a) velocity magnitude, m/s (b) temperature, K, (c) vapour mass fraction, kg/kg, (d) density, kg/m

3

.

375 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

content. It is worth noting that for each drying stage, the thermo-

physical properties of wet particles were tracked as dependent on

both particle temperature and moisture content.

The convergence of the numerical simulations was monitored by

means of residuals of the transport equations. Particularly, the

converged values of the scaled residuals were ensured to be lower

than 10

6

for the energy equation and 10

3

for the rest of equations.

The convergence was also veried by negligibly small values of the

global mass and energy imbalances.

Finally, the received numerical solution was tested for grid-

independency by reducing the size of original meshes. For two grids

consisting of 9078 (original) and 42,330 (reduced) cell volumes, the

maximum difference in the calculated ow elds of air velocity,

pressure, density, temperature and vapour mass fraction was

observed to be smaller than 5%.

5. Results and discussion

5.1. Three-dimensional drying simulations

The processes of pneumatic drying of PVC and silica particles

were simulated using the developed model. The particles of 140 m

in diameter were introduced from the bottom of the dryer via 89

injections with zero initial velocity. The injections were placed

normally to the bottom plane at the centroids of its grid cells. The

mass ow rates of the injections were assumed to be identical and

the overall ow rate of the discrete phase was set to 1.583 kg/s.

Particles hitting the chamber walls were reected with

corresponding normal and tangential restitution coefcients set to

0.9. The applied properties of PVC and silica particles are consoli-

dated in Table 1.

Fig. 5. 3D air ow elds for the case of PVC drying (adiabatic ow). (a) velocity magnitude, m/s (b) temperature, K, (c) vapour mass fraction, kg/kg, (d) density, kg/m

3

.

376 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

Dry atmospheric air at 400 K was supplied to the dryer bottom

with mass ux of 10.44 kg/(m

2

s). The air outlet pressure was

assumed to be a subatmospheric and equal to 25 Pa. Furthermore,

the effect of air turbulence was considered by assuming 5% inlet

turbulence intensity and 1.25 m hydraulic diameter. Chamber walls

were assumed to be made of 2 mm steel. Finally, the ambient

temperature was set to 300 K.

The inuence of wall thermal boundary conditions was investi-

gated by assuming either adiabatic ow in the dryer (insulated

chamber walls) or linear drop of the wall temperature from325 at the

inlet to 320 K at the outlet (non-insulated chamber with known wall

temperature) [4,6].

The predicted steady-state 3D ow elds of velocity, temperature,

vapour mass fraction and density of the drying air are illustrated by

Figs. 47 (all results are in SI units). The results demonstrate three-

dimensionality and complexity of the ow in the pneumatic dryer.

Inbothdryingcases thedeveloping core of the air velocityis observed

(Figs. 4a, 5a, 6a and 7a). The air temperature gradually decreases in the

core(Figs. 4b, 5b, 6band7b) while thevapour fractionincreases (Figs. 4c,

5c, 6c and 7c) as a result of heat and mass transfer from the discrete

phase of particles. An interesting behaviour is demonstrated by the air

density (Figs. 4d, 5d, 6dand7d). Initially, the air density decreases due to

fast increase of vapour fraction in the region of prevalent heat and mass

transfer fromthe wet particles. Then, whenmost of the moisture content

of wet particles was evaporated, the rate of mass transfer reduces andthe

value of vapour fraction in the air stabilizes. However, the air

temperature decrease continues due to particles heating up to

equilibrium. Such air temperature drop and constant vapour fraction

value result in the observed rise of the air density.

A valuable one-dimensional representation of actual three-

dimensional air ow elds can be obtained by mass-weighted

averaging. Using this technique, the computational domain was cut

Fig. 6. 3D air owelds for the case of silica drying (known wall temperature). (a) velocity magnitude, m/s (b) temperature, K, (c) vapour mass fraction, kg/kg, (d) density,

kg/m

3

.

377 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

along z axis in XY plane by 100 slices. For each slice, mass-weighted

averages of the ow parameters were calculated. Combining the

corresponding values for all slices, 1D representations of the owelds

were obtained. The simulated mass-weighted averages of 3Dowelds

of velocity, temperature, vapour mass fraction, density and pressure of

the drying air are shown in Fig. 8. For the case of insulated chamber, the

wall temperature was inthe range of 376394 K, whereas for the case of

non-insulated chamber the wall temperature decreased linearly from

325 to 320 Kover the dryer length. It canbe observedthat these 1Dow

elds qualitatively illustrate the 3Dbehaviour of owparameters along

z axis and this behaviour is in accordance with the conclusions drawn

above. At the same time, the usage of the 1D representations for exact

quantitative comparison with the published predictions of 1D pneu-

matic drying models [1,3,4] is inappropriate since such models do not

take into account numerous 3D space effects like turbulence and

transversal components of velocity. Moreover, the 1D averaged repre-

sentations of the 3D ow elds cannot be adequately validated by the

publishedexperimental dataobtainedusing1Dor 2Dsamplingtechnique

[1]. Duetothesereasons, thedevelopment of proper validationprocedure

for the present 3D model is a prospect work. Nevertheless, a qualitative

validation of the presented averaged ow elds (Fig. 8) demonstrates

similarity between the predicted trends of air velocity, temperature,

vapour mass fraction, density and pressure with their behaviour

calculated by Baeyens et al. [1], Levy and Borde [3,4], Skuratovsky and

Levy [5] andSkuratovsky et al. [6]. Further comparisonwithexperimental

meauserments of Baeyens et al. [1] is given in the next section.

Fig. 9 illustrates the predicted drying kinetics of two PVC particles

injected at different locations. The rst was injected close to the dryer

centerline at the distance of 0.077 m from it and the second was

introduced at the dryer peripheral zone of 0.585 m form the

Fig. 7. 3D air ow elds for the case of PVC drying (known wall temperature). (a) velocity magnitude, m/s (b) temperature, K, (c) vapour mass fraction, kg/kg, (d) density,

kg/m

3

.

378 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

Fig. 8. Mass-weighted averages of actual 3D air ow elds.

379 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

centerline. For both drying cases, a considerable difference between

the central and peripheral particles temperatures is observed, reach-

ing up to 10 K for the case of adiabatic owand up to 20 K for the case

with known wall temperature. Furthermore, in the periphery region

the particle transformation from a wet particle into a dry particle

occurs with relative displacement equal about 1 m for the case of

adiabatic ow and 2 m for the case with known wall temperature.

These results are consequences of different drying conditions in the

central and peripheral zones of the pneumatic dryer which eventually

lead to an uneven quality of the obtained product. Also not presented

here, the same trends were observed for silica particles drying as well.

The 1D mass-weighted averages of particle drying kinetics

predicted for the silica and PVC particles are shown in Fig. 10. It can

be found that the drying process of silica particles goes slower than

PVC particles. This phenomenon can be explained by greater heat

capacity of the silica solids (see Table 1).

Analyzing Figs. 9 and 10, it can be found that the average particle

moisture content remains constant and equal to the assumed nal

value (see Table 1) in about 80% of the dryer length. Therefore these

results indicate a possibility of increasing the initial product moisture

content or shortening the length of the adopted drying chamber for all

the studied cases.

Figs. 11 and 12 demonstrate the capability of the utilized drying

kinetics model to predict the evolution of temperature proles within

wet particles. In these gures the mass-weighted averages of tempera-

tures of wet particle center and outer surface are illustrated in the rst

and second drying stages. In the subsequent period of dry particle

heating (not shown here) the temperature in the particle center

approaches the value at the particle surface. Analyzing the calculated

data, it is concluded that the duration of the rst drying stage (including

initial heating and equilibrium evaporation periods) is negligible for

both types of the wet particles. Furthermore, it is found that the

maximum temperature difference in PVC particles attains up to 12 K

whilst inthe silica particles this valueis upto3 K. Theseobservations are

explained by lowthermal conductivity of the PVCparticles solidcontent

(see Table 1). It is worth noting that the presence of such steep

temperature gradients in micron-sized PVC particles can lead to

signicant thermal stresses in the particles and eventually result in

product thermal degradation, see Mezhericher et al. [23,30]. Therefore,

the drying of PVC wet particles potentially results in greater rate of

thermal degradation in the nal product than drying of the silica.

5.2. Comparison with experimental measurements

For the pneumatic drying of PVC particles with 140 m diameter

(PVC-140), the predicted proles of air temperature and particle

average moisture content can be compared to the Baeyens et al. [1]

experimental data. To obtain a good agreement with the experimental

data, Baeyens et al. [1] and Levy and Borde [3] recommend using the

following correlations of Nusselt and Sherwood numbers:

Nu

p

= 0:15Re; 37

Sh

p

= 0:15Re: 38

It is worthnoting, that Baeyens et al. [1] announced5 radial (r=0 m,

0.38 m, 0.48 m, 0.57 mand 0.62 m) and 8 height (z=0 m, 4.5 m, 7.5 m,

Fig. 9. Drying kinetics of PVC particles in the central and peripheral injections. (a)

adiabatic ow, (b) known wall temperature.

Fig. 10. Averaged drying kinetics of wet particles in pneumatic dryer. (a) adiabatic

ow, (b) known wall temperature.

380 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

10.5 m, 13.5 m, 16.5 m, 19.5 m and 22.5 m) sampling positions in their

experimental setup. However, in the subsequent parts of the article [1]

the measured air temperature and particle moisture content were

illustrated only for 7 experimental points located at various dryer

heights (z=0 m, 4.5 m, 7.5 m, 10.5 m, 13.5 m, 16.5 m and 19.5 m).

Moreover, Baeyens et al. [1] did not indicate explicitly for which of the

declared radial positions the presented experimental data were

obtained. Taking into account these uncertainties, and three-dimen-

sionality of air and particle ow elds in the dryer observed in the

previous section, the predicted longitude distributions of air tempera-

ture and particle moisture content at various for radial sampling

positions are compared with Baeyens et al. [1] experimental data (see

Figs. 13 and 14). It can be found that all the experimental temperature

points are lying within the range of the calculated upper and lower

temperature curves; however no one of these curves corresponds

exactly to the measured data found in [1]. The calculated curves of

particle moisture content are in satisfactory agreement with experi-

mental points for the case when Baeyens et al. [1] correlations were

utilized (Eqs. 37 and 38) and substantially over predict the experiments

when RanzMarshall Eqs. (21) and (22) were implemented. It is worth

noting that the same trends for particle moisture content were reported

by Baeyens et al. [1] and Levy and Borde [3].

Summarizing Figs. 13 and 14, due to many uncertainties in the

Baeyens et al. experimental data, only a satisfactory agreement between

the calculations and the measurements can be obtained. For better

comparison of the model predictions with the experimental points and

answer thequestionwhichsemi-empirical correlations of heat andmass

transfer coefcients are better for 3Dpneumatic drying modelling, more

information is necessary and thus a separate validation study involving

sets of experiments on the pneumatic dryer is a prospect work.

Fig. 11. Averaged temperature evolution at center and surface of PVC wet particles

during 1st and 2nd drying stages. (a) adiabatic ow, (b) known wall temperature.

Fig. 12. Averaged temperature evolution at center and surface of silica wet particles

during 1st and 2nd drying stages. (a) adiabatic ow, (b) known wall temperature.

Fig. 13. Comparison between the predicted proles of drying air temperature and

Baeyens et al. [1] experimental points for PVC-140 (known wall temperature). The

calculation results are given for different radial positions, solid lines RanzMarshall

correlations (Eqs. 21 and 22) and dashed lines Baeyens et al. correlations (Eqs. 37 and

38).

381 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

6. Conclusions

Steady-state three-dimensional calculations of the pneumatic

drying processes in vertical dryer were performed. The presented

theoretical model of the process is based on two-phase Eulerian

Lagrangian approach for gas-particles ow. The two-stage drying

kinetics of wet particles is described with the help of an advanced

theoretical model validated for single wet particle drying. The

developed model was numerically solved using the 3D pressure-

based steady-state solver of FLUENT package. The processes of

pneumatic drying of 140 m PVC and silica particles in a large-scale

vertical pneumatic dryer were numerically simulated. The inuence

of wall thermal boundary conditions was investigated by assuming

either adiabatic ow in the dryer or linear drop of the wall

temperature from 325 at the inlet to 320 K at the outlet. The obtained

3D results demonstrated three-dimensionality and complexity of the

ow in the pneumatic dryer. For qualitative illustration of the main

ow features, 1D mass-weighted averaging of 3D ow elds has been

utilized. Analyzing the predicted particle drying kinetics, a consider-

able difference between the central and peripheral particles temper-

ature was observed. Such a difference is a sequence of non-uniform

drying conditions in the central and peripheral zones of the

pneumatic dryer and can lead to an uneven quality of the obtained

product. Moreover, for the case of non-insulated chamber walls this

quality unevenness is estimated to be substantially greater than for

the case with thermally insulated drying chamber. The examination of

the predicted temperature proles within the silica and PVC wet

particles showed that the latter are subjected to higher temperature

gradients that potentially result in greater thermal stresses and could

lead to thermal degradation in the nal product.

Notation

A surface area, m

2

B Spalding number

B

k

crust permeability, m

2

C

D

drag coefcient

c

p

specic heat under constant pressure, J kg

1

K

1

d diameter, m

D

v

coefcient of vapour diffusion, m

2

s

1

F

A

virtual mass force, N

F

B

buoyancy force, N

F

C

contact force, N

F

D

drag force, N

G gravity acceleration, m s

2

h heat transfer coefcient, W m

2

K

1

; specic enthalpy, J kg

1

h

D

mass transfer coefcient, m s

1

h

fg

specic heat of evaporation, J kg

1

k thermal conductivity, W m

1

K

1

; turbulence kinetic energy,

m

2

s

2

m mass, kg

v

vapour mass transfer rate, kg s

1

M molecular weight, kg mol

1

n

p

number density of discrete phase

Nu Nusselt number

p pressure, Pa

Pr Prandtl number

r radial space coordinate, m

R radius, m

universal gas constant, J mol

1

K

1

Sc Schmidt number

S

c

mass source term

Sh Sherwood number

S

h

energy source term

t time, s

T temperature, K

u velocity of drying agent, m s

1

U

p

vector of particle velocity, m s

1

u

1

x space coordinate, m

X moisture content (dry basis), kg kg

1

y space coordinate, m

z space coordinate, m

Greek symbols

thermal diffusivity, m

2

s

1

coefcient of thermal expansion, K

1

; empirical coefcient

particle crust porosity; dissipation of turbulence kinetic

energy, m

2

s

3

dynamic viscosity, kg m

1

s

1

kinematic viscosity, m

2

s

1

density, kg m

3

velocity, m s

1

v

vapour mass fraction

Subscripts

a air, dry air fraction

atm atmospheric

cr particle crust; critical

d droplet

diff diffusion

f nal point of drying process

ow forced ow

g drying agent

i crustwet core interface

m airvapour mixture

p particle, discrete phase

pores crust pores

r radial direction

s solid fraction; surface

v vapour

w water

wc particle wet core

0 initial point of drying process

1 initial point of droplet evaporation period

2 contributor

bulk of drying agent

Fig. 14. Comparison between the predicted proles of particle moisture content and

Baeyens et al. [1] experimental points for PVC-140 (known wall temperature). The

calculation results are given for periphery and center of the dryer, solid lines Ranz

Marshall correlations (Eqs. 21 and 22) and dashed lines Baeyens et al. correlations

(Eqs. 37 and 38).

382 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

Acknowledgement

The authors appreciatively acknowledge the nancial support of

the present work from GIF German-Israeli Foundation for Scientic

Research and Development under grant no. 952-19.10/2007.

References

[1] J. Baeyens, D. van Gauwbergen, I. Vinckier, Pneumatic drying: the use of large-

scale experimental data in a design procedure, Powder Technology 83 (1995)

139148.

[2] I.C. Kemp, D.E. Oakley, R.E. Bahu, Computational uid dynamics modelling of

vertical pneumatic conveying dryers, Powder Technology 65 (1991) 477484.

[3] A. Levy, I. Borde, Steady state one dimensional ow model for a pneumatic dryer,

Chemical Engineering and Processing 38 (1999) 121130.

[4] A. Levy, I. Borde, Two-uid model for pneumatic drying of particulate materials,

Drying Technology 19 (8) (2001) 17731788.

[5] I. Skuratovsky, A. Levy, Finite volume approach for solving multiphase ows in

vertical pneumatic dryers, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat

and Fluid Flow 14 (8) (2004) 9801001.

[6] I. Skuratovsky, A. Levy, I. Borde, Two-uid, two-dimensional model for pneumatic

drying, Drying Technology 21 (9) (2003) 16451668.

[7] I. Skuratovsky, A. Levy, I. Borde, Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the

pneumatic drying in vertical pipes, Chemical Engineering and Processing 44 (2005)

187192.

[8] K.S. Rajan, K. Dhasandhan, S.N. Srivastava, B. Pitchumani, Studies on gassolid

heat transfer during pneumatic conveying, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer 51 (2008) 28012813.

[9] F. Tanaka, Y. Maeda, T. Uchino, D. Hamanaka, G.G. Atungulu, Monte Carlo

simulation of the collective behavior of food particles in pneumatic drying

operation, LWT-Food Science and Technology 41 (9) (2008) 15671574.

[10] F. Tanaka, T. Uchino, D. Hamanaka, G.G. Atungulu, Mathematical modeling of

pneumatic drying of rice powder, Journal of Food Engineering 88 (4) (2008)

492498.

[11] J.T. Li, D.J. Mason, Application of the discrete element modelling in air drying of

particulate solids, Drying Technology 20 (2002) 255282.

[12] T. Brosh, A. Levy, Modelling of heat transfer in pneumatic conveyer using a

combined DEM-CFD numerical code, Drying Technology 28 (2010) 155164.

[13] ANSYS FLUENT 12 Documentation. Ansys Inc., 2008; www.uent.com.

[14] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Dropletdroplet interactions in spray drying

using 2D computational uid dynamics, Drying Technology 26 (3) (2008)

265282.

[15] Mezhericher, M. Drying of slurries in spray dryers. Ph.D. Thesis, Ben Gurion

University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, 2008.

[16] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Modelling of droplet drying in spray chambers

using 2Dand 3DComputational Fluid Dynamics, Drying Technology 27 (3) (2009)

359370.

[17] Y. Tsuji, T. Kawaguchi, T. Tanaka, Discrete particles simulation of two dimensional

uidized bed, Powder Technology 77 (1993) 7987.

[18] B.P.B. Hoomans, J.A.M. Kuipers, W.J. Briels, W.P.M. Van Swaaij, Discrete particle

simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-uidized bed: a

hard-sphere approach, Chemical Engineering Science 51 (1996) 99118.

[19] B.H. Xu, A.B. Yu, Numerical simulation of the gassolid ow in a uidized bed by

combing discrete particle method with computational uid dynamics, Chemical

Engineering Science 52 (1997) 27852809.

[20] J. Ouyang, J.H. Li, Discrete simulations of heterogeneous structure and dynamic

behavior in gassolid uidization, Chemical Engineering Science 54 (1999)

54275440.

[21] M. Xu, W. Ge, J. Li, A discrete particle model for particleuid ow with

considerations of sub-grid structures, Chemical Engineering Science 62 (2007)

23022308.

[22] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Theoretical drying model of single droplets

containing insoluble or dissolved solids, Drying Technology 25 (6) (2007)

10251032.

[23] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Modelling of particle breakage during drying,

Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensication 47 (8) (2008)

14041411.

[24] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Theoretical models of single droplet drying

kinetics: a review, Drying Technology 28 (2010) 278293.

[25] L. Zhou, Theory and Numerical Modelling of Turbulent Gas-Particle Flows and

Combustion, Science Press and CRC Press Inc., Hong Kong, 1993.

[26] L.S. Fan, C. Zhu, Principles of GasSolid Flows, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

[27] C. Crowe, M. Sommerfeld, Y. Tsuji, Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles,

CRC Press, 1998.

[28] D. Levi-Hevroni, A. Levy, I. Borde, Mathematical modelling of drying of liquid/solid

slurries in steady state one-dimensional ow, Drying Technology 13 (57) (1995)

11871201.

[29] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington,

DC, 1980.

[30] M. Mezhericher, A. Levy, I. Borde, Heat and mass transfer and breakage of particles

in drying processes, Drying Technology 27 (7&8) (2009) 870877.

[31] H. Minoshima, K. Matsushima, H. Liang, K. Shinohara, Estimation of diameter of

granule prepared by spray drying of slurry with fast and easy evaporation, Journal

of Chemical Engineering Japan 35 (9) (2002) 880885.

[32] R.H. Perry, D.W. Green, J.O. Maloney (Eds.), Perry's Chemical Engineers'

Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997.

383 M. Mezhericher et al. / Powder Technology 203 (2010) 371383

- Gas Laws and Heat EngineDiunggah olehAnonymous ee5dOj
- FIRE and STRUCTURES the Implications of WTC DisasterDiunggah olehRichard Holliday
- BurdenFairesDiunggah olehrichevans123
- Finite DifferencesDiunggah olehSatyanarayana Lalam
- SchedulesDiunggah olehankursonicivil
- 2016 11 Sample Paper Physics 04Diunggah olehRahul Kumar Mishra
- Balloon in a Bottle.pdfDiunggah olehJacklyn Nillama
- 06-bubble-col.pdfDiunggah olehmohammad hafifi
- CLB 10703- Physical Chemistry (Chapter 1) .pdfDiunggah olehSarah Rashid
- Model Studies of Mixing Phenomena in Stirred MeltsDiunggah olehakshuk
- Thermo Handouts 20110Diunggah olehjonnydp50
- ThermodynamicDiunggah olehWilliam Arthur Mackloren
- Effects of Hydraulic Structures on Fish PassageDiunggah olehMirza Basit
- Goldfish Homeostasis LabDiunggah olehsuonessie
- ThermodynamicsDiunggah olehlexiaz
- Analisis Computacional Sci en Camaras FrigorificasDiunggah olehOswaldo Guerra
- Engineering and Chemistry of the Glass-meltingDiunggah olehtedmozbi
- Topic 02Diunggah olehFrancisco De León-Sotelo Esteban
- Gas Physics SummaryDiunggah olehJenkins CK Tsang
- P0IITU10 - Kinetic Theory of Gases QnsDiunggah olehnallimini
- CDU-2Diunggah olehchinitn
- Elijah Thermal Part I Lesson Plan Elijah (1).docxDiunggah olehToral Dwivedi
- HeatDiunggah olehSudheer Revanth
- Segment 065 de Oil and Gas, A Practical HandbookDiunggah olehMouloud Had
- Annual Lab exam.docxDiunggah olehtresa_m
- TopperDiunggah olehsafsdf
- NUM_SD.pdfDiunggah olehThangadurai Senthil Ram Prabhu
- 38_1_THE_PROPERTIES_OF_GASES_Discussion.pdfDiunggah olehZakir
- 1-s2.0-S0017931009002245-main.pdfDiunggah olehAmira Gogoanta
- Modlin SkiDiunggah olehpuyang48

- Fluent 6.0 User's Guide Vol 1Diunggah olehnichile
- G4methodDiunggah olehSujala Bhattarai
- Cellulosic Ethanol From CornDiunggah olehSujala Bhattarai
- cfx_tutDiunggah olehthiagopalmieri3253
- Fluent Users GuideDiunggah oleharunsankar83
- HOT WireDiunggah olehformech
- 9 McElligott Biochar Biomass ConversionDiunggah olehSujala Bhattarai

- 8.Principle and Design of Site Remediation FacilitiesDiunggah olehFx Niubie
- Sb 034 Fire PreventionDiunggah olehAl Dub
- Physics 2 Applied PhysicsDiunggah olehganeshgorla
- Polymerase Chain ReactionDiunggah olehRüveyda Akçin
- Science AnswersDiunggah olehAituar Adalbayev
- CHEM 430 NMR Spectroscopy Part 1 2014Diunggah olehsumit
- starch microspheres with EPCLDiunggah olehancutauliniuc@yahoo.com
- T000777Diunggah olehObinna Oje
- Closed Door Terms Reviewer PowerlineDiunggah olehCollie
- Example Problems 1Diunggah olehCésar Asensy Monter
- Msds Larutan Naoh 0.5 n 3Diunggah olehmiranti02
- Lec Chapter 2Diunggah olehAhmad Sana
- 21 05 16 Jr.iit Iz Co Spark(Incoming) Jee Main Wtm 4 q.p f nDiunggah olehrahul
- 1.2 SublimationDiunggah olehHoong
- Electrolysis of molten compoundsDiunggah olehlembu_sihat77
- Bch 314 Tutorial 1Diunggah olehvictor
- Optimization of Dissimilation of Glycerol to 1,3-Propanediol by Klebsiella Pneumoniae in One- And Two-stage Anaerobic CulturesDiunggah olehEuclides Cervantes Borrás
- Adaltis company presentation 2011Diunggah olehuber6791
- B845Diunggah olehEugene Ogosi
- Cellular Respiration Lab Write Up FINALDiunggah olehDavid Zhao
- ROSETTA ColorimeterDiunggah olehrasyoung5302
- Pipeline BurstDiunggah olehmagbibi
- VIII Permeability 2017Diunggah olehNoshen Sish
- BS 8010-2.8 1992Diunggah olehAnoy
- Rr411001 Analytical InstrumentationDiunggah olehSrinivasa Rao G
- Combined Use of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Transmission ElectronDiunggah olehEMQueen
- WIS5 DEFECT.pptDiunggah olehQuang Duan Nguyen
- Repair Procedure F - 23202 NewDiunggah olehMohd Shafuaaz Kassim
- U4 VG Transcript How Did the Earth Form 12Pages 2012Diunggah olehJames Jiang
- The Science of Jellys and JamsDiunggah olehmpresley4333