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COOLING SYSTEM

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COOLING SYSTEM
CONTENTS
page page

DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS . . . . . . . . . 39 ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

SERVICE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

GENERAL INFORMATION
Throughout this group, references are made to particular vehicle models by alphabetical designation or by the particular vehicle nameplate. A chart showing a breakdown of alphabetical designations is included in the Introduction section at the beginning of this manual.

COOLING SYSTEM
The cooling system regulates engine operating temperature. It allows the engine to reach normal oper-

ating temperature as quickly as possible. It also maintains normal operating temperature and prevents overheating. The cooling system also provides a means of heating the passenger compartment and cooling the automatic transmission fluid (if equipped). The cooling system is pressurized and uses a centrifugal water pump to circulate coolant throughout the system. An optional factory installed maximum duty cooling package is available on most models. This package will provide additional cooling capacity for vehicles used under extreme conditions such as trailer towing in high ambient temperatures.

Fig. 1 Engine Cooling System2.5L EngineTypical

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COOLING SYSTEM

Fig. 2 Engine Cooling System3.9L/5.2L EngineTypical

COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS


The cooling system consists of: A radiator Cooling fan (electrical for 2.5L 4-cylinder engine mechanical for 3.9L/5.2L engines) Thermal viscous fan drive3.9L/5.2L Engines Fan shroud Radiator pressure cap Thermostat

Coolant reserve/overflow system Transmission oil cooler (if equipped with an automatic transmission) Coolant Water pump Hoses and hose clamps

SYSTEM COOLANT ROUTING


For cooling system routings refer to (Figs. 1 or 2).

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSIS INDEX


page DRB Scan Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

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page Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD)


FOR CERTAIN COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS The powertrain control module (PCM) has been programmed to monitor certain cooling system components: If the engine has remained cool for too long a period, such as with a stuck open thermostat, a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 can be observed at the malfunction indicator lamp. This lamp is displayed on the instrument panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. 3). If an open or shorted condition has developed in the relay circuit controlling the electric radiator fan, a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 35 can be observed at the CHECK ENGINE lamp (2.5L 4-cylinder engine only).

for eventual display to the service technician. If the problem is repaired or ceases to exist, the PCM cancels the DTC after 51 engine starts. Certain criteria must be met for a DTC to be entered into PCM memory. The criteria may be a specific range of engine rpm, engine temperature and/or input voltage to the PCM. A DTC indicates that the PCM has recognized an abnormal signal in a circuit or the system. A DTC may indicate the result of a failure, but never identify the failed component directly. It is possible that a DTC for a monitored circuit may not be entered into memory even though a malfunction has occurred. Refer to On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) in Group 14, Fuel Systems for additional information.

ACCESSING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES A stored Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) can be displayed by cycling the ignition key On-Off-On-Off-On within three seconds and observing the malfunction indicator lamp. This lamp is displayed on the instrument panel as the CHECK ENGINE lamp (Fig. 3). They can also be displayed through the use of the Diagnostic Readout Box (DRB) scan tool. The DRB connects to the data link connector in the engine compartment (Fig. 4). For operation of the DRB, refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual.
EXAMPLES: If the lamp (Fig. 3) flashes 1 time, pauses and flashes 2 more times, a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 12 is indicated. If this code is observed, it is indicating that the battery has been disconnected within the last 50 key-on cycles. It could also indicate that battery voltage has been disconnected to the PCM. In either case, other DTCs may have been erased. If the lamp flashes 1 time, pauses and flashes 7 more times, a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 17 is indicated. If the lamp flashes 3 times, pauses and flashes 5 more times, a flashing Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) number 35 is indicated.

Fig. 3 Check Engine Lamp


If the problem is sensed in a monitored circuit often enough to indicate an actual problem, a DTC is stored. The DTC will be stored in the PCM memory

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COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


1. PROLONGED IDLE, VERY HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, SLIGHT TAIL WIND AT IDLE, SLOW TRAFFIC, TRAFFIC JAMS, HIGH SPEED, OR STEEP GRADES. Driving techniques that avoid overheating are: Idle with A/C off when temperature gauge is at end of normal range. If vehicle is equipped with a 2.5L 4-cylinder engine, do not increase engine speed for more air flow. Cooling systems with electric cooling fans do not respond to engine rpm. The added cooling from higher coolant flow is more than offset by increased heat from higher engine output. If vehicle is equipped with a 3.9L V-6 or 5.2L V-8 engine, increasing engine speed for more air flow is recommended. 2. TRAILER TOWING: Consult Trailer Towing section of owners manual. Do not exceed limits. 3. AIR CONDITIONING; ADD-ON OR AFTER MARKET: A maximum cooling package should have been ordered with vehicle if add-on or after market A/C is installed. If not, maximum cooling system components should be installed for model involved per manufacturers specifications. 4. RECENT SERVICE OR ACCIDENT REPAIR: Determine if any recent service has been performed on vehicle that may effect cooling system. This may be: Engine adjustments (incorrect timing) Slipping engine accessory drive belt(s) Brakes (possibly dragging) Changed parts. Incorrect water pump, or pump rotating in wrong direction due to belt not correctly routed Reconditioned radiator or cooling system refilling (possibly under filled or air trapped in system). If investigation reveals none of the previous items as a cause for an engine overheating complaint, refer to following Cooling System Diagnosis charts. These charts are to be used as a quick-reference only. Refer to the group text for information.

Fig. 4 Data Link ConnectorTypical


After any stored DTC information has been observed, the display will end with a flashing DTC number 55. This will indicate the end of all stored information.

ERASING TROUBLE CODES After the problem has been repaired, use the DRB scan tool to erase a DTC. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual for operation of the DRB scan tool.

DRB SCAN TOOL


For operation of the DRB scan tool, refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures service manual.

PRELIMINARY CHECKS
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM OVERHEATING Establish what driving conditions caused the complaint. Abnormal loads on the cooling system such as the following may be the cause:

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS

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COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

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COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

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COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


COOLING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS (CONT.)

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES SERVICE PROCEDURES INDEX


page page Radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiator Pressure Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refilling Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Cooling System for Leaks . . . . . . . . Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscous Fan Drive3.9L/5.2L Engine . . . . . Water Pump Bypass Hose3.9L/5.2L Engine Water PumpsGeneral Information . . . . . . . Water PumpsRemoval/Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 27 24 25 19 37 17 12 12

Automatic Transmission Oil Coolers . . . . . . . Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coolant Reserve/Overflow System . . . . . . . . Cooling System Cleaning/Reverse Flushing . Cooling System Fan2.5L 4-Cylinder Engine Cooling System Fan3.9L/5.2L Engine . . . . Cooling System Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Draining Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Testing Radiator Caps . . . . . . . . .

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32 23 27 25 33 36 32 24 28

WATER PUMPSGENERAL INFORMATION


A centrifugal water pump circulates coolant through the water jackets, passages, intake manifold, radiator core, cooling system hoses and heater core. The pump is driven from the engine crankshaft by a drive belt. The water pump impeller is pressed onto the rear of a shaft that rotates in a bearing pressed into the water pump body. The body has a small hole for ventilation. The water pump seals are lubricated by antifreeze in the coolant mixture. Additional lubrication is not necessary. A quick test to determine if pump is working is to check if heater warms properly. A defective water pump will not be able to circulate heated coolant through the long heater hose to the heater core.

Fig. 1 Water Pump Components2.5L Engine


(a) Remove air conditioning compressor drive belt idler (Fig. 2). (b) Remove air conditioning compressor from solid mount bracket. Air conditioning system does not have to be discharged. WARNING: THE A/C SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE EVEN WITH ENGINE OFF. REFER TO REFRIGERANT WARNINGS IN GROUP 24, HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING. (c) Secure compressor with mechanics wire. (d) Remove solid mount accessory bracket mounting bolts 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7 at side of bracket. Refer to (Fig. 2). (e) Remove mounting nut (number 2 in Fig. 2) at front of bracket. (f) Remove mounting bolt (number 3 in Fig. 2) at front of bracket. (g) Pivot solid mount accessory bracket away from engine. Slide bracket forward off of mounting nut/stud to remove. (h) Install front mounting bolt (number 3 in Fig. 2) in bolt hole until bracket is reinstalled.

WATER PUMPSREMOVAL/INSTALLATION
The water pump on all models can be removed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped).

2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE The water pump used on 2.5L engines consists of a die-cast aluminum body and housing, and a stamped steel impeller. A gasket is used to seal between the pump body and housing. The water pump assembly bolts directly to the engine cylinder block. A rubber o-ring provides the seal between water pump and cylinder block (Fig. 1).
REMOVAL (1) Drain cooling system. (2) Remove accessory drive belt. (3) Remove generator. Refer to Group 8B, Battery/ Starter/Generator Service. CAUTION: If vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the solid mount accessory drive bracket must be removed according to the following procedure:

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Fig. 2 Solid Mount Accessory Bracket2.5L Engine


WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 3). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 4). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. (4) Disconnect radiator lower hose clamp (Fig. 3) and hose. (5) Disconnect heater hoses clamps (Fig. 3) and hoses. (6) Remove water pump mounting screws, water pump and o-ring seal (Fig. 5). DISASSEMBLY (1) Remove water pump pulley mounting screws. (2) Remove water pump body-to-housing screws. Separate housing from body. (3) Clean water pump housing and body gasket surfaces.

Fig. 3 Hose Clamp ToolTypical


(4) Remove o-ring seal (housing-to-cylinder block seal) and clean o-ring groove in housing. Also clean sealing surface on engine block. INSPECTION Replace water pump body assembly if it has any of the following conditions: Water pump body is cracked or damaged Water leaks from shaft seal. This is evident by traces of coolant below vent hole Loose or rough turning bearing

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


INSTALLATION (1) Install water pump on engine. Tighten top mounting screws (Fig. 5) to 30 Nm (250 in. lbs.) torque. Tighten lower mounting screw (Fig. 5) to 68 Nm (50 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Install heater hose and radiator lower hose. CAUTION: If vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the solid mount accessory bracket must be installed according to following procedure. (a) The front mounting bolt (number 3 in Fig. 2) and spacer must be installed at the same time that bracket is installed. (b) Remove front mounting bolt from mounting hole. (c) Install bracket over stud (Fig. 2) and slide bracket towards timing belt cover into position. (d) Loosely install bracket mounting fasteners 1 through 7 (Fig. 2).

Fig. 4 Clamp Number/Letter Location

CAUTION: The solid mount accessory bracket fasteners must be tightened in following sequence. (e) Tighten bolt 1 (Fig. 2) to 3 Nm (30 in. lbs.) torque. (f) Tighten nut 2 and bolt 3 (Fig. 2) to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (g) Tighten bolts 1, 4 and 5 (Fig. 2) to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (h) Tighten bolts 6 and 7 (Fig. 2) to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (i) Install air conditioning compressor. Tighten mounting bolts to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Install generator. Refer to Group 8B, Battery/ Starter/ Generator Service. (4) Install accessory drive belts. Refer to the Engine Accessory Drive Belt section of this group for installation procedure and belt tension specifications. (5) Fill cooling system with coolant. Refer to the Refilling Cooling System section in this group. (6) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

Fig. 5 Water Pump Removal/Installation2.5L Engine


Impeller rubs either the pump body or housing. ASSEMBLY The water pump body and housing are serviced as separate parts. (1) Install new o-ring gasket into body assembly oring groove. (2) Assemble water pump body to housing. Tighten assembly screws to 12 Nm (105 in. lbs.) torque. (3) Install new o-ring seal in o-ring groove of water pump housing. (4) Install water pump pulley. Tighten mounting screws to 30 Nm (250 in. lbs.) torque.

3.9L/5.2L ENGINE The water pump on 3.9L and 5.2L engines is bolted directly to the engine timing chain case/cover. A gasket is used as a seal between the water pump and timing chain case/cover. If water pump is replaced because of bearing/shaft damage, or leaking shaft seal, the mechanical cooling fan assembly should also be inspected. Inspect for fatigue cracks, loose blades, or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan if any of these conditions are found. Also check condition of the thermal Viscous Fan Drive. Refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


REMOVAL The water pump can be removed and installed without discharging the air conditioning system (if equipped). (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. (3) Remove throttle cable at top of fan shroud. (4) Unsnap coolant overflow tank (up and out) from fan shroud and lay aside. Do not disconnect hose or drain coolant from tank. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 3). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 4). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. (5) Remove upper radiator hose clamp (Fig. 3) and hose at radiator. (6) The thermal viscous fan drive is attached (threaded) to the water pump hub shaft (Fig. 6). Remove fan/viscous fan drive assembly from water pump by turning mounting nut counterclockwise as viewed from front. Threads on viscous fan drive are RIGHT HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 6) to prevent pulley from rotating. Do not attempt to remove fan/viscous fan drive assembly from vehicle at this time. If water pump is being replaced, do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. 6) from thermal viscous fan drive. (7) Remove fan shroud attaching hardware (two bolts at bottom-two clips at top). (8) Remove fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly from vehicle as a complete unit. After removing fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly, do not place thermal viscous fan drive in horizontal position. If stored horizontally, silicone fluid in viscous fan drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant. Do not remove water pump pulley bolts at this time.

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Fig. 6 Fan Blade and Viscous Fan Drive3.9L/5.2L Engine


(9) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Fig. 7). Relax tension from belt by rotating tensioner clockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 7). When all belt tension has been relaxed, remove accessory drive belt.

Fig. 7 Automatic Belt Tensioner Assembly3.9L/ 5.2L Engine

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


(15) Loosen clamp at water pump end of bypass hose (Fig. 6). Slip bypass hose from water pump while removing pump from vehicle. Discard old gasket. CAUTION: Do not pry water pump at timing chain case/cover. The machined surfaces may be damaged resulting in leaks. INSPECTION Replace water pump assembly if it has any of the following conditions: The body is cracked or damaged Water leaks from shaft seal. This is evident by traces of coolant below vent hole Loose or rough turning bearing. Also inspect viscous fan drive Impeller rubs either the pump body or timing chain case/cover INSTALLATION (1) Clean gasket mating surfaces. (2) Using a new gasket, install water pump to engine as follows: Guide water pump nipple into bypass hose as pump is being installed. Install water pump bolts (Fig. 9). Tighten water pump mounting bolts to 40 Nm (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (3) Position bypass hose clamp to bypass hose. (4) Spin water pump to be sure that pump impeller does not rub against timing chain case/cover. (5) Install a new o-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Fig. 8). Coat the new o-ring with antifreeze before installation. (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Fig. 8). Be sure the slot in tube bracket is bottomed to mounting bolt. This will properly position return tube. (7) Connect radiator lower hose to water pump. (8) Connect heater hose and hose clamp to coolant return tube. (9) Install water pump pulley. Tighten bolts to 27 Nm (20 ft. lbs.) torque. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 6) to prevent pulley from rotating. (10) Relax tension from belt tensioner (Fig. 7). Install drive belt. CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 10) for correct belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used. (11) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (12) Install fan shroud.

(10) Remove four water pump pulley-to-water pump hub bolts (Fig. 6) and remove pulley from vehicle. (11) Remove lower radiator hose clamp and remove lower hose at water pump. (12) Remove heater hose clamp (Fig. 3) and heater hose from heater hose coolant return tube. (13) Loosen heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Fig. 8) and remove tube from water pump. Discard the old tube o-ring.

Fig. 8 Coolant Return Tube3.9L/5.2L Engine Typical


(14) Remove seven water pump mounting bolts (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9 Water Pump Bolts3.9L/5.2L Engine

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Fig. 10 Belt Routing3.9L/5.2L Engine


(13) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft. (14) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling the Cooling System in this group. (15) Connect negative battery cable. (16) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

Fig. 11 Water Pump Bypass Hose3.9L/5.2L Engine


placement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter.

WATER PUMP BYPASS HOSE3.9L/5.2L ENGINE


A water pump bypass hose (Fig. 11) is used between the intake manifold and water pump on all 3.9L/5.2L engines. To test for leaks, refer to Testing Cooling System for Leaks in this group.

WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING (A/C)


REMOVAL (1) Partially drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 13). If re-

Fig. 12 Hose Clamp ToolTypical


(2) Loosen both bypass hose clamps (Fig. 12) and position to center of hose. Remove hose from vehicle. INSTALLATION (1) Position bypass hose clamps (Fig. 12) to center of hose. (2) Install bypass hose to engine. (3) Secure both hose clamps (Fig. 12). (4) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling the Cooling System in this group. (5) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


WARNING: THE A/C SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE EVEN WITH ENGINE OFF. REFER TO REFRIGERANT WARNINGS IN GROUP 24, HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Partially drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. (3) Remove upper radiator hose clamp (Fig. 12) and hose at radiator. (4) Unplug wiring harness from A/C compressor. (5) Remove air cleaner assembly. (6) Remove accessory drive belt as follows: The drive belt is equipped with a spring loaded automatic tensioner (Fig. 15). Relax tension from belt by rotating tensioner clockwise (as viewed from front) (Fig. 15). When all belt tension has been relaxed, remove accessory drive belt.

Fig. 13 Clamp Number/Letter Location


WITH AIR CONDITIONING (A/C)
REMOVAL If equipped with A/C, the generator and A/C compressor along with their common mounting bracket (Fig. 14) must be partially removed. Removing generator or A/C compressor from their mounting bracket is not necessary. Also, discharging A/C system is not necessary. Do not remove any refrigerant lines from A/C compressor.

Fig. 15 Automatic Belt Tensioner Assembly


(7) The drive belt idler pulley must be removed to gain access to one of A/C compressor/generator bracket mounting bolts. Remove idler pulley bolt and remove idler pulley (Fig. 14). (8) Remove oil dipstick tube mounting bolt at side of A/C-generator mounting bracket. (9) Disconnect throttle body control cables. Refer to Accelerator Pedal and Throttle Cable in Group 14, Fuel System. (10) Remove heater hose clamp and heater hose from heater hose coolant return tube. (11) Remove heater hose coolant return tube mounting bolt (Fig. 16) and remove tube from engine. Discard the old tube o-ring.

Fig. 14 GeneratorA/C Compressor Mounting Bracket3.9L/5.2L Engine

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 17) for correct belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used.

Fig. 16 Coolant Return Tube3.9L/5.2L Engine Typical


(12) Remove bracket-to-intake manifold bolts (number 1 and 2Fig. 14). (13) Remove six bracket bolts (number 3Fig. 14). (14) Lift and position generator and A/C compressor (along with their common mounting bracket) to gain access to bypass hose. A block of wood may be used to hold assembly in position. (15) Loosen and position both hose clamps to center of bypass hose. Remove hose from vehicle. INSTALLATION (1) Position bypass hose clamps to center of hose. (2) Install bypass hose to engine. (3) Secure both hose clamps (Fig. 12). (4) Install generator-A/C mounting bracket assembly to engine. Tighten bolts (number 1 and 2Fig. 14) to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. Tighten bolts (number 3Fig. 14) to 40 Nm (30 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Install a new o-ring to the heater hose coolant return tube (Fig. 16). Coat the new o-ring with antifreeze before installation. (6) Install coolant return tube and its mounting bolt to engine (Fig. 16). (7) Connect throttle body control cables. (8) Install oil dipstick mounting bolt. (9) Install idler pulley. Tighten bolt to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (10) Relax tension from belt tensioner (Fig. 15). Install drive belt. CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in

Fig. 17 Belt Routing3.9L/5.2L Engine


(11) Install air cleaner assembly. (12) Install upper radiator hose to radiator. (13) Connect wiring harness to A/C compressor. (14) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling the Cooling System in this group. (15) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

THERMOSTAT
GENERAL INFORMATIONALL ENGINES On 2.5L 4-cylinder engines, the thermostat is located inside the water box at front of engine on radiator side (Fig. 18). This thermostat does not have an air bleed notch. On 3.9L and 5.2L engines, the thermostat is located beneath the thermostat housing at front of intake manifold (Fig. 19). This thermostat has an air bleed notch. All thermostats (2.5L, 3.9L and 5.2L engines) are of the wax-pellet-driven, reverse-poppet-choke-type. The wax pellet is located in a sealed container at spring end of thermostat. When heated, the pellet expands, overcoming closing spring tension and water pump pressure to force valve to open. Coolant leakage into pellet container will cause thermostat to fail in open position. Do not attempt to free a sticking thermostat with a prying device. The thermostat controls the operating temperature of the engine by controlling the amount of coolant flow to radiator. On all engines (2.5L, 3.9L and 5.2L), thermostat is closed below 88C (192F). When cool-

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


The same thermostat is used for winter and summer seasons. CAUTION: Do not operate an engine without a thermostat, except for servicing or testing. An engine should not be operated without a thermostat, except for servicing or testing. Operating without a thermostat causes longer engine warmup time, unreliable warmup performance, increased exhaust emissions and crankcase condensation that can result in sludge formation.

ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD)


FOR COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS All models are equipped with On-Board Diagnostics for certain cooling system components. Refer to OnBoard Diagnostics (OBD) in the Diagnosis section of this group for additional information. If the powertrain control module (PCM) detects low engine coolant temperature, it will record a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) in the PCM memory. The DTC number for low coolant temperature is 17. Do not change a thermostat for lack of heat as indicated by the instrument panel gauge or heater performance unless a DTC number 17 is present. Refer to the Diagnosis section of this group for other probable causes. For other DTC numbers, refer to On-Board Diagnostics in the General Diagnosis section of Group 14, Fuel Systems. The DTC can also be accessed through the DRB scan tool. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual for diagnostic information and operation of the DRB scan tool.

Fig. 18 Thermostat2.5L 4-Cylinder Engine Typical

REMOVAL2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE


WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND PRESSURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. If thermostat is being replaced, be sure that replacement is the specified thermostat for vehicle model and engine type. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is below thermostat. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group.

Fig. 19 Thermostat3.9L/5.2L Engine


ant reaches this temperature, thermostat begins to open allowing coolant flow to radiator. This provides quick engine warm-up and overall temperature control. The thermostat is designed to provide a minimum engine operating temperature range of from 88 to 93C (192 to 199F). The thermostat should be fully open for maximum coolant flow during operation in hot ambient temperatures of approximately 104C (220F). Above 104C (220F), coolant temperature is controlled by radiator, fan and ambient temperature. An arrow, plus the word UP is stamped on front flange next to air bleed. The words TO RAD are stamped on one arm of thermostat. They indicate proper installed position.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 13). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. (3) Remove radiator hose clamp (Fig. 12) and radiator hose at thermostat housing. (4) Remove ignition coil/coil mounting bracket assembly. Do not remove coil from mounting bracket. (5) Remove thermostat housing stud/bolts, thermostat housing, gasket and thermostat (Fig. 18). Discard old gasket. (6) Clean gasket mating surfaces.

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If thermostat is being replaced, be sure that replacement is specified thermostat for vehicle model and engine type. Factory installed thermostat housings on 3.9L/5.2L engines are installed on a gasket with an anti-stick coating. This will aid in gasket removal and clean-up. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable at battery. (2) Drain cooling system until coolant level is below thermostat. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. (3) Air Conditioned vehicles: Remove support bracket (generator mounting bracket-to-intake manifold) located near rear of generator (Fig. 20).

INSTALLATION2.5L ENGINE If thermostat is being replaced, be sure that replacement is specified thermostat for vehicle model and engine type. (1) Dip replacement gasket in water and position on water box (Fig. 18). (2) Assemble the thermostat and thermostat housing as shown in (Fig. 18). Be sure the thermostat is centered into thermostat housing and that spring side is installed towards cylinder head.
CAUTION: Tightening housing unevenly or without thermostat centered, may result in a cracked housing. (3) Install housing stud/bolts. Tighten housing stud/bolts to 23 Nm (200 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Install ignition coil/coil mounting bracket assembly. (5) Install upper radiator hose to thermostat housing. (6) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (7) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group.

Fig. 20 Generator Support Bracket3.9L/5.2L Engine


(4) On air conditioning equipped vehicles, the generator must be partially removed. (a) Remove generator drive belt as follows: Drive belts on both 3.9L and 5.2L engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 21). (b) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 21). (c) Rotate tensioner assembly clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (d) Remove belt from vehicle. (e) Remove two generator mounting bolts. Do not remove any wiring at generator. If equipped with 4WD, unplug 4WD indicator lamp wiring harness (located near rear of generator). (f) Remove generator. Position generator to gain access for thermostat gasket removal.

REMOVAL3.9L/5.2L ENGINE
WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND PRESSURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. Do not waste reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse.

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

Fig. 21 Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engine


WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 12). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 13). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. (5) Remove upper radiator hose clamp (Fig. 12) and upper radiator hose at thermostat housing. (6) Position wiring harness (behind thermostat housing) to gain access to thermostat housing. (7) Remove thermostat housing mounting bolts, thermostat housing, gasket and thermostat (Fig. 22). Discard old gasket.

Fig. 22 Thermostat3.9L/5.2L Engine


front of vehicle. The housing is slightly angled forward after installation to intake manifold.

INSTALLATION3.9L/5.2L ENGINE (1) Clean mating areas of intake manifold and thermostat housing. (2) Install thermostat (spring side down) into recessed machined groove on intake manifold (Fig. 22). (3) Install gasket on intake manifold and over thermostat (Fig. 22). (4) Position thermostat housing to intake manifold. Note the word FRONT stamped on housing (Fig. 23). For adequate clearance, this must be placed towards

Fig. 23 Thermostat Position3.9L/5.2L Engine


(5) Install two housing-to-intake manifold bolts. Tighten bolts to 23 Nm (200 in. lbs.) torque. CAUTION: Housing must be tightened evenly and thermostat must be centered into recessed groove in intake manifold. If not, it may result in a cracked housing, damaged intake manifold threads or coolant leak.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


(6) Install upper radiator hose to thermostat housing. (7) Air Conditioned vehicles: (a) Install generator. Tighten bolts to 41 Nm (30 ft. lbs.). (b) Install support bracket (generator mounting bracket-to-intake manifold) (Fig. 20). Tighten bolts to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. CAUTION: When installing the serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 24) for correct 3.9L/ 5.2L engine belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used. (c) Position drive belt over all pulleys except idler pulley (located between generator and A/C compressor).

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coolant carries heat to radiator and heater core. Here it is transferred to ambient air passing through radiator and heater core fins. The coolant also removes heat from automatic transmission fluid in vehicles equipped with an automatic transmission.

COOLANT PERFORMANCE The required ethylene-glycol (antifreeze) and water mixture depends upon climate and vehicle operating conditions. The coolant performance of various mixtures follows: Pure Water-Water can absorb more heat than a mixture of water and ethylene-glycol. This is for purpose of heat transfer only. Water also freezes at a higher temperature and allows corrosion. 100% Ethylene-Glycol-The corrosion inhibiting additives in ethylene-glycol need the presence of water to dissolve. Without water, additives form deposits in system. These act as insulation causing temperature to rise to as high as 149C (300F). This temperature is hot enough to melt plastic and soften solder. The increased temperature can result in engine detonation. In addition, 100 percent ethyleneglycol freezes at -22C (-8F). 50/50 Ethylene-Glycol and Water-Is the recommended mixture, it provides protection against freezing to -37C (-35F). The antifreeze concentration must always be a minimum of 44 percent, yearround in all climates. If percentage is lower, engine parts may be eroded by cavitation. Maximum protection against freezing is provided with a 68 percent antifreeze concentration, which prevents freezing down to -67.7C (-90F). A higher percentage will freeze at a warmer temperature. Also, a higher percentage of antifreeze can cause the engine to overheat because specific heat of antifreeze is lower than that of water.
CAUTION: Richer antifreeze mixtures cannot be measured with normal field equipment and can cause problems associated with 100 percent ethylene-glycol.

Fig. 24 Belt Routing3.9L/5.2L Engine


(d) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 21). (e) Rotate socket/wrench clockwise. Place belt over idler pulley. Let tensioner rotate back into place. Remove wrench. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. (8) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System in this group. (9) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (10) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

COOLANT SELECTION-ADDITIVES Coolant should be maintained at the specified level with a mixture of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze and low mineral content water. Only use an antifreeze containing ALUGARD 340-2 .
CAUTION: Do not use coolant additives that are claimed to improve engine cooling.

COOLANT
The cooling system is designed around the coolant. Coolant flows through the engine water jackets absorbing heat produced during engine operation. The

COOLANT SERVICE It is recommended that the cooling system be drained and flushed at 84,000 kilometers (52,500

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


also reduces amount of coolant circulating in heater core resulting in low heat output.

miles), or 3 years, whichever occurs first. Then every two years, or 48,000 kilometers (30,000 miles), whichever occurs first.

COOLANT LEVEL CHECK-ROUTINE Do not remove radiator cap for routine coolant level inspections. The coolant level can be checked at coolant reserve/overflow tank. The coolant reserve/overflow system provides a quick visual method for determining coolant level without removing radiator pressure cap. With engine idling and at normal operating temperature, observe coolant level in reserve/overflow tank. The coolant level should be between ADD and FULL marks. ADDING ADDITIONAL COOLANT-ROUTINE Do not remove radiator cap to add coolant to system. When adding coolant to maintain correct level, do so at coolant reserve/overflow tank. Use a 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol antifreeze containing Alugard 340-2 and low mineral content water. Remove radiator cap only for testing or when refilling system after service. Removing cap unnecessarily can cause loss of coolant and allow air to enter system, which produces corrosion. COOLANT LEVEL CHECK-SERVICE The cooling system is closed and designed to maintain coolant level to top of radiator.
WARNING: DO NOT OPEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH ENGINE RUNNING OR WHILE ENGINE IS HOT AND COOLING SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE. When vehicle servicing requires a coolant level check in radiator, drain several ounces of coolant from radiator drain cock. Do this while observing coolant reserve/overflow system tank. The coolant level in reserve/overflow tank should drop slightly. If not, inspect for a leak between radiator and coolant reserve/overflow system connection. Remove radiator cap. The coolant level should be to top of radiator. If not, and if coolant level in reserve/overflow tank is at ADD mark, check for: An air leak in coolant reserve/overflow tank or its hose An air leak in radiator filler neck Leak in pressure cap seal to radiator filler neck

DEAERATION As the engine operates, any air trapped in cooling system gathers under the radiator cap. The next time the engine is operated, thermal expansion of coolant will push any trapped air past radiator cap into the coolant reserve/overflow tank. Here it escapes to the atmosphere into the tank. When the engine cools down the coolant, it will be drawn from the reserve/ overflow tank into the radiator to replace any removed air.

DRAINING COOLING SYSTEM


WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse. (1) Start engine and place heater control temperature selector in Full On position. Engine vacuum is needed to actuate heater controls. (2) Turn ignition off. (3) Do not remove radiator cap when draining coolant from reserve/overflow tank. Open radiator draincock and when tank is empty, remove radiator cap. If coolant reserve/overflow tank does not drain, refer to Testing Cooling System for Leaks section in this group. The coolant need not be removed from tank unless system is being refilled with a fresh mixture. (4) On 3.9L and 5.2L engines, remove cylinder block drain plugs located on sides of block towards front of engine just above oil pan. (5) Remove radiator pressure cap. (6) If vehicle is equipped with a 2.5L engine, remove plug at top of water box for faster draining (Fig. 25).

REFILLING COOLING SYSTEM


Clean cooling system prior to refilling. Refer to Cooling System Cleaning section of this group. (1) If vehicle is equipped with a 3.9L/5.2L engine, install cylinder block drain plugs. (2) Close radiator drain plug. (3) Fill cooling system with a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze. Be sure that antifreeze contains Alugard 340-2 as specified in Coolant section of this group. If vehicle is equipped with a 2.5L 4-cylinder engine, remove plug at top of water box to vent air trapped in engine. The thermostat is not equipped with a air bleed hole. When coolant level reaches plug hole, install plug and tighten to 20 Nm 15 (ft. lbs.) torque. Then continue filling cooling system until full.

LOW COOLANT LEVEL-AERATION If the coolant level in radiator drops below top of radiator core tubes, air will enter cooling system. On 2.5L engines, air can gather in the water box containing the thermostat. Low coolant level can cause thermostat pellet to be suspended in air instead of coolant. This will cause thermostat to open later, which in turn causes higher coolant temperature. Air trapped in cooling system

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Allow radiator to fill with water. When radiator is filled, apply air in short blasts. Allow radiator to refill between blasts. Continue this reverse flushing until clean water flows out through rear of radiator cooling tube passages. Have radiator cleaned more extensively by a radiator repair shop.

REVERSE FLUSHING ENGINE Drain cooling system. Remove thermostat housing and thermostat. Install thermostat housing. Disconnect radiator upper hose from radiator and attach flushing gun to hose. Disconnect radiator lower hose from water pump and attach a lead-away hose to water pump inlet fitting.
CAUTION: On vehicles equipped with a heater water control valve, be sure heater control valve is closed (heat off). This will prevent coolant flow with scale and other deposits from entering heater core. Connect water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun. Allow engine to fill with water. When engine is filled, apply air in short blasts, allowing system to fill between air blasts. Continue until clean water flows through the lead away hose. Remove lead away hose, flushing gun, water supply hose and air supply hose. Remove thermostat housing and install thermostat. Install thermostat housing with a replacement gasket. Refer to Thermostat Replacement. Connect radiator hoses. Refill cooling system with correct antifreeze/water mixture. Refer to Refilling the Cooling System.

Fig. 25 Thermostat Housing Drain/Fill Plug2.5L EngineTypical


(4) Fill coolant reserve/overflow tank to FULL mark. (5) Start and operate engine until thermostat opens (upper radiator hose warm to touch). (6) If necessary, add a 50/50 water and antifreeze mixture to the coolant reserve/overflow tank. This is done to maintain coolant level between the FULL and ADD marks. The level in the reserve/overflow tank may drop below the ADD mark after three or four warm-up and cool-down cycles.

COOLING SYSTEM CLEANING/REVERSE FLUSHING


CLEANING Drain cooling system and refill with water. Run engine with radiator cap installed until upper radiator hose is hot. Stop engine and drain water from system. If water is dirty, fill system with water, run engine and drain system. Repeat until water drains clean. REVERSE FLUSHING Reverse flushing of cooling system is the forcing of water through the cooling system. This is done using air pressure in the opposite direction of normal coolant flow. It is usually only necessary with very dirty systems with evidence of partial plugging. REVERSE FLUSHING RADIATOR Disconnect radiator hoses from radiator inlet and outlet. Attach a section of radiator hose to radiator bottom outlet fitting and insert flushing gun. Connect a water supply hose and air supply hose to flushing gun.
CAUTION: Internal radiator pressure must not exceed 138 kPa (20 psi) as damage to radiator may result.

CHEMICAL CLEANING In some instances, use a radiator cleaner (Mopar Radiator Kleen or equivalent) before flushing. This will soften scale and other deposits and aid flushing operation.
CAUTION: Follow manufacturers instructions when using these products. Aluminum Hydroxide Deposition is a type of corrosion encountered in cooling system of engines that are of an aluminum composition. This would be on a 2.5L engine with aluminum cylinder head. It appears as dark grey when wet, but, when dry it is white. This type of corrosion can usually be removed with a commercially available two part cleaner (oxcilac acid and neutralizer). Follow manufacturers directions for use. However, it is recommended that engine be operated one extra hour if acid is in coolant.

TESTING COOLING SYSTEM FOR LEAKS


ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT METHOD A leak detection additive is available through the parts department that can be added to cooling system. The additive is highly visible under ultraviolet

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

light (black light). Pour one ounce of additive into cooling system. Place heater control unit in HEAT position. Start and operate engine until radiator upper hose is warm to touch. Aim the commercially available black light tool at components to be checked. If leaks are present, black light will cause additive to glow a bright green color. The black light can be used in conjunction with a pressure tester to determine if any external leaks exist (Fig. 26).

Fig. 27 Pressure Testing Cooling SystemTypical


gauge pointer and determine condition of cooling system according to following criteria: Holds Steady: If pointer remains steady for two minutes, serious coolant leaks are not present in system. However, there could be an internal leak that does not appear with normal system test pressure. If it is certain that coolant is being lost and leaks cannot be detected, inspect for interior leakage or perform Internal Leakage Test. Drops Slowly: Indicates a small leak or seepage is occurring. Examine all connections for seepage or slight leakage with a flashlight. Inspect radiator, hoses, gasket edges and heater. Seal small leak holes with a Sealer Lubricant (or equivalent). Repair leak holes and inspect system again with pressure applied. Drops Quickly: Indicates that serious leakage is occurring. Examine system for external leakage. If leaks are not visible, inspect for internal leakage. Large radiator leak holes should be repaired by a reputable radiator repair shop.

Fig. 26 Leak Detection Using Black LightTypical


PRESSURE TESTER METHOD The engine should be at normal operating temperature. Recheck the system cold if cause of coolant loss is not located during the warm engine examination.
WARNING: HOT, PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN CAUSE INJURY BY SCALDING. Carefully remove radiator pressure cap from filler neck and check coolant level. Push down on cap to disengage it from stop tabs. Wipe inside of filler neck and examine lower inside sealing seat for nicks, cracks, paint, dirt and solder residue. Inspect radiator-to-reserve/overflow tank hose for internal obstructions. Insert a wire through the hose to be sure it is not obstructed. Inspect cams on outside of filler neck. If cams are bent, seating of pressure cap valve and tester seal will be affected. Replace cap if cams are bent. Attach pressure tester (7700 or an equivalent) to radiator filler neck (Fig. 27). Operate tester pump to apply 103.4 kPa (15 psi) pressure to system. If hoses enlarge excessively or bulges while testing, replace as necessary. Observe

INTERNAL LEAKAGE INSPECTION Remove engine oil pan drain plug and drain a small amount of engine oil. If coolant is present in the pan, it will drain first because it is heavier than oil. An alternative method is to operate engine for a short period to churn the oil. After this is done, remove engine dipstick and inspect for water globules. Also inspect transmission dipstick for water globules and transmission fluid cooler for leakage.
WARNING: WITH RADIATOR PRESSURE TESTER TOOL INSTALLED ON RADIATOR, DO NOT ALLOW PRESSURE TO EXCEED 110 KPA (20 PSI). PRESSURE WILL BUILD UP QUICKLY IF A COMBUSTION LEAK IS PRESENT. TO RELEASE PRESSURE, ROCK TESTER FROM SIDE TO SIDE. WHEN REMOVING TESTER, DO NOT TURN TESTER MORE THAN 1/2 TURN IF SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


Operate engine without pressure cap on radiator until thermostat opens. Attach a Pressure Tester to filler neck. If pressure builds up quickly it indicates a combustion leak exists. This is usually the result of a cylinder head gasket leak or crack in engine. Repair as necessary. If there is not an immediate pressure increase, pump the Pressure Tester. Do this until indicated pressure is within system range of 110 kPa (16 psi). Fluctuation of gauge pointer indicates compression or combustion leakage into cooling system. Because the vehicle is equipped with a catalytic converter, do not remove spark plug cables or short out cylinders to isolate compression leak. If the needle on dial of pressure tester does not fluctuate, race engine a few times to check for an abnormal amount of coolant or steam. This would be emitting from exhaust pipe. Coolant or steam from exhaust pipe may indicate a faulty cylinder head gasket, cracked engine cylinder block or cylinder head. A convenient check for exhaust gas leakage into cooling system is provided by a commercially available Block Leak Check tool. Follow manufacturers instructions when using this product.

7 - 27

vides a convenient and safe method for checking coolant level and adjusting level at atmospheric pressure. This is done without removing the radiator pressure cap. The system also provides some reserve coolant to the radiator to cover minor leaks and evaporation or boiling losses. As the engine cools, a vacuum is formed in the cooling system of both the radiator and engine. Coolant will then be drawn from the coolant tank and returned to a proper level in the radiator.

COMBUSTION LEAKAGE TESTWITHOUT PRESSURE TESTER DO NOT WASTE reusable coolant. If solution is clean, drain coolant into a clean container for reuse.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. Drain sufficient coolant to allow thermostat removal. Refer to Thermostat Replacement. Disconnect water pump drive belt. Add coolant to radiator to bring level to within 6.3 mm (1/4 in) of top of thermostat housing. CAUTION: Avoid overheating. Do not operate engine for an excessive period of time. Open draincock immediately after test to eliminate boil over. Start engine and accelerate rapidly three times, to approximately 3000 rpm while observing coolant. If internal engine combustion gases are leaking into cooling system, bubbles will appear in coolant. If bubbles do not appear, internal combustion gas leakage is not present.

Fig. 28 Coolant Reserve/Overflow System


Refer to Coolant Level CheckService, Deaeration and Radiator Pressure Cap sections in this group for coolant reserve/overflow system operation and service. Should the reserve/overflow tank become coated with corrosion or emulsifiable oil, it can be cleaned with detergent and water. Rinse tank thoroughly before refilling cooling system as described in the Coolant section of this group.

TANK REMOVAL (1) Remove overflow hose at reserve/overflow tank. (2) Unsnap the coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud. Lift straight up. The fan shroud is equipped with T-shaped slots to attach the tank. TANK INSTALLATION (1) Snap tank into fan shroud. (2) Install overflow hose to tank.

RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP


Radiators are equipped with a pressure cap, which releases pressure at some point within a range of 97124 kPa (14-18 psi). The pressure relief point (in pounds) is engraved on top of cap. The cooling system will operate at pressures slightly above atmospheric pressure. This results in a higher coolant boiling point allowing increased radiator cooling capacity. The cap (Fig. 29) contains a

COOLANT RESERVE/OVERFLOW SYSTEM


The coolant reserve/overflow system (Fig. 28) works in conjunction with the radiator pressure cap. It utilizes thermal expansion and contraction of coolant to keep coolant free of trapped air. It provides a volume for expansion and contraction of coolant. It also pro-

7 - 28

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


(4) Checking for vacuum leaks. WARNING: IF VEHICLE HAS BEEN RUN RECENTLY, WAIT AT LEAST 15 MINUTES BEFORE REMOVING RADIATOR CAP. WITH A RAG, SQUEEZE RADIATOR UPPER HOSE TO CHECK IF SYSTEM IS UNDER PRESSURE. PLACE A RAG OVER CAP AND WITHOUT PUSHING CAP DOWN, ROTATE IT COUNTERCLOCKWISE TO FIRST STOP. ALLOW FLUID TO ESCAPE THROUGH THE COOLANT RESERVE/ OVERFLOW HOSE INTO RESERVE/OVERFLOW TANK. SQUEEZE RADIATOR UPPER HOSE TO DETERMINE WHEN PRESSURE HAS BEEN RELEASED. WHEN COOLANT AND STEAM STOP BEING PUSHED INTO TANK AND SYSTEM PRESSURE DROPS, REMOVE RADIATOR CAP COMPLETELY.

spring-loaded pressure relief valve that opens when system pressure reaches release range of 97-124 kPa (14-18 psi).

Fig. 29 Radiator Pressure Cap and Filler Neck


A vent valve in the center of cap allows a small coolant flow through cap when coolant is below boiling temperature. The valve is completely closed when boiling point is reached. As the coolant cools, it contracts and creates a vacuum in the cooling system. This causes the vacuum valve to open and coolant in the reserve/overflow tank to be drawn through its connecting hose into radiator. If the vacuum valve is stuck shut, the radiator hoses will collapse on cooldown. Clean the vent valve (Fig. 29). A rubber gasket seals radiator filler neck to prevent leakage. This is done to keep system under pressure. It also maintains vacuum during coolant cool-down allowing coolant to return from reserve/ overflow tank.

PRESSURE TESTING RADIATOR CAPS


Remove cap from radiator. Be sure that sealing surfaces are clean. Moisten rubber gasket with water and install cap on pressure tester 7700 or an equivalent (Fig. 30).

RADIATOR CAP-TO-FILLER NECK SEAL PRESSURE RELIEF CHECK The pressure cap upper gasket (seal) pressure relief can be tested by removing overflow hose from radiator filler neck nipple. Attach hose of pressure tester tool 7700 (or equivalent) to nipple. It will be necessary to disconnect hose from its adapter for filler neck. Pump air into radiator. The pressure cap upper gasket should relieve at 69-124 kPa (10-18 psi) and hold pressure at a minimum of 55 kPa (8 psi).
WARNING: THE WARNING WORDS DO NOT OPEN HOT ON RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP, ARE A SAFETY PRECAUTION. WHEN HOT, PRESSURE BUILDS UP IN COOLING SYSTEM. TO PREVENT SCALDING OR INJURY, RADIATOR CAP SHOULD NOT BE REMOVED WHILE SYSTEM IS HOT AND/OR UNDER PRESSURE. Do not remove radiator cap at any time except for the following purposes: (1) Check and adjust antifreeze freeze point. (2) Refill system with new antifreeze. (3) Conducting service procedures.

Fig. 30 Pressure Testing Radiator CapTypical


Operate tester pump to bring pressure to 104 kPa (15 psi) on gauge. If pressure cap fails to hold pressure of at least 97 kPa (14 psi) replace cap. Refer to following CAUTION. The pressure cap may test properly while positioned on tool 7700 (or equivalent). It may not hold pressure or vacuum when installed on radiator. If so, inspect radiator filler neck and caps top gasket for damage. Also inspect for dirt or distortion that may prevent cap from sealing properly.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


CAUTION: Radiator pressure testing tools are very sensitive to small air leaks, which will not cause cooling system problems. A pressure cap that does not have a history of coolant loss should not be replaced just because it leaks slowly when tested with this tool. Add water to tool. Turn tool upside down and recheck pressure cap to confirm that cap needs replacement.

7 - 29

INSPECTION Hold cap at eye level, right side up. The vent valve (Fig. 29) at bottom of cap should open. If rubber gasket has swollen and prevents vent valve from opening, replace cap. Hold cap at eye level, upside down. If any light can be seen between vent valve and rubber gasket, replace cap. Do not use a replacement cap that has a spring to hold vent shut. A replacement cap must be the type designed for a coolant reserve/overflow system with a completely sealed diaphragm spring and a rubber gasket. This gasket is used to seal to radiator filler neck top surface. Use of proper cap will allow coolant return to radiator.

RADIATOR
The radiators used in these models are of the down-flow type (vertical tubes) and have plastic tanks. The radiator supplies sufficient heat transfer to cool engine. CAUTION: Although plastic radiator tanks are stronger than brass, they are more susceptible to damage from impact or excessive hose clamp torque. In the event of damage to a plastic radiator tank, replacement tanks and o-ring seals (Fig. 31) are available through the parts department. Tank repair should be performed by qualified personnel using proper equipment.

Fig. 31 Radiator ComponentsTypical


(2) Drain a small amount of coolant from radiator until ends of radiator tubes are visible through filler neck. Idle engine at normal operating temperature. If coolant is flowing past exposed tubes, coolant is circulating.

RADIATOR REMOVAL2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 32). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS.

RADIATOR COOLANT FLOW CHECK Use the following procedure to determine if coolant is flowing through cooling system. (1) Idle engine until operating temperature is reached. If upper radiator hose is warm to the touch, thermostat is opening and coolant is flowing to radiator.
WARNING: HOT, PRESSURIZED COOLANT CAN CAUSE INJURY BY SCALDING. USING A RAG TO COVER RADIATOR PRESSURE CAP, OPEN RADIATOR CAP SLOWLY TO FIRST STOP. ALLOW ANY BUILT-UP PRESSURE TO VENT TO THE RESERVE/ OVERFLOW TANK. AFTER PRESSURE BUILD-UP HAS BEEN RELEASED, REMOVE CAP FROM FILLER NECK.

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


RADIATOR INSTALLATION2.5L ENGINE The radiator has two alignment pins on bottom of lower tank. These fit into alignment holes in radiator lower support. (1) Lower the radiator into engine compartment. Position alignment pins into alignment holes in radiator lower support. (2) Lower radiator fan and shroud assembly into retaining pockets on radiator lower tank. (3) Attach retaining clips at top of shroud. (4) Connect fan motor electrical connector to harness connector. (5) Install radiator hoses and coolant reserve/overflow tank to radiator hose. (6) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (7) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System section in this group. (8) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks. RADIATOR REMOVAL3.9L/5.2L ENGINE (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery.
WARNING: DO NOT REMOVE CYLINDER BLOCK DRAIN PLUGS OR LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND UNDER PRESSURE. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. (2) Drain cooling system. Refer to Draining Cooling System. (3) Remove throttle cable at fan shroud. (4) Unsnap coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud (T-shaped slots) (Fig. 34). Lift straight up. (5) Remove fan shroud retaining hardware (two clips at top-two bolts at bottom) (Fig. 34). (6) Position fan shroud towards engine. Fan shroud does not have to be removed from vehicle. (7) Disconnect transmission cooler lines at radiator (if equipped). WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 32). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 33). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. (8) Remove upper and lower radiator hose clamps (Fig. 32) and hoses at radiator.

CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 33). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter.

Fig. 32 Hose Clamp ToolTypical

Fig. 33 Clamp Number/Letter Location


(3) Remove hose clamps (Fig. 32) and hoses from radiator. Remove coolant reserve/overflow tank hose from radiator filler neck nipple. (4) Disconnect electric cooling fan motor connector. Remove fan and shroud upper attaching clips. Lift fan and shroud assembly up and out. Do not allow fan shroud to contact radiator cooling fins. Radiator fin damage could result. (5) Remove radiator upper mounting screws (Fig. 34). Lift radiator up and out of engine compartment. Do not allow cooling fins of radiator to contact any other vehicle component. Radiator fin damage could result.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Fig. 34 Radiator and Fan Shroud Removal/InstallationTypical


(9) Remove two upper radiator-to-radiator support bolts (Fig. 34). The radiator has two alignment pins to align lower part of radiator to lower radiator support. (10) Lift radiator up and out of engine compartment. Do not allow cooling fins of radiator to contact any other vehicle component. Radiator fin damage could result.

RADIATOR DRAINCOCK SERVICE


WARNING: DO NOT LOOSEN RADIATOR DRAINCOCK WITH SYSTEM HOT AND PRESSURIZED. SERIOUS BURNS FROM COOLANT CAN OCCUR. REMOVAL (1) Unscrew draincock stem (counterclockwise rotation). When stem is completely unscrewed, pull it from radiator tank and draincock body (Fig. 35).

RADIATOR INSTALLATION3.9L/5.2L ENGINE The radiator has two alignment pins on bottom of lower tank. These fit into alignment holes in radiator lower support. (1) Lower radiator into engine compartment. Position alignment pins into alignment holes in radiator lower support. (2) Install two upper radiator bolts. (3) Install transmission cooler lines (if equipped). (4) Install both radiator hoses and hose clamps (Fig. 32). (5) Install fan shroud to radiator (two clips at toptwo bolts at bottom). (6) Install coolant reserve/overflow tank. Snaps into position. (7) Connect throttle cable to fan shroud. Snaps in. (8) Connect negative battery cable to battery. (9) Fill cooling system. Refer to Refilling Cooling System section in this group. (10) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

Fig. 35 Draincock Assembly

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


Inspect hoses at regular intervals. Replace hoses that are cracked, feel brittle when squeezed, or swell excessively when system is pressurized. The use of molded replacement hoses is recommended. When performing a hose inspection, inspect radiator lower hose for proper position and condition of spring. WARNING: CONSTANT TENSION HOSE CLAMPS ARE USED ON MOST COOLING SYSTEM HOSES. WHEN REMOVING OR INSTALLING, USE ONLY TOOLS DESIGNED FOR SERVICING THIS TYPE OF CLAMP, SUCH AS SPECIAL CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER 6094) (FIG. 32). SNAP-ON CLAMP TOOL (NUMBER HPC-20) MAY BE USED FOR LARGER CLAMPS. ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN SERVICING CONSTANT TENSION CLAMPS. CAUTION: A number or letter is stamped into the tongue of constant tension clamps (Fig. 33). If replacement is necessary, use only an original equipment clamp with matching number or letter. 2.5L 4-Cylinder Engine: Be sure that radiator lower hose and heater hose are installed in engine lower mounting bracket (Fig. 38). For all vehicles: In areas where specific routing clamps are not provided, be sure that hoses are positioned with sufficient clearance. Check clearance from exhaust manifolds and pipe, fan blades, drive belts and sway bars. Improperly positioned hoses can be damaged, resulting in coolant loss and engine overheating. Ordinary worm gear type hose clamps (when equipped) can be removed with a straight screwdriver or a hex socket. To prevent damage to hoses or clamps, the hose clamps should be tightened to 4 Nm (34 in. lbs.) torque. Do not over tighten hose clamps.

(2) Using a pair of needle nose pliers, compress draincock body and pull straight out of radiator (Fig. 36).

Fig. 36 Draincock Body Removal


INSTALLATION (1) Install draincock stem loosely into body (Fig. 37). The draincock assembly cannot be installed if stem is threaded into the body.

Fig. 37 Draincock Assembled for Installation


(2) Push draincock assembly into opening in radiator tank. It will snap into place when fully seated. (3) Tighten draincock (clockwise) to 2.0 to 2.7 Nm (18-25 in. lbs.) torque.

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OIL COOLERS


MAIN COOLERIN RADIATOR LOWER TANK The automatic transmission oil is cooled when it passes through a cooler in radiator lower tank (Figs. 39 and 40).
CAUTION: If transmission oil cooler is leaking, engine coolant may enter cooler, or transmission oil may enter engine cooling system. Both engine cooling system and transmission oil circuit should be drained cleaned and inspected. REPLACING MAIN COOLER Vehicles equipped with plastic radiator tanks will require special crimping tools for servicing. The servicing should be performed by a qualified repair facility.

RADIATOR CLEANING The radiator and air conditioning fins should be cleaned when an accumulation of bugs, leaves etc. has occurred. Clean radiator fins are necessary for good heat transfer. With the engine cold, apply cold water and compressed air to the back (engine side) of the radiator to flush the radiator and/or A/C condenser of debris.

COOLING SYSTEM HOSES


Radiator lower hoses are spring-reinforced to prevent collapse from water pump suction at moderate and high engine speeds.

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Fig. 38 Radiator Hoses

Fig. 39 Oil Flow to CoolerTop View


Once repaired or replacement radiator has been installed, fill cooling system and inspect for leaks. Refer to Refilling Cooling System and Testing Cooling System For Leaks sections in this group. If transmission operates properly after repairing leak, drain transmission and torque converter while hot. Remove transmission oil pan and inspect for sludge and/or rust. Inspect for a dirty or plugged inlet filter. If none of these conditions are found, transmission may not require reconditioning. Refer to Group 21 for automatic transmission servicing.

Fig. 40 Transmission Oil Cooler Tube in Radiator Lower TankTypical

AUXILIARY OIL-TO-AIR COOLER Oil-to-air transmission coolers are mounted ahead of radiator. They operate in conjunction with main cooler located in radiator lower tank (Fig. 41). The transmission oil is routed through main cooler in radiator lower tank first. It is then routed through auxiliary cooler before returning to transmission.

COOLING SYSTEM FAN2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE


Models equipped with 2.5L 4-cylinder engines have an electrical cooling fan (Fig. 42). The fan is electrically controlled by the powertrain control module (PCM) through the fan control relay. This relay is lo-

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


The PCM regulates fan operation based on input from the engine coolant temperature sensor and vehicle speed. The fan is not energized during engine cranking regardless of the electrical input from the engine coolant temperature sensor. However, if engine operating conditions warrant fan engagement, the fan will run once engine starts. The fan is energized whenever the engine is running and the air conditioning compressor clutch is engaged. When the air conditioning compressor clutch is disengaged, the fan operates at vehicle speeds above 40 mph. This is done if engine coolant temperature is above 110C (230F). The same is true for vehicles that are not equipped with air conditioning. The fan will turn off when coolant temperature drops to 104C (220F). At speeds below 40 mph, the fan turns on when coolant temperature reaches 99C (210F) and turns off when coolant temperature drops to 93C (200F).

Fig. 41 Transmission Oil Auxiliary CoolerTypical


cated in the power distribution center (PDC) (Fig. 43). For the location of the relay within the PDC, refer to label on PDC cover.

Fig. 42 Electric Fan Motor2.5L EngineTypical

TESTING ELECTRICAL COOLING FAN2.5L ENGINE The powertrain control module (PCM) will enter a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) number 35 in memory if it detects a problem in the electric cooling fan relay or circuit. This will be read as a flashing signal at the instrument panel mounted malfunction indicator lamp (displayed on the instrument panel as the CHECK ENGINE lampfigure 44). Refer to OnBoard Diagnostics in Group 14, Fuel Systems for more information on accessing a DTC. The DTC can also be accessed through the DRB scan tool. Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual for diagnostic information and operation of the DRB scan tool. The cooling fan motor can be tested by applying 12 volts + to the fan motor connector. Disconnect fan motor connector from harness connector. Using 14gage wire and ensuring correct polarity (Fig. 42), connect battery voltage (12 volts) to fan motor connector. If fan operates normally, fan motor is functioning properly. If fan does not operate, replace fan. If motor has signs of being overheated such as melted wire insulation or charred contacts, the system charging voltage may be too high. Refer to Group 8A, Battery/ Starting/Charging System Diagnostics. RADIATOR FAN MOTOR INOPERATIVE Equipment Required: DRB Scan Tool Volt/Ohm meter Wiring Diagrams section of this manual Test Procedure

Fig. 43 Power Distribution Center (PDC)

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES

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Fig. 44 Check Engine Lamp


Test fan by connecting battery voltage to motor connector. Refer to Testing Electrical Cooling Fan 2.5L Engine in this group. If fan operates, perform the following procedure: (1) With ignition switch in OFF position, check for battery voltage at terminal-1 of fan relay connector. Refer to the wiring diagrams section of Group 8W. If battery voltage is present, proceed to step (2) If battery voltage is not present, check the cartridge fuse in the power distribution center (PDC) (Fig. 43). Inspect for an open or short to ground in circuit-C26. Refer to Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams (2) Connect a 14-gauge jumper wire between fan relay connector terminals-(B) and (D). Refer to Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams. If fan operates, proceed to step (3) If fan does not operate, check for an open in circuit-C25. Check this between terminal-(D) of fan relay connector and fan motor connector Start engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. (3) Inspect wire connectors in circuits-C9, C25 and C26 for proper engagement. Refer to the wiring diagrams section of Group 8W. The circuit number appears in front of wire gauge and color description. (4) Connect the DRB Scan Tool (DRB) to the data link connector. The data link connector is located in the engine compartment (Fig. 45). Check on-board diagnostics of powertrain control module (PCM) for diagnostic trouble codes (DTC). Refer to the appropriate Powertrain Diagnostic Procedures manual for DRB scan tool operating instructions. (5) If the DTC, Radiator Fan Relay Circuit is displayed on the DRB screen, proceed to step 6.

Fig. 45 Data Link Connector


(6) With ignition switch in RUN position, test for battery voltage at circuit-C26 connection of fan relay. If voltage reading is correct, proceed to step 7a If voltage is 0-1 volt, proceed to step 7b (7) With the ignition OFF, disconnect the 60-way connector from PCM (Fig. 46). The PCM is located in the engine compartment. Turn ignition switch to ON (RUN) position. Test for battery voltage at cavity-31 of 60-way connector (Fig. 46).

Fig. 46 PCM 60-Way Connector (Terminal End)


If battery voltage is present at cavity-31 and female terminal is not damaged, replace PCM If voltage is 0, repair open or short in circuit-C27. Refer to Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams (8) With ignition off, disconnect 60-way connector from PCM (Fig. 46). The PCM is located inside engine compartment on right fender well. Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Test for battery voltage at circuit-C26 connection of fan relay. If battery voltage is present, replace PCM If voltage reading is 0-1 volt, proceed to step 8 (9) With ignition switch in ON position, test for battery voltage at circuit-C27 connection of fan relay. Refer to Group 8W, Wiring Diagrams.

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES COOLING SYSTEM FAN3.9L/5.2L ENGINE


For additional information, also refer to Viscous Fan Drive in this group.

If battery voltage is present, replace fan relay If voltage reading is 0, repair open or short in circuit-C27 (10) Turn ignition switch off. Connect 60-way connector to PCM. Test system operation.

FAN REMOVAL2.5L ENGINE The fan blade is not repairable. If the fan is bent, warped, cracked or damaged in any way, it must be replaced only with recommended replacement fan. This is done to be sure of adequate strength, performance and safety. (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Disconnect fan motor wire connector. (3) Remove the two fan shroud mounting clips connecting the upper part of fan shroud to the radiator (Fig. 34). (4) Remove fan, shroud and motor from radiator as an assembly. (5) Support fan motor and shaft on a bench. Do not allow fan blades to contact bench. Remove fan retaining clip (Fig. 47).

REMOVAL (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Remove throttle cable at top of fan shroud. (3) Unsnap coolant reserve/overflow tank from fan shroud and lay aside. The tank is held to shroud with T-shaped slots. Do not disconnect hose or drain coolant from tank. (4) The thermal viscous fan drive/fan blade assembly is attached (threaded) to water pump hub shaft (Fig. 48). Remove fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly from water pump by turning mounting nut counterclockwise as viewed from front. Threads on viscous fan drive are RIGHT HAND. A Snap-On 36 MM Fan Wrench (number SP346 from Snap-On Cummins Diesel Tool Set number 2017DSP) can be used. Place a bar or screwdriver between water pump pulley bolts (Fig. 48) to prevent pulley from rotating. Do not attempt to remove fan/viscous fan drive assembly from vehicle at this time.

Fig. 47 Radiator Fan Retaining Clip2.5L Engine Typical


FAN INSTALLATION2.5L ENGINE (1) Position fan on motor shaft. (2) Support motor and shaft on a bench without allowing fan blades to contact bench. This will prevent damage to fan from excessive force. Install fan retaining clip. (3) Install the lower part of fan blade/fan motor assembly into the two pockets located on the radiator lower tank. (4) Install two mounting clips. (5) Connect fan motor wire connector to harness connector. (6) Connect negative battery cable to battery.

Fig. 48 Fan Blade/Viscous Fan Drive3.9L/5.2L Engine


Do not unbolt fan blade assembly (Fig. 48) from viscous fan drive at this time. (5) Remove fan shroud attaching hardware (two bolts at bottom-two clips at top). (6) Remove fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly as a complete unit from vehicle. After removing fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly, do not place viscous fan drive in horizontal position. If stored horizontally, silicone fluid in the

COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


viscous fan drive could drain into its bearing assembly and contaminate lubricant. CAUTION: Do not remove water pump pulley-to-water pump bolts (Fig. 48). This pulley is under spring tension. (7) Remove four bolts securing fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive (Fig. 48).

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INSPECTION The fan blades cannot be repaired. If fan is damaged, it must be replaced. Inspect fan as follows: (1) Remove fan blade and viscous fan drive as an assembly from the engine. Refer to preceding Removal procedure. (2) Remove fan blade assembly from viscous fan drive unit (four bolts). (3) Lay fan on a flat surface with leading edge facing down. With tip of blade touching flat surface, replace fan if clearance between opposite blade and surface is greater than 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Rocking motion of opposite blades should not exceed 2.0 mm (.090 inch). Test all blades in this manner.
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BEND OR STRAIGHTEN FAN BLADES IF FAN IS NOT WITHIN SPECIFICATIONS. (4) Inspect fan assembly for cracks, bends, loose rivets or broken welds. Replace fan if any damage is found. CAUTION: If fan blade assembly is replaced because of mechanical damage, water pump and viscous fan drive should also be inspected. These components could have been damaged due to excessive vibration.

The thermal viscous fan drive (Figs. 48 or 49) is a silicone-fluid-filled coupling used to connect the fan blades to the water pump shaft. The coupling allows the fan to be driven in a normal manner. This is done at low engine speeds while limiting the top speed of the fan to a predetermined maximum level at higher engine speeds. A thermostatic bimetallic spring coil is located on the front face of the viscous fan drive unit (a typical viscous unit is shown in figure 49). This spring coil reacts to the temperature of the radiator discharge air. It engages the viscous fan drive for higher fan speed if the air temperature from the radiator rises above a certain point. Until additional engine cooling is necessary, the fan will remain at a reduced rpm regardless of engine speed.

Fig. 49 Viscous Fan Drive3.9L/5.2L Engine Typical


Only when sufficient heat is present, will the viscous fan drive engage. This is when the air flowing through the radiator core causes a reaction to the bimetallic coil. It then increases fan speed to provide the necessary additional engine cooling. Once the engine has cooled, the radiator discharge temperature will drop. The bimetallic coil again reacts and the fan speed is reduced to the previous disengaged speed. CAUTION: Engines equipped with serpentine drive belts have reverse rotating fans and viscous fan drives. They are marked with the word REVERSE to designate their usage. Installation of the wrong fan or viscous fan drive can result in engine overheating.

INSTALLATION (1) Install fan blade assembly to viscous fan drive. Tighten bolts (Fig. 48) to 23 Nm (17 ft. lbs.) torque. (2) Position fan shroud and fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to vehicle as a complete unit. (3) Install fan shroud. (4) Install fan blade/viscous fan drive assembly to water pump shaft (Fig. 48). (5) Install coolant reserve/overflow tank to fan shroud. Snaps into position. (6) Install throttle cable to fan shroud. (7) Connect negative battery cable.

VISCOUS FAN DRIVE3.9L/5.2L ENGINE


DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION Also refer to the previous section on Cooling System Fan3.9L/5.2L Engine.

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COOLING SYSTEM SERVICE PROCEDURES


105C (0-to-220 F). Insert thermometer through the hole in the shroud. Be sure that there is adequate clearance from the fan blades. (3) Connect a tachometer and an engine ignition timing light (timing light is to be used as a strobe light). (4) Block the air flow through the radiator. Secure a sheet of plastic in front of the radiator (or air conditioner condenser). Use tape at the top to secure the plastic and be sure that the air flow is blocked. (5) Be sure that the air conditioner (if equipped) is turned off. WARNING: USE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN THE ENGINE IS OPERATING. DO NOT STAND IN A DIRECT LINE WITH THE FAN. DO NOT PUT YOUR HANDS NEAR THE PULLEYS, BELTS OR FAN. DO NOT WEAR LOOSE CLOTHING. (6) Start the engine and operate at 2400 rpm. Within ten minutes the air temperature (indicated on the dial thermometer) should be up to 88 C (190 F). Fan drive engagement should have started to occur at between 74 to 82 C (165 to 180 F). Engagement is distinguishable by a definite increase in fan flow noise (roaring). The timing light also will indicate an increase in the speed of the fan. (7) When the air temperature reaches 88 C (190 F), remove the plastic sheet. Fan drive disengagement should have started to occur at between 57 to 79 C (135 to 175 F). A definite decrease of fan flow noise (roaring) should be noticed. If not, replace the defective viscous fan drive unit.

CAUTION: If the viscous fan drive is replaced because of mechanical damage, the cooling fan blades should also be inspected. Inspect for fatigue cracks, loose blades, or loose rivets that could have resulted from excessive vibration. Replace fan blade assembly if any of these conditions are found. Also inspect water pump bearing and shaft assembly for any related damage due to a viscous fan drive malfunction. NOISE It is normal for fan noise to be louder (roaring) when: The underhood temperature is above the engagement point for the viscous drive coupling. This may occur when ambient (outside air temperature) is very high. Engine loads and temperatures are high such as when towing a trailer. Cool silicone fluid within the fan drive unit is being redistributed back to its normal disengaged (warm) position. This can occur during the first 15 seconds to one minute after engine start-up on a cold engine. LEAKS Viscous fan drive operation is not affected by small oil stains near the drive bearing. If leakage appears excessive, replace the fan drive unit. TESTING If the fan assembly free-wheels without drag (the fan blades will revolve more than five turns when spun by hand), replace the fan drive. This spin test must be performed when the engine is cool. For the following test, the cooling system must be in good condition. It also will ensure against excessively high coolant temperature. WARNING: BE SURE THAT THERE IS ADEQUATE FAN BLADE CLEARANCE BEFORE DRILLING. (1) Drill a 3.18-mm (1/8-in) diameter hole in the top center of the fan shroud. (2) Obtain a dial thermometer with an 8 inch stem (or equivalent). It should have a range of -18-to-

VISCOUS FAN DRIVE REMOVAL/ INSTALLATION Refer to the previous section on Cooling System Fan3.9L/5.2L Engine for removal and installation procedures of the viscous drive unit. Viscous Fan Drive Fluid Pump Out Requirement: After installing a new viscous fan drive, bring the engine speed up to approximately 2000 rpm and hold for approximately two minutes. This will ensure proper fluid distribution within the drive.

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS INDEX


page Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engine . . . . . 45 Belt Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Belt Removal/Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

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page Belt Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Belt Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

BELT DIAGNOSIS
V-BELT DIAGNOSIS2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE ONLY Refer to the V-Belt diagnosis chart. SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSISALL ENGINES When diagnosing serpentine drive belts, small cracks that run across ribbed surface of belt from rib to rib (Fig. 1), are considered normal. These are not a reason to replace belt. However, cracks running along a rib (not across) are not normal. Any belt with cracks running along a rib must be replaced (Fig. 1). Also replace belt if it has excessive wear, frayed cords or severe glazing. Refer to the Serpentine Drive Belt Diagnosis charts for further belt diagnosis. Also refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engine, proceeding in this group.

Fig. 1 Serpentine Accessory Drive Belt Wear Patterns


V-BELT DIAGNOSIS2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINECONTINUED

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT DIAGNOSIS3.9L/5.2L ENGINES

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS BELT SCHEMATICS


Models are available with either a 2.5L four-cylinder engine, a 3.9L six-cylinder (V-6) engine or a 5.2L eight-cylinder (V-8) engine. Refer to Figs. 2, 3 or 4 for accessory drive belt routing.

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Fig. 4 Belt Routing3.9L/5.2L Engine


power steering assist, loss of air conditioning capacity, reduced generator output rate and greatly reduced belt life.

Fig. 2 Belt RoutingGenerator, A/C and Power Steering2.5L Engine

2.5L 4-CYLINDER ENGINE ONLY There are different gauges for checking Poly-V serpentine (multi-ribbed) belts and conventional V-belts. Use correct gauge when checking belt tension. Place gauge in middle of section of belt being used to check tension. The gauge can only contact belt or a false reading may result. The edge of belt must be against stops on belt tension gauge. Release gauge handle rapidly for correct reading. Refer to the Belt Tension chart in the Specifications section at end of this group for tension specifications. A belt is considered used after 15 minutes of use. 3.9L/5.2L ENGINE ONLY It is not necessary to adjust belt tension on 3.9L (V-6) or 5.2L (V-8) engine. The engine is equipped with an automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 5). The tensioner maintains correct belt tension at all times. For other tensioner information and removal/installation procedures, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/ 5.2L Engine proceeding in this group. Due to use of this belt tensioner, do not attempt to use a belt tension gauge on 3.9L/5.2L engines.

Fig. 3 Belt RoutingGenerator and Power Steering2.5L Engine

BELT TENSION
ALL ENGINES Correct accessory drive belt tension is required to be sure of optimum performance of belt driven engine accessories. If specified tension is not maintained, belt slippage may cause; engine overheating, lack of

BELT REMOVAL/INSTALLATION
GENERATOR BELT2.5L ENGINE
REMOVAL (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Loosen generator mounting bolt (Fig. 6).

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


(3) Tighten adjusting screw to set belt tension. Refer to the Belt Tension chart in the Specifications section at the end of this group for tension specifications. (4) Connect negative battery cable to battery. Tighten cable terminal bolt to 12 Nm (100 in. lbs.) torque.

AIR CONDITIONING BELT2.5L ENGINE (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Loosen idler bracket pivot screw and locking screws (Fig. 7) to remove or replace air conditioning belt. The lower locking screw must be removed to remove/install belt.

Fig. 5 Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engine


(3) Loosen adjusting screw locknut. (4) Loosen adjusting screw (Fig. 6). (5) Remove belt.

Fig. 7 Air Conditioning Belt2.5L Engine


(3) Use the weld nut on idler bracket to adjust belt tension. Refer to Belt Tension chart in the Specifications section at the end of this group for tension specifications. (4) Tighten locking screws first and then pivot screw to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (5) Connect negative battery cable to battery. Tighten cable terminal bolt to 12 Nm (100 in. lbs.) torque.

Fig. 6 Generator Belt2.5L 4-Cylinder Engine


INSTALLATION (1) Install belt to pulleys. Refer to (Figs. 2 or 3) for 2.5L engine belt routing. (2) Tighten mounting bolt to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.). If pivot bolt was loosened, tighten to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque.

POWER STEERING BELT2.5L ENGINE (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Loosen locking screw (Fig. 8). (3) Loosen pivot bolt (Fig. 8). (4) Loosen pivot nut at rear of power steering pump. (5) Remove or replace power steering belt. (6) The power steering pump adjusting bracket is equipped with a 1/2 inch square hole. Insert a 1/2 inch drive breaker bar into opening and adjust belt

ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS

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Fig. 8 Power Steering Belt2.5L Engine


tension. Refer to the Belt Tension chart in the Specifications section at the end of this group for belt specifications. (7) Tighten lock screw to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (8) Tighten pivot bolt and nut to 54 Nm (40 ft. lbs.) torque. (9) Connect negative battery cable to battery. Tighten cable terminal bolt to 12 Nm (100 in. lbs.) torque.

Fig. 9 Automatic Belt TensionerBelt Removal/ Installation


5.2L engine belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used. (1) Position drive belt over all pulleys except idler pulley. This pulley is located between generator and A/C compressor. (2) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 9). (3) Rotate socket/wrench clockwise. Place belt over idler pulley. Let tensioner rotate back into place. Remove wrench. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. (4) Check belt indexing marks. Refer to the proceeding Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engine for more belt information.

SERPENTINE BELT3.9L/5.2L ENGINE


REMOVAL Drive belts on both 3.9L and 5.2L engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Fig. 9). This belt tensioner will be used on all belt configurations, such as with or without power steering or air conditioning. For more information, refer to Automatic Belt Tensioner3.9L/5.2L Engines, proceeding in this group. (1) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 9). (2) Rotate tensioner assembly clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (3) Remove belt from idler pulley first. (4) Remove belt from vehicle. INSTALLATION CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 4) for correct 3.9L/

AUTOMATIC BELT TENSIONER3.9L/5.2L ENGINE


Drive belts on both 3.9L and 5.2L engines are equipped with a spring loaded automatic belt tensioner (Figs. 9 and 10). This belt tensioner will be used with all belt configurations. Such as with or without power steering or air conditioning. The tensioner is equipped with an indexing arrow (Fig. 10) on back of tensioner and an indexing mark on tensioner housing. If a new belt is being installed, arrow must be within approximately 3 mm (1/8 in.) of indexing mark (Point BFig. 10). Belt is considered new if it has been used 15 minutes or less. If this specification cannot be met, check for: The wrong belt being installed (incorrect length/ width)

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE BELTS


(6) Remove ignition coil from coil mounting bracket (two bolts). Do not remove coil mounting bracket from cylinder head. (7) Remove tensioner assembly from mounting bracket (one nut) (Fig. 10). WARNING: BECAUSE OF HIGH SPRING PRESSURE, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO DISASSEMBLE AUTOMATIC TENSIONER. UNIT IS SERVICED AS AN ASSEMBLY (EXCEPT FOR PULLEY). (8) Remove pulley bolt. Remove pulley from tensioner.

INSTALLATION (1) Install pulley and pulley bolt to tensioner. Tighten bolt to 61 Nm (45 ft. lbs.). (2) Install tensioner assembly to mounting bracket. An indexing tab is located on back of tensioner. Align this tab to slot in mounting bracket. Tighten nut to 67 Nm (50 ft. lbs.). (3) Connect all wiring to ignition coil. (4) Install coil to coil bracket. If nuts and bolts are used to secure coil to coil bracket, tighten to 11 Nm (100 in. lbs.) torque. If coil mounting bracket has been tapped for coil mounting bolts, tighten bolts to 5 Nm (50 in. lbs.) torque.

Fig. 10 Automatic Belt Tensioner/Pulley Assembly 3.9L/5.2L Engine


Worn bearings on an engine accessory (A/C compressor, power steering pump, water pump, idler pulley or generator) A pulley on an engine accessory being loose Misalignment of an engine accessory Belt incorrectly routed. Refer to (Fig. 4) A used belt should be replaced if tensioner indexing arrow has moved beyond point A (Fig. 10).

CAUTION: To prevent damage to coil case, coil mounting bolts must be torqued. (5) Position drive belt over all pulleys except idler pulley (located between generator and A/C compressor). CAUTION: When installing serpentine accessory drive belt, belt must be routed correctly. If not, engine may overheat due to water pump rotating in wrong direction. Refer to (Fig. 4) for correct 3.9L/ 5.2L engine belt routing. The correct belt with correct length must be used (6) Attach a socket/wrench to pulley mounting bolt of automatic tensioner (Fig. 9). (7) Rotate socket/wrench clockwise. Place belt over idler pulley. Let tensioner rotate back into place. Remove wrench. Be sure belt is properly seated on all pulleys. (8) Check belt indexing marks.

REMOVAL (1) Attach a socket/wrench to mounting bolt of automatic tensioner pulley bolt (Fig. 9). (2) Rotate tensioner assembly clockwise (as viewed from front) until tension has been relieved from belt. (3) Remove belt from idler pulley first. (4) Remove belt from other pulleys. (5) Disconnect wiring and secondary cable from ignition coil.

ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS ENGINE BLOCK HEATERS GENERAL INFORMATION


DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION An optional engine block heater is available with for all models. The heater is equipped with a power cord. The cord is attached to an engine compartment component with tie-straps. The heater warms the engine providing easier engine starting and faster warm-up in low temperatures. The heater is mounted in a core hole of the engine cylinder block in place of a freeze plug with the heating element immersed in engine coolant. Connect power cord to a grounded 110-120 volt AC electrical outlet with a grounded, three wire extension cord.
WARNING: DO NOT OPERATE ENGINE UNLESS BLOCK HEATER CORD HAS BEEN DISCONNECTED FROM POWER SOURCE AND SECURED IN PLACE. THE POWER CORD MUST BE SECURED IN ITS RETAINING CLIPS AND ROUTED AWAY FROM EXHAUST MANIFOLDS AND MOVING PARTS.

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REMOVAL (1) Disconnect negative battery cable from battery. (2) Drain coolant from radiator and cylinder block. Refer to Draining Cooling System in this group. (3) Remove power cord from block heater (Fig. 1). (4) Loosen screw at center of block heater. Remove heater assembly. INSTALLATION (1) Thoroughly clean cylinder block core hole and block heater seat. (2) Insert block heater assembly with element loop pointing down. (3) With block heater fully seated, tighten center screw to 2 Nm (17 in. lbs.) torque. (4) Fill cooling system with recommended coolant. Refer to Filling Cooling System section in this group. (5) Start and warm the engine. Check for leaks.

Fig. 1 Block Heater Removal/Installation

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COOLING SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following specifications are published from the latest information available at the time of publication. If anything differs between the specifications found on the Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI) label and the following specifications, use specifications on VECI label. The VECI label is located in the engine compartment. Refer to Group 25, Emission System for more information on the VECI label.

TORQUE

COOLANT CAPACITIES

ACCESSORY DRIVE BELT TENSION