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NATIONAL JUNIOR COLLEGE

PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

2011 NJC Prelim Paper 2 suggested solutions 1 a) The unit of energy is Joule, which is derived from the unit of force multiplied by the unit of displacement in the direction of force. The unit of moment is Nm, which is derived by the unit of force multiplied by the displacement from the pivot to the line of action of the force. Hence, although Joule and Nm are dimensionally consistent, the definition of each quantity used to define the 2 units is different. This is similar to a homogeneous equation may not be physically correct. It is invalid as 2 quantities which are dimensionally consistent could be physically incorrect. Hence, the units of BC may not be the same as that A-D, which is required if the equation were to be homogeneous. Now A-D = 0.02 and the uncertainty of (A-D) can be 0.02. Hence, the fractional uncertainty is 100% ! Hence unreliable. (a) Using Vy = Uy + ayt: At max height, Vy = 0. 0 = 30 sin 60o (9.81) t t = 2.648 s (b) Uy = 30 sin 60o = 25.9 ms-1 = 26 ms-1 i) V/ms-1

b) c) 2 a)

b) c)

30
26

20
15

10
2.65 3.05

5.3

t/s 6.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

-10
-11

-20

-30

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

ii) Vertical distance a apart = Area of the shaded region = x 2.65 x 26 x 1.53x 15 + x 1.2 x 11 = 34.45 11.48 +6.16 = 29.13 m d)

V/ms-1 30
26

20

10
5.3 2.24

t/s 4.0 5.0 6.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

3 a)

P/Pa 26000

f 6500

0.10

0.40

V/m3

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

Using

PV = nRT P1 (0.10) = (1) (8.31) (273+40), P1 = 26 000 Pa Since temperature is constant in process 1, P1V1= P2V2 (26 000) (0.1) = P2 (0.4), P2 = 6500 Pa

b)

Process 1 is a isothermal process, therefore there is no change in temperature (T = 0) Since for ideal monoatomic gas, U = 3/2 nRT Therefore U = 0 J (No change in temperature) Net work done by gas = 3610 (0.4-0.1)(6500) = 1660 J For cyclic process, U = 0. Hence for the entire cycle, using First Law of Thermodynamics, U = q + w 0 = q + (-1660) Net heat supplied to the system, q = 1660 J Hence net heat lost = -1660 J

c) d)

4 a)

= tan 1

8 1 1 1010 r= cos

G (1.40 10 30 ) g= r2
Resultant field strength =

G (1.40 10 30 ) 2 = 3.56 x 10-3 Nkg-1 2 r

b)

g=

v2 r

3.56 10 3 =

v2 1 1010

v = 5970 ms-1
c)

Into the plane of paper / Out of the plane of paper / Perpendicular to the plane of paper

5 a)

Photoelectric effect is the phenomenon whereby electrons are emitted from a metal surface when electromagnetic radiation is incident on it.

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

b)

Evidence provided by photoelectric effect supporting the particle nature of light are as follows. (1) Existence of a threshold frequency, the minimum frequency below which there will be no photoelectric effect, regardless of the intensity and the time duration over which the light is incident. (2) No time delay in the emission of photoelectrons even when light intensity is very low (3) Maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is independent of light intensity but dependent on the frequency of light.

c)

Work function energy of the metal. Work function energy is the minimum energy required for an electron to escape from the surface of the metal. This is because only those electrons at the surface of the metal will possess maximum kinetic energy when they are ejected. Those that lie deeper from the surface will lose kinetic energy as they collide with the metal ions on their way out.

d)

6 a)

k=

8 2 ( 6.64 10 27 )( 3.51 1.36 ) 10 12 = 1.60 x 1015 2 h

T exp 2k 3.58 10 15 = 1.05 10-5


b)

1 mv 2 = 1.36 10 12 2

v=

2 1.36 10 12 = 2.02 10 7 ms-1 27 6.64 10

c)

(i)

Time taken =

18.02 10 15 = 9.01 x 10-22 s 2 10 7

(ii)
d) e) 7

f =

1 = 1.11 10 21 22 9.01 10
= 2.72 x 106 s-1

Probability = 2.47 10 15 1.1 10 21 Decay constant = 2.72 x 106 s-1

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

a)i) a)ii)

a)ii)

Advantage : Tc will form into a stable nuclide that is harmless to the body. Disadvantage: Along the decay series, alpha particles are also emitted. They have high ionizing power which can cause radiation burns/radiation sickness/mutation of cells.

b)

t / 104 s 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 20.0

C / 1016 s-1 3.75 2.05 1.05 0.70 0.50 0.45 0.45

C / 1016 s-1
3.3 1.6 0.6 0.25 0.05 0 0

ln (C/ s-1)
38.0 37.3 36.3 35.5 33.8

---

where c is count rate after taking into account background radiation.


b)i)

Count rate: It is the number of radiations per unit time detected by a GM tube. It is normally less than the activity given its limited surface area to capture all the activity
6

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

Activity: It is the number of nuclear disintegrations of a radioactive source per unit time.
ii)

The count rate is constant as all the technetium isotope has disintegrated and only a constant background radiation is recorded by the GM tube. C = C0 exp (-t) ln C = ln C0 - t Plot ln C against t where gradient = - and vertical intercept = ln C0
ln C x 1016 agst t
2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 -0.50 -1.00 -1.50 -2.00 -2.50 y = -0.5118x + 1.4013 -3.00 -3.50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

iii)

[state 1m]

Using the coordinates (8.2 x 104, 34.0) and (2.0 x 104, 37.15), gradient = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) = -5.08 x 10-5 -----for those who draw best fit line for 5 points (tolerance: 4.5 to 5.5 ) = -4.26 x 10-5 -----for those who draw best fit line for 4 points & take 1 anomaly Therefore, decay constant = - = 5.08 x 10-5 s-1 A = N N = 7.143 x 1013 Mass of P = (32 u )(7.143 x 1013) = 3.79 x 10-12 kg

c)

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

Description

1. Diagram A a.Ripple tank with dipper is shown b. the depth of the water (d) clearly shown in the diagram. c. the use of video camera/camera (with a scale can be found in procedure) on the clear tank or any appropriate instrument to measure the wavelength of the wave. d. Correct position of plane or single dipper, frequency generator, light source. OR *stroboscope light with frequency control

2. Variables Independent Variable: depth of water in a water tank. Dependent Variable: speed of water wave in the water tank. Control Variables: - Plane or single dipper. - Amplitude of oscillations. - Fixed distance of camera to water tank. - Fixed frequency. 3. Measurement a) Pour a fixed amount of water into the tank. Measure the depth using a vernier caliper/meter rule/ meter rule. Record the depth as d in metre. Plastic 30 cm rule not accepted. b) Measurement of Method 1: Tape a measuring tape along the length of the clear tank. Use the video/camera to capture multiple photo of the water wave together with the measuring tape. Measure the wavelength of the wave (crest to crest). Record as in metre. Method 2: Use the stroboscope light and adjust the frequency till the wave pattern appears stationary. Measure one bright fringe to the next bright fringe distance using a meter rule. Method 3: Use a camera to take a top view of the wave pattern. The tank has to be illuminated with light and a measuring tape must be placed horizontally along the length of the tank. Measure one bright fringe to the next bright fringe distance using a meter rule.

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PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

c) Vary the depth by adding water into the tank with the use of a measuring cylinder. Repeat the experiment for various values of d and f. Collect 10 sets of readings. d) Using equation v = f to calculate v using f and obtained from the experiment. 4.Analysis A table which contains values of f, , d, v (= f) is recorded. A graph of v vs d is then plotted. If a straight line is obtained, the gradient of the line is determined. The validity of the relation can be verified by checking if the gradient of the line drawn equals to g.

5. Precaution - Clean up any water spillage with a cloth immediately as due care must be taken when handling water with the electrical circuit nearby. - Any reasonable precaution with details. 6. Additional Details - Start the experiment with small amplitude to avoid splashing. - Repeat the experiment twice for each set of experiment. Take the average to reduce the random error. - When using photographs/ digital pictures for measuring the wavelength, zoom in to the smallest detail possible. - When using photographs/ digital pictures for measuring the wavelength, take multiple photos at an instance. Measure the wavelength and take the average. - Any reasonable detail.

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