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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Yaser Anwar Pathan Reg.: 1052-412001 EMBA

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PRESTON UNIVERSITY
EMBA Program

DISTANCE LEARNING ASSIGNMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS
Quarter: Fall 2012, Deadline for Submission of Assignment: November 5, 2012
Attempt all questions given below. Your answers should not be copied, word-for-word, from the textbook. You may use the terms, concepts, examples from the textbook, but these must be written as your own, independent expression.

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Briefly explain the three theories of communication suggested by Mary Munter. Explain the psychological, semantic and physical barriers to communication. Write the most common pitfalls of the following channels of communication: a. Downward Communication b. Upward Communication c. Lateral Communication d. Writing Communication What are four Cs of character traits? With the help of a model, provide a brief description of each. Describe techniques of motivating your audience. What is the difference between thinking and structuring? What three guidelines should underline the thinking process? What is feedback? What are the keys to giving and receiving the feedback effectively? Analyze the elements of nonverbal communication Write a note on the structure of a presentation. What are the task functions and process functions of chairing a meeting? Explain.

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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. a) b) c) d) 4. 5. Briefly explain the three theories of communication suggested by Mary Munter. ...............................................4 Explain the psychological, semantic and physical barriers to communication. ....................................................7 Write the most common pitfalls of the following channels of communication: ................................................. 13 Downward Communication ................................................................................................................................ 13 Upward Communication ..................................................................................................................................... 13 Lateral Communication ...................................................................................................................................... 13 Writing Communication ..................................................................................................................................... 13 What are four Cs of character traits? With the help of a model, provide a brief description of each. ............... 19 Describe techniques of motivating your audience. ............................................................................................. 22

6. What is the difference between thinking and structuring? What three guidelines should underline the thinking process? ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26 7. 8. 9. 10. What is feedback? What are the keys to giving and receiving the feedback effectively? ................................... 30 Analyze the elements of nonverbal communication ........................................................................................... 34 Write a note on the structure of a presentation. .................................................................................................. 39 What are the task functions and process functions of chairing a meeting? Explain. ...................................... 42

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1. Briefly explain the three theories of communication suggested by Mary Munter.


Communication is defined as: 1. The process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behaviour. Lehman, Carol M., William C. Himstreet, and Wayne Murlin Baty. Business Communications. 11th ed. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing, 1996.

2. The process of sharing by which messages produce responses. Bentley, Maree. Mary Munters Business Communication Strategy and Skill. Singapore: Prentice Hall, 1991. There are three basic theories of Communication Electronic Theory Social Theory Rhetorical Theory

Electronic Theory: Electronic theory is very famous for the transmission of the messages from one place to another place. This theory describes the technical way of sending message from sender to receiver. The concept of electronic theory is based on the electronic language of the computer. In order to send message to some party there is a complete process which should be followed in order makes the communication good and informative. It starts with the information source from where the message originate and then it is changed into electronic signals. The message contains of words, number and character in the electronic and computer readable form. The message is then communicated through any channel. Sometimes the messages get mixed up with some words or noise which makes message doubtful for the reader. In order to make the communication clear and understandable, try to avoid these barriers. So noise is considered as the barrier for the communication. The electronic theory is very beneficial because it provides the concept of sender and receiver and makes it in a systematical way. The electronic theory always stress on the accuracy of communication between sender and receiver. It is possible to make an error- free electronic communication system. But when we talk about the human communication systems it has many problems.

Message Communicator (As Sender) Audience (As Receiver) Page 4 of 45

Writer / Communicator / Speaker

Message into Words & Sentences

Transmitted As Signal

Message May get Distorted

Listener / Reader / Audience decodes Message

Merits: o Introduces the ideas of Senders & receivers and of possible interference o It emphasizes on accuracy

Demerits: o It is dependent on machines o It is pre-occupied with accuracy and hence ignore other important dimension like situation o Accurate electronic communication system can be design but not a human one

Social Theory: Some business scholars say that not only relying on the electronic theory one must consider the social environment theory which deals with the social behavior of human beings and their environment. So social factors plays an important role in the communication of messages, they help sending messages from one place to another. Many people are working together in an environment where they interact with each other on daily basis. Every person has some role in any certain environment it may be possible while working in an environment as the manager he should talk with his friends and colleagues with a different perspective. Social factors should be considered so that the communication should be according the situation and culture of our society.

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So many things should be noticed when communication to each other whether you are communication officially or just within the family and friends. In order to take care of social factors, many things such as role of person, status, environment where communications to other person should be considered. If you write wrong letter to the wrong time then it is difficult to achieve its objectives so these should be carefully taken into consideration. So the influence of social factors plays an important role in the communication process.

Message Communicator (As Sender) Audience (As Receiver)

Within a certain Environment

Merits: o It include the Social Enviorment Demerits: o It doesnt take into account the response of the audience

Rhetorical Theory

Rhetorical theory is a way in which persuasion can be used successfully. If you find that you are readying a speech or an article which is trying to persuade you of something, you can be sure that there is going to be much rhetorical theory within the piece without you even realizing it. It included different emotions, questions, facts and figures, moving language, hard hitting information and many other techniques which are going to make the audience think and understand where the writer or where the speaker is coming from.

The most common use of rhetorical theory is used within political speeches. Here you will find that the speaker is going to be used a certain tone of voice, is going to be asking the audience
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questions and then answering them and using emotional factors to ensure that they have the attention of the audience and that they are making them think. You can be sure that you will have sat and watched a speech on TV and thought abut the questions that they speaker was saying. You are not expected to answer them but you are expecting to think abut them and then take the speakers point of view on the subject. Also used within articles which are written to persuade and many different adverts, you are going to find that there are examples of rhetorical theory. It is more popular than ever and it is a technique which has been used to for many years to ensure that different arguments can be understood by the audiences. If you are trying to write something that includes the study of rhetorical theory you will find that it is going to be a lot easier than you first thought and that you are not going to have as much difficulties as you imagined, it is a natural persuasion that we use, but heightened for maximum effect.

Message

Communicator

Audience

Responce

Within a certain Environment

2. Explain the psychological, semantic and physical barriers to communication.


Psychological barriers:

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Because of the changing world, everyone has his own concept of reality. Also, human beings, sensory perceptions - touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste are limited, and each person's mental filter is unique. In our daily interaction with others, we make various abstractions, inferences and evaluations of the world around us.

Emotional Barriers One possible psychological block is emotional, you may be emotionally block is you are announcing a new policy you may become popular or unpopular , First mayor presentation, Writing someone you dislike, Other may feel hostile

Perception of Reality The perceptual problem is that people think differently

Abstracting Selecting some details and omitting others is a process called abstracting. On many occasions abstracting is necessary. However, you should be cautious about "slanted" statements. Differences in abstracting take place not only when persons describe events but also when they describe people and objects. Slanting is unfair in factual reporting. When presenting some particular facts, you include your own biased ideas into it, you make slanting statement. Try not to let personal preferences affect your factual reporting of information

Inferring Conclusions made by reasoning from evidence are called inferences. We make assumptions and draw conclusions even though we are not able to immediately verify the evidence. Some inferences are both necessary and desirable; others are risky, even dangerous.

Necessary Inferences

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When we reach a foreign country, we are sure that we will be treated politely. When we post a letter, we infer that it will reach its destination. Conclusions we make about things we have not observed directly can often be against our wishes Psychological barriers refer to an individuals state of mind. For example if an individual is suffering from personal issues such as health or marital problems this is most likely to affect them. Psychological barriers are closely linked to emotional barriers; emotional barriers play an important role in the communication of a message. An example of this maybe when receiving a message you cannot properly interpret the message because you are emotionally blocked at the moment in time. Reasons why you may be emotionally blocked are due to internal issues such as fear, worry, suspicion and mistrust.

Semantic barriers : A basic principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to communicate messages must have the same meaning in both the sender's and receiver's minds. You can never be sure that the message in your mind will be clearly sent to your receiver. The world is full with errors, as a result of differences in semantic (meaning) understanding Lack of Common Language Poor vocabulary Use of Jargons Poor Grammar and Punctuation Symbols with different meaning Lack of clarity in the message

Semantic Barriers most of the difficulties in communication arise because the same word or symbol means different things to different individuals. Perhaps you remember what happened to Shiny Abraham at the 1986 Asian Games at Seoul. Despite coming first by a very wide margin in the 800 m. Race, she was disqualified and lost her gold medal for having crossed the track at the place where she should not have gone. According to her she mistook the symbol, i.e., the

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color of the flag. Whereas in our country the red flag indicates danger, in South Korea white flag is used for the same purpose. Misinterpreting the white flag which had been put up at that point, she crossed the track at the wrong place and suffered a setback. Words, which are in reality symbols representing a thing, an action or a feeling, can have several meanings. As explained earlier, words which represent concrete things, e.g., car or house, tend to be understood in the same way, while abstract words like merit, effectiveness or responsibility, tend to be interpreted by different persons in different ways. Difficulty in understanding may arise even in the case of ordinary words which have different contextual meanings. Lately such difficulties are being experienced increasingly by people working in international development field. One such problem arose in interpreting the meaning of the word 'steps'. In a training program of health workers relating to the family health in Jamaica when a question "What are some of the steps that a mother should take to make sure that her baby keeps healthy ?" was asked, it was found that there was no response to it. The trainees who were accustomed to only one meaning of the word 'steps' based on their experience, could not just make any sense of the question. Semantic difficulty may arise because of unfamiliarity with words. For example, because of a word of some foreign language of which the receiver has no knowledge. A technical word may not create such a problem - it may be beyond the ability of the receiver to understand it. In order to make it effective, a communication must be put into words which are appropriate to the environment and mental framework of the receiver. This ensures the communication to be grasped properly and implemented effectively. A very interesting example of a communication made effective by the use of words appropriate to the environment in which they were used is provided by the following incident that took place in one of the agricultural states of the USA.A proposal for raising the salaries of the faculty members of an agricultural college was under discussion. The farmers' block was totally against giving the raise to the college teachers - they could not see why they should pay those college teachers $5000 a year just for talking 12 to 15 hours a week Faculty representatives made no headway in their negotiations until one of them who had some farming experience, got an inspiration."Gentlemen", he told the members of the administrative body, "a college teacher is a little like a bull. It's not the amount of time he spends. It's the importance of what he does!"Semantic barrier may further be created by body language being inconsistent with the verbal communication. A manager who praises the honesty and sincerity of

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his or her subordinate in a sarcastic tone creates doubts in the minds of the subordinate as to the course of action he or she should adopt in a given situation in future. The same kind of barrier is created by a divergence between the verbal language and the action language of the superiors. When action and language are used jointly the actions often have more powerful influence on other's actions than words do. A management may, for example, profess its belief in being guided solely by the merit of employees while making promotions. Yet if employees observe that in actual practice promotions are made on considerations other than merit, the management's professed policy is bound to be affected by a semantic barrier - it is not likely to communicate anything, only the actions will communicate and what they communicate will be contrary to what had been said in so many words.

Physical Barriers: Physical barriers for communication can be simple things like other conversations around you, time limits and even noise from traffic outside. There are many physical barriers for all kinds of communication within a business, whether that's text, oral, or over the telephone, Businesses will do everything they can to ensure that their employees and colleagues do not experience any kind of communication barrier, given that communication really is the key to a company being successful. Communication does not consist of words alone. Another set of barriers is caused by your own physical appearance, your audience, or the context of the document or the presentation. Your ideas, however good and however skillfully imparted, are at the mercy of various potential physical barriers.

Physical appearance of communicator, the context of the document or the presentation. Illegible documents, jammed margins, faulty typing, unclear photocopies all are physical barriers. Other physical blocks include mumbling, speaking too fast, distracting gestures, noise inside the room such a ringing telephones etc or outside the building such as traffic or airplanes.

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Your message may be blocked because people in your audience are uncomfortable; they cannot hear because of bad sound system and cannot see because of inadequate lighting

For writing, there is a whole barrage of possible physical blocks. No matter how well you write it, for example, a document may be illegible for various reasons: jammed or jagged margins, fingerprints or smudges, a faulty typewriter ribbon, unclear photocopies, unreadable wordprocessor printout, water or coffee spots, or messy corrections. Another set of physical barriers might be caused by the paper itself: a poor quality of stationery, for example, or inappropriate use of cheap stationery when a glossy printed brochure might be needed to imply prestige, or inappropriate use of a glossy brochure when a simple photocopy might be needed to imply haste. I hope this answer will provide you all the information you required.

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3. Write the most common pitfalls of the following channels of communication:


a) b) c) d) Downward Communication Upward Communication Lateral Communication Writing Communication

An organization has to design the direction of communication flow to ensure uniformity in dissemination of information and to establish accountability. This direction is designed to channelize the flow of communication either from top to bottom, bottom to top or on same hierarchical levels .This flow is called the direction of communication Downward Communication

The downward communication flows down from top level to bottom of the organizational hierarchy and carries message from higher authority to lower and down below. ( eg: Managing Director to manager)

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Advantages Helps to explain to the subordinate the organizational plans policies programs etc.. Helps to convey to the subordinate the expectation of management from them Act as a means to control the activities of the subordinates with active feedback Provides motivation to the subordinates to the workers to excel their performance

Disadvantages 1. Distortion: As downward communication follows the formal chain of command information passes through the chain from top to bottom. Thus there is chance of distortion of the massage when it reaches to the ultimate users.

2. Lack of feedback: Usually downward communication does not allow immediate feedback, which can reduce the efficiency of communication.

3. Time consuming: As information flows orderly step by step so the process becomes time consuming.

4. Negative impact on morale: Long process, time consuming and lack of feedback creates negative impact on the morale of employees.

5. Not suitable for motivation: Due to over dependence on formal channels downward communication is not suitable for motivating employees.

6. Lack of interpretation: Instructions are available in downward communication but due to lack of feedback necessary interpretation may not be achieved in time.

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Upward Communication Upward communication is just the reverse of the downward communication. It flow upward from a subordinates to the supervisor through middle managerial levels along the line. Upward communication is flowing messages from lower level to higher level (e.g. ; salesman to manager , manager to managing director).

Advantages It helps in coordinating the activities of different at same level Mutual trust and understandings Solves interdepartmental problems Cooperation

Disadvantages 1. Reluctance: In some cases employees are reluctant to provide information through upward channel. 2. Non-cooperative attitude: Non-cooperative attitude to the executives damage the willingness of the employees to initiate upward communication. 3. Chance of distortion:
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Downward communication can be distorted unconsciously but in case of upward communication information can be distorted deliberately. 4. Trend to by-pass: Another side effect of upward communication is tendency of by passing the immediate boss, can be created among the employees. 5. Delay: Sometimes lower level employees hesitate to inform a problem upward because doing so means acceptance of failure. Thus delays may take place to decide whether to inform the top management or try further to solve the problem. Lateral Communication

Lateral or Horizontal communication refers to the flow of information and idea between person at the same hierarchical level either of the same or other department or division.

Advantages It helps in coordinating the activities of different at same level Mutual trust and understandings Solves interdepartmental problems Cooperation

Disadvantages specialization Physical barriers Lack of motivation

Due to the fact both departments may be of equal powers decisions are hard to come to
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Nobody has the overall say and final decision It can cause in-house fighting if differing opinions boil over

Lack of control: Sometimes too much horizontal communication creates problem for the management and controlling may become difficult as the horizontal communication increases, Due to the fact both departments may be of equal powers decisions are hard to come to

Conflict: By passing the vertical channel horizontal communication allows the employees to communicate freely but sometimes it leads to personal conflict, It can cause in-house fighting if differing opinions boil over

Time consuming: Communication in addition to vertical instruction may delay the implementation of decision, One department may always have to check with another department before pushing anything through

Lack of discipline: As strict rules are not followed organizational discipline also can be hampered in horizontal communication, Nobody has the overall say and final decision

Horizontal communication not only increases the level of coordination but also facilitates the task of motivation.

Writing Communication

Written communication is a formal act and need to be performed in a systematic manner. Communication experts follow a three (3) steps approach for improving the effectiveness of written communication. This approach is known as plan-write-revise approach.
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1. No-immediate feedback: The basic limitation of written communication is it has no immediate feedback.

2. Time consuming: As written communication prepared by maintaining formality, thus it is time consuming also.

3. Costly: Another major disadvantage of written communication is, it is costly. It includes cost of paper, printing, and postage.

4. Formality: There are some formalities in written communication; as a result it is a lengthy process.

5. Indirectness: In case of written communication another problem is lack of directness. As sender and receiver are not in a same place sometimes misunderstanding may occur.

6. Lack of correction facilities: In case of written communication there is no immediate scope for correction. It takes long time and long process to make correction if there is any mistake.

Besides these, written communication also becomes meaningless for illiterate people. It cannot be understood by the people of other language.

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4. What are four Cs of character traits? With the help of a model, provide a brief description of each.
Four Cs is the model, and the way to analyze the character traits of the people with whom you will be working in business. These typical business character traits are described along two dimensions. The first dimension involves people who are interested in changing the status quo (either to achieve results or to accomplish a dream) versus those who believe in keeping things the way they are now (either through maintaining current procedures or through mainlining their group affiliation). The second dimension involves people who tend to work alone (either carefully or competitively) versus people who tend to work in a group (either coward change or toward maintaining the status quo). Four Cs (Brief Intro) Lets imagine a typical business communication situation. You have been asked to write a report that includes research on whats been done in the past, and recommendations about what to do in the future. Lets say you have finished your research: you know what has been done and you have some ideas about the future. You sit down to write. Naturally, since you took a course in business communication, you analyze your audience first. Here are four different cases illustrating how you might report exactly the same information each of four bosses.

The Comptroller The Crusader The Collaborator The Commander

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Tends to Work Alone

To Accomplish Results Through Procedure

Comptroller

Commander

Maintains Status Quo

Changes Status Quo

Collaborator

Crusader

Through Affiliation

To Accomplish Dreams

Tends to Work with a Group

Four Cs Model : Business Personality Traits


The Comptroller: Your boss is what you would call bureaucratic preferring to work alone and carefully. She is very consistent, and you have noticed she likes facts and statistics. She is not a mover and a

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shake infect, she is slow to decide and doesnt seem to like change. To motivate her write in a matter-of-fact tone. Incorporate a good deal of information including methods and data. Instead of just stating one conclusion, of various options and your conclusion from them. Emphasize tradition, process and system. As per Four Cs, she will be categorized the comptroller

The Crusader: Your boss is enthusiastic, idealistic, a cheerleader almost. He is creative and is eager to change things based on his ideals. Because of his great enthusiasms, he is sometimes prejudiced., he will be categorized as The crusader , To persuade a crusader, an enthusiastic and informative tone. Emphasize how your ideas tie his ideals or dreams. Because he is motivated by ideas, you might include many points of view and a lot of information. Remember, crusader will be persuaded by the value of the idea itself.

The Collaborator: You hate to use such a clich, but you think of your boss as a real people person. He almost always works as part of a team. He does not like to make decisions to change things, and will avoid conflict d risk. These kinds of bosses are categorized as the collaborator. To persuade a collaborator, adopt a trusting and nonthreatening tone. As you would for the crusader, you might include various options, but since collaborator s less interested in ideas themselves, you would avoid detailed, enthusiastic explanations you might use testimonies from people you know he respects or back up your argument with statements from the organizational policies and goals you know he agrees with

The commander: Your boss is the quintessential business person. She likes action and results, and bases decisions for change on results, not ideals. She is decisive and efficient sometimes, alas, even domineering. She is categorized as the commander. To persuade her, adopt an efficient and results-oriented tone. Here you might prefer a short summary for mat, stating your own conclusions and recommendations clearly. Since commanders are motivated by results and power, emphasize the outcome the ompany as well as whats in it for them

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5. Describe techniques of motivating your audience.


Once you have taken your audience inventory, you need to figure out how best to motivate the people youve just analyzed. Some of the concepts have already discussed will make you more persuasive. You should to try increase your credibility You should also try to structure your message persuasively. So, keeping in mind that persuasion includes the environment, the communicator, and the message, we will now look specifically at a fourth aspect of persuasion: psychological techniques for motivating your audience. Understanding psychological theories of motivation is just as important for your success in business as understanding internal-combustion theories is for a car mechanic. Without a theory, neither of you could keep things running or fix them when they break down. And, like the car mechanic, you will apply theoretical background in practical, down-to- earth situations. However, you will find that people are more complex and unpredictable than cars. So, then, lets enter this discussion of psychological theories not as students might in a psychology course to learn the concepts but rather as potential business communicators should to apply the concepts. We will consider. what theorists believe to be live techniques for motivating people: (1) Punish or reward them; (2) Appeal to their growth needs; (3) use peoples need for balance; (4) Perform a cost/benefit analysis, and (5) Be sensitive to character traits. . Punish or reward them.

Many people believe they will be able to influence people in business especially their subordinatesby using threats and punishment. Certainly, threats and punishment are one way of motivating people, but this method is more limited than you might initially guess. Researcher Wailer R. Nord has found six reasons why threats may not work. Lets look at them in a business situation. Imagine one of your employees spends too much time talking on the phone to friends during the work day. So you write him a memo or call him in for an interview and say: If you dont stop talking on the phone with friends, Ill fire you. Your threat may work only when you are actually watching over your employees actions. Therefore, his compliance will be sporadic; since you cant possibly watch him all the time. Threats may get rid of one response (in this case, talking to friends on the phone). but not produce the desired response (such as getting more work accomplished). Threats may stop the inappropriate action even when it is appropriate: he might stop talking in friendly ways to customers, not just to friends.
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Threats produce tension, making the work place less pleasant and productive in general. Threats tend to make people dislike you. This may make it hard for you to enlist your employees support on your next new project or to help him improve his performance. Threats provoke counter aggression. Feeling that your orders and nagging reduce his freedom, he may respond by asserting his freedom in other ways: Ill come in l ate from lunch today because my boss is so unfair!

So, although sometimes they are clearly necessary, use threats and punishment with caution. Instead, consider using rewards as a way to change behavior. Many psychologists would argue that rewards, or what they call positive reinforcement, are the most effective way to shape behavior. Rewarding certain behaviors is an extremely powerful way to get the response you want. You are likely to be successful if your rewards include these following four characteristics. First, they must be important to the person who is being rewarded. Some people might react to group acceptance, some to money, and others to recognition of achievement. Second, rewards must be appropriate and sincere. A special lunch would be so much of a reward for a staff member who typed a letter successfully or a customer who placed one order, on the other hand, a mere Thanks is too little of a reward for a staff member who completed a terrific job on a three-month projector for your largest annual customer. Third, effective rewards must be immediate. If you wait to recognize achievements, your recognition wont be as effective in getting people to repeat the behaviors you want. Finally, remember that rewards dont have to be elegant. Plaques, pens, and trophies are fine, but the research shows that even simple verbal recognition is an effective reward.

Appeal to their growth need Given the overwhelming evidence that positive reinforcement is a powerful agent for influencing people, so how to reward effectively , when people think of rewards they think of tangible items , such as , more moneyor a big office. For rewards part , one powerful theory id by Maslows need hierarchy and Herzberg , who have identified two needs that motivate people Maslows Need Hierarchy Personal Growth Self Esteem Group Affiliation Safety Survival Herzbergs Research Work Itself (Achievement) Advancement (Recognition) Working Relationships Working conditions Safety

Growth Needs Deficiency Needs

Deficiency needs are needs without which we cannot survive such as food, water, sleep, and shelter. Growth needs, on the other hand, are needs that enhance our lives such as affiliation, esteem, accomplishment, and advancement.

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Herzbergs research, then, shows that the growth needs re the positive motivators. He cites pride in achievement, recognition by others, enjoyment of the work Itself, and responsibility as important persuasion factors. Herzbergs findings have been extended by much subsequent research. Weger, for example, found that money was not the most important motivator for supervisors recognition, achievement, and interpersonal relations were all more important. What all this research bodes for business communication is this: if you want to motivate someone with rewards, consider the extraordinary persuasive power of the growth needs. For example, if you are trying to get people to work together to devise a new plan, you might appeal to their esteem or recognition needs by pointing out how much you value their suggestions; Use peoples need for balance; Using growth needs can be even more effective if you couple the ideas underlying them with balance theory. According to proponents of this theory: (1) People prefer a Slate of psychological balance (called consistency, or equilibrium, or freedom from anxiety); (2) When they hear ideas conflicting with chat they already believe, people lose that slate of balance and feel anxiety; and (3) When they feel anxiety, people attempt to restore their sense of balance. First point is very clear , whereas for 2nd points relates to be belief of people ,for example, they think they are good writers and you tell them their sentences are unclear; they think they did a great job on an oral presentation and you tell them their visual aids are incomprehensible; Notice that in these examples, the new information conflicts with important beliefs. If, on the other hand, people hear conflicting new information that doesnt threaten their sell-concept or belief system if they learn, for example. that Rewi is farther west than Los Angeles. The third step .according to this theory is restoring equilibrium. You should be aware that your audience may do so in any one of three ways. They may resist or deny the new information. Possible audience reaction is to devalue the information, thinking something along these lines: If you have been successful, your audience will neither resist nor devalue the new idea; instead they will accept it and establish a new equilibrium How can you use people need for balance to get them to accept your idea? One way is to emphasize an anxiety or a problem they have that is causing them imbalance, then offer a solution that will make them feel balanced.In summary, dont underestimate people need for balance. Beware of how this need may block your good ideas; consider using balance theory techniques to improve your persuasiveness. -

Perform a cost/benefit analysis: Another way of thinking about what motivates people is to apply economic ideas to psychology .Just like money, goods, and services, behavior can be offered for exchange. The communicator (like a seller) and the audience (like a buyer) rake into account both the cost and, the benefit of
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the behavior. Therefore, a strong benefit will motivate your audience, and a high cost may have the opposite effect. In essence, the communicator performs a cost/benefit analysis. For example, imagine you have a great plan for a new advertising brochure. The benefit seems obvious to you: your company will sell more of its product. The costs, however, might include time and money to print the new brochure, the waste throwing away all the old brochures, hurting the feelings of the person who designed the old brochure, and additional time and bother for your boss even to consider the idea when the old brochure has seemed to work well enough not to mention simple inertia. Using this approach, you might try the following three tactics to increase your persuasiveness. (1) Analyze both the costs and the benefits of the idea itself. Many of us tend to look only at the potential benefits without thinking of the potential disadvantages. Perhaps you should not even send the message. (2) Analyze both the costs and the benefits for your audience. Again, many times we see just the potential rewards for ourselves without thinking about the potential costs for our readers or listeners. (3) Specify the benefits your audience will gain. Too often, we assume people will see the benefits, when we should make a conscious effort to emphasize whats in it for them. Therefore, in addition to considering the techniques weve examined so far (all of which suggest ways to motivate people in general), effective communicators must take into account persuasion techniques that might apply to their individual audience members specifically Be sensitive to character traits. The point is that different people are convinced by different things. And, just as engineers use electrical theory to predict how machines work, communicators must use psychological theory to predict how people work. Effective communicators analyze what will motivate the people with whom they are communicating. There are many ways to go about this analysis. Instead of discussing all the possible personality theories, it would be more useful, to analyze the the character traits of the people with whom you will be working in business. These typical business character traits are described along two dimensions. The first dimension involves people who are interested in changing the status quo (either to achieve results or to accomplish a dream) versus those who believe in keeping things the way they are now (either through maintaining current procedures or through maintaing their group affiliation). The second dimension involves people who tend to work alone (either carefully or competitively) versus people who tend to work in a group (either coward change or toward maintaining the status quo). Four kind of different people are there in markets The Comptroller : The Crusader The Collaborator The Commander

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6. What is the difference between thinking and structuring? What three guidelines should underline the thinking process?
The process of thinking through ideas, then, is different from the process of structuring those ideas. When you think, you work through a hodgepodge of data. Being disorganized during this stage is perfectly natural. When you communicate, however, you dont simply present that hodgepodge of data. Instead, you stress your conclusion and order your data.

In business communication, too many people simply write or speak in the order that ideas occur to themnot in the order that would be most persuasive. Thinking and structuring a communication are two different processes. When you think, naturally, all different kinds of ideas occur to yousome good some bad, some complete, some fragmented. The result of the thinking process is your conclusion. When you communicate, on the other hand, you dont want your audience to have to wade through all the false starts and disjointed ideas you went through; instead, you want to structure your ideas to make your conclusions clear.

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So in simple words , while thinking you brainstorm , and there are lots of ideas coming to your mind , to present those ideas , you need to structure them , so that they can serve the better purpose, we here go for example to explain the difference easily. As a simple example, imagine that you got this note from the moderator of a student committee on which you were serving: We have to reserve the rooms for the Speakers Series through Office Services at least two weeks in advance. Im worried about getting all the speakers on the agenda by then. We also need to print up posters announcing whos speaking. Will you take care of these arrangements? Dont forget that the poster should include the room numbers, too.

If that message would be message would be structured , how much it would be easy to collect all the required information, like this Just wanted to remind you about the three arrangements you agreed to handle for the Speakers Series: 1. Invite the speakers and set the time. 2. Reserve the rooms by November 15. 3. Print up the posters (including the names of the speakers, the Limes, and the room numbers) for distribution by December 1.)

Thinking Process:

The thinking process may be compared to an assembly line. Your assumptions, which form the basis for your thinking, are like assumptions about what will be produced: we will manufacture cars; we will manufacture toothbrushes; we will manufacture fuzzy wallpaper, by making the choice of assumptions you need to change entire assembly line , for the fact , you have gathered are like the raw materials: we have steel; we have plastic; we have wood. You also can see how a change in available facts must influence what it is you can manufacture or think. Drawing valid conclusions is like setting up the assembly line correctly. You wouldnt want it to be upside-down or on the ceiling, just like you wouldnt want to think incorrectly. Finally, avoiding

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logical defects is like having the assembly line workers watch for defective products and toss them off the line. As you are thinking, then, remember to: (1) Be aware of your assumptions (What should you be manufacturing?); (2) Draw valid conclusions (Construct that conveyor belt properly); and (3) Avoid logical defects (Get rid of defective products)

Be aware of your assumptions: In business communication you make assumptions. Assumptions are the basis for all the rest of your thinking, as example, this program will increase our profits assumes you want to make a profit. In this letter, Im going to try to calm down this irate customer assumes that you dont want your Customers to be angry., these statements look obvious and non controversial, but what if long-term community relations are more important than short-term profits or you may have to ignore one angry customer (or the sake of twenty-five happy customers who need your attention first. So in these cases your assumptions need to be testified , that Ill have to prove my assumption, or My audience clearly disagrees with the assumption. Either Ill have to convince them, or I should save this idea for later.

Draw valid conclusions: How do you draw conclusions? Only two valid methods exist: deduction or induction. Deduction means starting with a main principle or assumption, applying it to a specific case, and drawing a conclusion. You start with a main principle, such as Business communication is important; apply a specific case, such as Writing is a part of business communication; and come up with a conclusion, Therefore, writing is important. As you can see, in deduction its crucial that your main principle be correct. if you started with an incorrect main principle, such as Accounting is unimportant in business, then youd have to conclude (logically, but not truthfully), Balance sheets are unimportant., for deduction it is how you think, not how you communicate. If you were communicating, you would show the results of your deduction: Whereas other valid way to draw conclusions is by induction, Induction means starting with specifics and generalizing to a main principle. In induction, its crucial that your specifics be

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reliable, relevant, and representative. You start with a series of specifics, such as Ill be spending a lot of time in business participating in meetings. Although induction and deduction are two different (and opposite) procedures, in practice we often combine them. We cannot gather specifics without some organizing principle; we cannot choose relevant main principles without some knowledge of specific problems or issues. The point is you must use valid reasoning as you think through your ideas. Assumptions and facts are what you start out with when youre thinking; conclusions are what you end up with. If you assume it will be sunny tomorrow, you may conclude, Ill go to the beach and Sit in the sun. if you observe various facts (the sky is cloudy; the wind is blowing; the temperature is dropping), you may conclude, 1 wont go to the beach because a rainstorm is coming.

Avoid logical defects: Logical defects can be avoid by remembering three main rules. (1) One defect resulting from a breach of this rule is called hasty generalization, or jumping to a conclusion based on too little evidence. (2) Another kind of jump is called drawing false causes. This happens when you jump to the conclusion that event 1 caused event 2 simply because event 1 preceded event 2. To counter the 2nd point it is necessary to take in consideration of these point, dont hide your ideas themselves and dont hide behind illogical false ideas. (i) Avoid hiding questionable assumptions. (ii) Avoid hiding the main point by .skirting the issue. Skirting the issue means evading the main point by focusing on a minor point. (iii) Avoid hiding from a false analogy. False analogies assume that because something is like something else in some way, the two must be alike in other ways. (iv) Avoid hiding behind exaggerations, or exaggerating the point. This defect occurs when you argue by extending an idea to such extremes that it appears ridiculous. (v) Avoid hiding behind irrelevant attacks (on the person, not the idea) or popular appeals (to a general truism instead of the specific case). (3) Dont oversimplify, (i) Avoid the either / or defect. This occurs when you set up two alternatives and do not allow any others. (ii) Avoid the catchall explanation. This oversimplification occurs when you isolate one factor and treat it as if it were the sole cause.

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7. What is feedback? What are the keys to giving and receiving the feedback effectively?
Receivers are not just passive absorbers of messages; they receive the message and respond to them. This response of a receiver to senders message is called Feedback. Feedback is your audiences response; it enables you to evaluate the effectiveness of your message. If your audience doesnt understand what you mean, you can tell by the response and then refine the message accordingly. Giving your audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial for maintaining an open communication climate. The manager must create an environment that encourages feedback. For example after explaining the job to the subordinated he must ask them whether they have understood it or not. He should ask questions like Do you understand?, Do you have any doubts? etc. At the same time he must allow his subordinated to express their views also. Sometimes a feedback could be a non-verbal smiles, sighs etc. Sometimes it is oral, as when you react to a colleagues ideas with questions or comments. Feedback can also be written like replying to an e-mail, etc.

Feedback skills are crucial for your success in any business organization. By learning how to give good feedback you may lighten your own work load by reducing the time wasted by misunderstanding repetitions, and unnecessary corrections. You may also create a more pleasant work environment by reducing needless unwanted or inappropriate behavior. Finally, if you learn to give feedback now, then later on when you are promoted to supervisor you will be able to give more effective performance appraisals to your employees. By learning how to receive feedback, you will gain three additional benefits. First, you will be more effective, because you will have more information. Second, you will gain understanding of the several ways n which you come across to various people. Finally, you may find that others are more likely to accept your feedback if you are willing to accept theirs All in all, effective feedback skills will allow you to do a more effective job, increase group participation, and maintain better working relationships.

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Keys to giving and receiving the feedback effectively In working through the appraisal process, appraisers and appraises are continually receiving and giving feedback. Whether communicated explicitly (through oral or written language) or implicitly (through gestures or tone of voice), feedback conveys information about behaviors and practices and offers an evaluation of their quality. Although it is easy to take feedback personally, participants in the process should strive to perceive all feedback as a learning opportunity. Feedback can reinforce existing strengths, keep goal-directed behavior on course, clarify the effects of behavior, and increase the recipients ability to detect and remedy errors independently. Both appraisers and appraises can use the tips below to learn to receive and give feedback more effectively

Giving Effective Feedback

Prioritize your ideas and understand their value. Limit your feedback to the most important issues. Consider the potential value of the feedback to the receiver. Consider how you yourself would respond to such feedback (would you be able to act on it?). Remember also that receiving too much feedback at one time can be overwhelming for the recipient. Concentrate on the behavior, not the person. One strategy is to open by stating the behavior in question, then to describe how you feel about it, and to end by stating what you want. This model enables you to avoid sounding accusatory and to focus on behaviors rather than on your assumptions about or interpretations of the behaviors. Example: I havent seen you at our super intendency meetings lately. Im worried that you are missing important information. Can we meet soon to discuss it? Instead of: You obviously dont think our super intendancy meetings are important! Balance the content. Use the sandwich approach. Begin by providing comments on specific strengths, to give reinforcement and identify things the recipient should keep doing. Then identify specific areas for improvement and ways to make changes. Conclude with a positive comment. This model helps to bolster the recipients confidence and keeps weaker areas in perspective. Example: Your presentation was great. You made good eye contact and were well prepared. You were a little hard to hear at the back of the room, but with some practice you can
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overcome this. Keep up the good work! Instead of:You didnt speak loudly enough, but otherwise the presentation went well.3 Be specific. Avoid general comments that may be of limited use to the receiver. Try to include examples to illustrate your statements. Remember, too, that offering alternatives rather than just giving advice allows the receiver to decide what to do with your feedback. Be realistic. Feedback should focus on what can be changed. It is frustrating for recipients to get comments on things over which they have no control. Also, remember to avoid using the words always and never. Peoples behaviour is rarely that consistent. Own the feedback. When offering evaluative comments, use the pronoun I rather than they or one, which would imply that your opinion is universally agreed on. Remember that the feedback you provide is merely your opinion. Be timely. Find an appropriate time to

communicate your feedback. Being prompt is key because feedback loses its impact if it is delayed too long. Delayed feedback can also cause feelings of guilt and resentment in the recipient, if the opportunity for improvement has passed. Also, if your feedback is primarily negative, take time to prepare what you will say or write. Offer continuing support. Feedback should be a continuous process, not a one-time event. After offering feedback, make a conscious effort to follow up. Let recipients know you are available if they have questions and, if appropriate, ask for another opportunity to provide more feedback in the future.

Receiving Feedback Effectively:

Listen to the feedback given. This means not interrupting. Hear the person out, and listen to what they are really saying, not what you assume they are going say. You can absorb more information if you are concentrating on listening and understanding than if you are being defensive and focusing on your response. Be aware of your non-verbal responses. Your body language and tone of voice can speak louder than words. Looking distracted and bored sends a negative message and can create

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unnecessary barriers. Attentiveness, on the other hand, indicates that you value what someone has to say, and puts both of you at ease. Be open. This means being receptive to new ideas and different opinions. Often, there is more than one way of doing something, and other people may have a completely different viewpoint on a topic. Remain open, and you may learn something worthwhile. Understand the message. Make sure you understand what is being said to you, especially before responding to the feedback. Ask questions for clarification, if necessary. Listen actively by repeating key points so that you know you have interpreted the feedback correctly. In a group environment, ask for others feedback before responding. As well, when possible, be explicit beforehand about the kind of feedback you are seeking, so you are not taken by surprise. Reflect and decide what to do. Assess the value of the feedback and the consequences of using it or ignoring it, and then decide what you want to do. Your response is your choice. If, after careful consideration, you decide that you disagree with the feedback, you might ask for a second opinion from someone else. Follow up. There are many ways to follow up on feedback. Sometimes, your follow-up will simply be to implement the suggestions youve been given. In other situations, you might want to set up another meeting to discuss the feedback or to submit revised work.

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8. Analyze the elements of nonverbal communication


Communication is generally defined as has having both a verbal and nonverbal component. Whereas verbal communication often refers to the words we use in communication, nonverbal communication refers to communication that is produced by some means other than words (eye contact, body language, or vocal cues, for example) The five primary functions of Nonverbal Behavior are: 1. Expression of Emotion emotions are expressed mainly through the face, body, and voice. 2. Communication of Interpersonal Attitudes the establishment and maintenance of relationships if often done through nonverbal signals (tone of voice, gaze, touch, etc.). 3. Accompany and Support Speech vocalization and nonverbal behaviors are synchronized with speech in conversation (nodding ones head or using phrases like uhhuh when another is talking). 4. Self-Presentation presenting oneself to another through nonverbal attributes like appearance. 5. Rituals the use of greetings, handshakes or other rituals.

Whereas in the course book, only 04 were discussed namely Body, voice, space and last one is surrounding. Today, many researchers are concerned with the information sent by communication that is independent of and different from verbal information; namely, the non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is organized by language; is not. Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. Most of us spend about 75 percent of our waking hours communicating our knowledge, thoughts, and ideas to others. However, most of us fail to realize that a great deal of our communication is of a nonverbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep. In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously. If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous, the flow of communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives.

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Physical appearance Appearance messages are generally the first nonverbal messages received and can be used to develop judgments about people based on how they look, what they wear, and their level of attractiveness, among other things. Physical attractiveness impacts how people perceive others as similar to themselves and is used to evaluate credibility and general attractiveness. Posture First major influence on the initial impression you make. Your posture indicates your confidence, your openness & your attitude. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange Gesture Second aspect of body language is movement and gesture. People use gesture to back up what they are saying. One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic. Gestures and postures are frequent and continuous movements of the body that reflect individual thought processes and regulate communication. For body language to be interpreted as positive and genuine, it is important that it appear to be natural. Individuals stand erect and walk with shoulders back and stomach in. This helps communicate a message of self-confidence, awareness, and enthusiasm. Facial & Eyes Third aspect of body language is expressing through face and eyes. Face and eyes are the most expressive part of the body. The most important non-verbal channel for expressing attitudes and emotions to other people is the face. Researchers have attempted to categorize facial expressions that express emotion and typically agree on six: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust/contempt whereas other researchers added frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.Eye contact regulates conversation and signals the exchange of speaker and listener roles. It is occurs during 1030% of the conversation. Eye contact is used to acknowledge or avoid the presence of others and can reveal information about attitudes, emotion, dominance and power in social relationships. When there are breakdowns in conversation it may be because the people conversing have different patterns of eye contact (which can be a result of differing cultural backgrounds). When individuals respond with their eyes they allow others to have a sense of their emotional state and can increase feelings of communication satisfaction Voice Vocal Cues that accompany Speech (Paralanguage) Vocal cues include intonation, voice quality and vocal emphasis and that can enhance verbal meaning. Laughing and crying are also considered vocal cues. These cues may reveal an emotional state, attitudes towards others, social class, or origin. Individuals may exercise dominance with a loud projecting voice and indicate submission by using a lower, softer pitch. When communicating verbally it is important to ensure that the paralanguage aligns with the verbal messages it accompanies. Researchers have found that the tone, pitch, quality of voice, and rate of speaking convey emotions that can
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be accurately judged regardless of the content of the message. The important thing to gain from this is that the voice is important, not just as the conveyor of the message, but as a complement to the message. As a communicator you should be sensitive to the influence of tone, pitch, and quality of your voice on the interpretation of your message by the receiver. While communicating through voice it is recommended to take care of the following items. Variation in volume, rate & pitch that make you sound more expressive. Speak with the correct rate and enunciation Enunciate clearly, clear articulation means not running your words together Avoid distracting overuse of filler words, filler words are vocalized pauses such as uh, hm,er and ya know.

Environment How do you arrange the objects in your environment - the desks, chairs, tables, and bookcases? The design of your office, according to researchers, can greatly affect the communications within it. Some managers divide their offices into personal and impersonal areas. This can improve the communication process if the areas are used for the purposes intended. Your pecking-order in the organization is frequently determined by such things as the size of your desk, square feet in your office, number of windows in the office, quality of the carpet, and type of paintings (originals or copies) on the wall. It is obvious that your personal space and environment affect the level of your comfort and your status and facilitate or hinder the communication process. Personal Space Personal space is your "bubble" - the space you place between yourself and others. This invisible boundary becomes apparent only when someone bumps or tries to enter your bubble.How you identify your personal space and use the environment in which you find yourself influences your ability to send or receive messages. How close do you stand to the one with whom you are communicating? Where do you sit in the room? How do you position yourself with respect to others at a meeting? All of these things affect your level of comfort, and the level of comfort of those receiving your message. Gold haber says there are three basic principles that summarize the use of personal space in an organization: The higher your position (status) in the organization, (a) the more and better space you will have, (b) the better protected your territory will be, and (c) the easier it will be to invade the territory of lower-status personnel. The impact of use of space on the communication process is related directly to the environment in which the space is maintained.

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Kinesics Lamb believes the best way to access an executive's managerial potential is not to listen to what he has to say, but to observe what he does when he is saying it. He calls this new behavioral science "movement analysis." Some of the movements and gestures he has analyzed follow: Forward and Backward Movements. If you extend a hand straight forward during an interview or tend to lean forward, Lamb considers you to be an "operator"- good for an organization requiring an infusion of energy or dramatic change of course. Vertical Movements. If you tend to draw yourself up to your tallest during the handshake, Lamb considers you to be a "presenter." You are a master at selling yourself or the organization in which you are employed. Side-to-Side Movements. If you take a lot of space while talking by moving your arms about, you are a good informer and good listener. You are best suited for an organization seeking a better sense of direction. Lamb believes there is a relationship between positioning of the body and movements of the limbs and facial expressions. He has observed harmony between the two. On the other hand, if certain gestures are rehearsed, such as those made to impress others, there is a tendency to separate the posture and the movements. The harmony disappears. Space around you Distance / Standing: Distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.The most influential thinker on this subject, has identified four zones of space , determined by the distance between people: (1) public space (over twelve feet), typical of standing in a lobby, (2) social space (four to twelve feet), typical of conversing with a stranger, (3) personal space (eighteen inches to four feet), typical of conversing with friends, and (4) intimate space (zero to eighteen inches), typical of comforting. In addition to guessing relationships, you can often infer peoples status by noting the distances between them. Seating: ` Status is indicated also by seating arrangements. If you find yourself spending an inordinate amount of time worrying about seating at a meeting, remember that at the Paris Peace Talks of 1968, it took eight months to reach agreement on seating arrangements. Researchers have even come up with a label for seating behavior: small-group ecology. Primarily, that we seat ourselves in a position to dominate or avoid conversation Physical Contact / Touch: Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.
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Can be breaks touching into five categories ( I) functional professionaltouching to perform a task or service, as by a dentist with a patient; (2) social/politetouching to affirm the other persons identity as part of the species or culture, as with a handshake; (3) friendship/warmthtouching to affirm the other persons identity as a unique friend, as with a hug; (4) love/intimacytouching to express emotional attachment or attraction, as by a full embrace or a hand on the cheek; and (5) sexual arousaltouching to affirm emotional attachment through physical intimacy Tactile Communication Communication through touch is obviously non-verbal. Used properly it can create a more direct message than dozens of words; used improperly it can build barriers and cause mistrust. You can easily invade someone's space through this type of communication. If it is used reciprocally, it indicates solidarity; if not used reciprocally, it tends to indicate differences in status. Touch not only facilitates the sending of the message, but the emotional impact of the message as well.

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9. Write a note on the structure of a presentation.

Presentations need to be very straightforward and logical. It is important that you avoid complex structures and focus on the need to explain and discuss your work clearly. An ideal structure for a presentation includes:

a welcoming and informative introduction (Opening) a coherent series of main points presented in a logical sequence

Limit Your Main Points Making your main Ideas Stand Out

a lucid and purposeful conclusion (Closing)

Whereas it is necessary to take care of the following points while structuring presentation. Limit your main points Limiting your points will give you a better chance of accomplishing your objective. Speakers very often commit this error of overwhelming their audience with information. For most presentations however, you will want to differentiate between your thought process and what you have decided to communicate. As example, say you had to explain a very complicated 17 step process for running a machine. You could categorize and limit the steps to three subsets within the process: starting the machine, running the machine, and shutting down the machine. The audience will easily remember the main points, and then can use those main points to recall some or all of the smaller points. They will feel panicked if asked to remember all 17 points at once. Making your main Ideas Stand Out After filtering the main points, make sure each stands out. For this purpose, it is recommended to add preview, A preview is an agenda, an outline, an idea of where you are going with your presentation. One of the most common problems in business presentations is having too many main points. An equally common problem is lack of a preview. Always state a preview explicitly

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before you begin discussing your main points. In any situation, the point of the preview is to give your audience a skeleton, a very general outline, of what you will be discussing. Use an effective opening and closing. The main differences between writing and speaking have to do with openings and closings. When you speak, you neither start nor finish as quickly as you do when you write. What sounds natural in writing sounds abrupt in speaking. OPENING: The opening is the point at which the presenter explains the content and purpose of the presentation. This is a vitally important part of your talk as you will need to gain the audiences interest and confidence. Key elements of an effective introduction include:

a positive start: Good afternoon, my name is Adam and ; a statement of what will be discussed: I am going to explore ; a statement of the treatment to be applied to the topic (e.g. to compare, contrast, evaluate, describe): I will be comparing the four main principles of ;

a statement of the outcomes of the presentation: I hope this will provide us with ; a statement of what the audience will need to do (e.g. when they can ask questions or whether or not they will need to take notes): I will pass round a handout that summarizes my presentation before taking questions at the end.

An effective presentation opening consists of what many speech experts call a grabber. The word grabber is meant to imply that you must grab your audiences attention before you start in on your main points. Think about your listeners, sitting out there in the audience. humor in business communication is tricky. Besides not offending or discrediting anyone in your audience, dont put yourself down. Use humor in small doses & should be related to the topic or the occasion. You should aim to deliver your introduction confidently (wait until the audience is quiet before you start speaking) and communicate energy and enthusiasm for your topic.

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Audiences interest in one of two effective ways: by referring to the unusual or referring to the familiar. Referring to the unusual gains audience attention by telling people something they did not know, to arouse their curiosity. Referring to the familiar gains audience attention by tying into something your listeners already know; you appeal to your understanding of them rather than to their curiosity. CLOSING: The closing is an essential though frequently underdeveloped section of a presentation. This is the stage at which you can summaries the content and purpose of your talk, offer an overview of what has been achieved and make a lasting impact. Important elements of a conclusion are:

a review of the topic and purpose of your presentation: In this presentation I wanted to explore ;

a statement of the conclusions or recommendations to be drawn from your work:I hope to have been able to show that the effect of ....;

an indication of the next stages (what might be done to take this work further?):This does of course highlight the need for further research in the area of ;

an instruction as to what happens next (questions, discussion or group work?): I would now like to give you the opportunity to ask questions ;

a thank you to the audience for their attention and participation: Thats all I have time for. Thank you very much for listening.

As with your introduction, you should try to address the audience directly during your conclusion, consolidating the impression of a confident and useful presentation.. Audience is most likely to remember your first and last words. During in the end part of presentation try saying So, in conclusion... or To summarize, then . .. It is recommended to close with a reference to your opening:

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10. What are the task functions and process functions of chairing a meeting? Explain.

The chairperson is the most important person in the meeting. He or she will set the pace for the meeting, make sure that people stick to the topics, ensure that democratic decisions are taken, and that everyone is on board with these decisions. Chairing is a great skill and it is important to teach members to chair meetings and rotate the job where possible so that more people can practice this skill. However, it is always good to have an experienced chairperson for important meetings. A good chairperson is an active chairperson; it is not the chairpersons job to simply keep a list of speakers and to let them speak one after the other. The chairperson should introduce the topic clearly and guide the discussion especially when people start repeating points. When a discussion throws up opposing views, the chairperson should also try to summaries the different positions and where possible, propose a way forward. The way forward can involve taking a vote on an issue, having a further discussion at another date, or making a compromise that most people may agree with. The chairperson should ask for agreement from the meeting on the way forward, and apologies to those who still wanted to speak. Here are the basic steps for chairing a meeting:

The Chairperson opens the meeting and presents the agenda. S/he should start a meeting by setting a cut-off time when everyone agrees that the meeting should end. This helps to encourage people to be brief. S/he calls on individuals to introduce or lead the discussion of points on the agenda and gives everyone a chance to speak. S/he also ensures that no one dominates discussion. S/he should try to summaries the discussion clearly restating ideas and proposals put forward. However, there is no need to repeat everything that has been said. S/he must be able to get agreement on what the decision is s/he must ensure that everyone understands the decision, delegates to someone the duty of carrying out the decision, ensures that the person given the responsibility knows what s/he has to do and when it should be done and reported on. S/he ensures that everyone takes part in the discussions and decision-making. S/he ensures that the date for the next meeting is always set at the meeting.

Chairing a meeting involves two very different kinds of skills. One set of skills has to do with the task that is, the goal at hand. The other set of skills is usually referred to as running the processthat is, getting people to participate. Task Functions: The task functions for the leader to take care of include: deciding what tasks you are going to try to accomplish, deciding how you are going to discuss issues, and deciding how you are going to reach a decision. To decide what tasks will be covered, the chair must-prepare an agenda.
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Open the meeting and welcome everyone. Then go through the agenda step by step. Those present and apologies: The apologies of those members not able to attend the meeting are recorded as part of the minutes. Send round an attendance register if there are too many people to just record it in the minutes. Ask if there are any apologies from people who are not there. Minutes: Minutes are accurate notes of what is discussed and decided on at meetings. Make sure that the minutes of the previous meeting are circulated to everyone or at least read at the beginning of the meeting. (See section on writing minutes) Minutes must be adopted at the beginning of a meeting. Give people a chance to read the minutes or read them out aloud. Everyone must agree that they are an accurate record of the last meeting. Members must be given the chance to add where item/points might have been left out. Matters arising from the minutes: This covers points that were discussed at the last meeting, when perhaps someone was asked to do some work or there have been subsequent developments, which now need discussion. A list of these points is drawn from the previous meetings minutes. Correspondence: This means all the letters that have been received by the organisation since the last meeting. They can be dealt with in different ways. If your group does not receive many letters, they could be read out and then discussed. Another way is for the secretary to list them with a brief explanation. The chairperson then goes through the list and suggests action. If the issue raised in the letter needs decisive action it can be more fully discussed. Other items on the agenda: Someone must introduce each item on the agenda. The item introduced could be either a discussion or a report.

If it is a discussion someone is given the job of leading the discussion and making proposals on that particular item. If it is a report, the person who is reporting should comment on the following: Was it a task that was completed, what were the problems and what still needs to be done? (Issue, facts, options, proposal see guide on inputs and verbal reports) Discussion should be to examine a problem or discuss an issue in more detail get everyones ideas and points of view on it, arrive at a decision, delegate responsibility for the completion of the task, and follow-up to ensure that it is completed. Meeting Procedures All members should know meeting procedures. There are a number of points that people use in meetings to ensure that the meetings run smoothly. Often members use these points to assist the chairperson. The following are procedural points most used in meetings: Point of Order: It should be used when a member feels that the meeting procedure is not being stuck to and s/he wants the meeting to return to the correct procedure or order. For example, when an individual is speaking totally off the point, another member might ask on a point of order for the speaker to stick to the agenda.
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Point of Information: A member may raise their hand and ask to make point of information (or request information) when it is not his or her turn to speak. This can enable a member to speak (by putting up his/her hand and asking to speak) when it is not his/her turn to request more information on the matter being discussed, or to give more information on a point being discussed. Out of Order: When an individual is not sticking to meeting procedure, being rude, interjecting or misbehaving in some way, the chairperson might rule him/her out of order. Protection: A speaker who is being harassed when he/she is speaking can ask for the protection of the Chairperson. Quorums: This is the minimum number of people who must be present for the meeting to conduct business and take decisions. This minimum number is stated in the organizations constitution. The meeting cannot start until there is a quorum. Always ensure that you have this minimum number of people at a meeting, especially when decisions must be taken. If you do not, and decisions are taken, members who were not present can request that it is re-discussed, meaning that time was wasted.

All these points are called meeting rules or procedures, which are there to try to make meetings more efficient and effective. They should not be over-used just for the sake of it. Ways to take decisions in meetings Decisions are usually reached through two main ways:

Consensus

This means reaching decisions by discussion and general agreement.

Voting

People vote for a particular proposal. Usually one person will put forward a proposal, someone else will second it and then people will vote. If the majority of people accept the proposal, it then becomes binding on the organization. Voting can either be done by a show of hands or secret ballot.

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Show of hand The Chairperson would call for a show of hand when there is a difference of opinion amongst members when a decision needs to be reached. S/he will call on members to raise their hands to show their support for or against a proposal. These votes are then counted majority would then ensure that the proposal stands or falls away. Secret ballot Each person would be given a piece of paper where s/he would write whether s/he supports a particular proposal or not. The votes would be counted and the majority would ensure that the proposal stands or falls away. It is usually better to reach consensus than to vote. Reaching consensus often means that there are compromises from everyone but it ensures that most people feel part of the decision. Sometimes a vote does need to be taken, for example in elections or when the meeting cannot reach a decision through consensus. Resolutions These are formal proposals put forward to the meeting, for people to agree or disagree with. If some disagree, they are voted on. If passed, they become resolutions and therefore policy of the organization. There should be a proposer and seconder of each resolution. Resolutions are a clear way to set out the policies and decisions of an organization. Usually a resolution has three parts to it: We start the resolution by saying that, List the main issues that you are concerned about. Resolution will then list the points that show your understanding of the issue and its causes What your organization has decided to do or what its policy should be on the issue

Amendments may need to be made to resolutions, and these should be accepted by everyone present. If there is not total agreement on an amendment, a vote should be held and the chairperson should record the votes of those for, and those against, the amendment, as well as those abstaining. If the majority support the amendment it stands and the original section of the resolution falls away. The Chairperson and members must study the constitution of the organization to make sure they know and understand all these procedures.

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