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OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE

NEWNES' LIBRARY OF

THE APPLIED ARTS

Plate

(Frontispiece).

:^
EARLY ENGLISH CARVED OAK BEDSTEAD.
{At the School of Art Needlework, South Kensington^

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


B

TJREDERICKd TE'NlSr &B.1VrJDLIE

LIMITED ISTEWNES GEORGE iffraud: Wf C Woumampfan


J'l'reeR

XO N D O K

CHAILI/BS SCBLlBNEBlS SONS

Architeo+.-nre

GIFT

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
vii
i

List of Illustrations
I.

Introduction

II.

Oak Furniture

III.

The Walnut Wood Period


The Introduction of Mahogany
Inlaid

IV.

V.
VI.

Mahogany and Satinwood

.... ....
.

23
35 53

Painted Furniture
Chairs and Sofas
List of Books of Reference

69
71

VII.

84
85

Index

663

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PLATE
I.

TO FACE PAGE
Early English carved-oak bedstead
Frontispiece
. .

II.

III.

Oak Oak

dining- or side-table.
dining-table.

IV.

Early chest
Early chest
or

V.

Tudor Period Tudor Period with " linen-fold " carving and old lock with " linen-fold " carving. Henry VII
.

Henry VIII. Period


table.

....

VI.

Plain oak Yorkshire dower-chest with drawers

VII.

Large oak gate-leg

Stuart Period

VIII.

Six-legged, six-sided oak table.

Tudor Period
Seventeenth century
lo

IX.

Small oak gate-leg table.

Stuart Period

X.
XI.

Round oak club-footed table. Small oblong oak table

XII.
XIII.

XIV.

Oak press. Sixteenth century Oak panelling from Sizergh Castle Oak cabinet inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
.

Stuart

Period
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.

Club-footed oak writing-table, with adjustable slab

14 16 18
18

Room

at

Lenham

Court,

Kent

.16

XIX.

Carved-oak flour-hutch Oak bedstead at Goodwood House, Sussex. Stuart Period Carved-oak bedstead at Agecroft Hall, Lancashire
Stuart Period

20
20
22 22

XX.
XXI.

xxiL
XXIII.

Oak dresser, with mouldings as decoration. Jacobean The King's Room, Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk Oak " grandfather " or long-case clock Oak chest of drawers made in two pieces, with

...
. .

veneer of walnut on the front only.

Stuart Period

24

vii

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


PLATE
XXIV.

TO FACE PAGE

Specimen of cross-cutting on walnut "


(Plate XXVII.)

tallboy."

24

XXV.
XXVI.
xxvii.

Early form of cross-cutting on Stuart chest of


drawers.
(Plate xxiii.)
top.

24
William and

Walnut bureau, with cabinet

Mary Period
Walnut " tallboy " chest of drawers. Seventeenth
century
XXVIII.

26

26
Early eighteenth century

Small walnut bureau.

XXIX.

XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.

Walnut knee-hole table. Jacobean Inlaid - mahogany, serpentine - fronted,


shaped, toilette-glass
Inlaid -oak toilette
-

...
shield

28

30 30

glass, with

mirror frame in

waJnut.

Stuart period Place,

3
Sussex.
Stuart

The dining-room, Old


Period

XXXIV.

Ebony and Mahogany


brackets.

tortoiseshell cabinet

occasional-table,

with

Ince

& Mayhew

.... ....
fret
rail
.
.

32

34
3^ 36 38 3^ 40 42

and

XXXV. XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

XXXIX.
XL.
XLi.
XLii.
XLiii.

Mahogany occasional- table. Chippendale Plain mahogany shell-edged occasional- table Plain mahogany card-table Plain mahogany bow-fronted chest of drawers Plain mahogany wardrobe, with panelled doors.
.

Hepplewhite

Adam
Plain
Plain

cabinet.

Late period

Chippendale china cabinet

mahogany corner-table mahogany dumb-waiter


sideboard
mirror
III.'s

.... .... ....


.
.

44 44
46 46 4^ 4^
5 ^^

XLiv.

XLV.
XLVi.

Adam Adam

George

bedstead in the State Bedroom,


Sussex

Goodwood House,
XLVii.

Lignum
Inlaid

Vitae chest of drawers

on

stand.

Stuart
'

Period
xLviii.

mahogany

bookcase

and

secretaire.

Sheraton

54

viii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PLATE
XLix.

TO FACE PAGE
Light
-

coloured

mahogany

chest

of

drawers.

Sheraton
L.

56
Eighteenth century
.

Dressing-table of mahogany, inlaid with satinwood

bands.
LI.

.56
.

Lii.

Enclosed washstand of mahogany, inlaid with satinwood bands. Late eighteenth century Inlaid-mahogany serpentine-fronted toilette-glass,
.

56

with oval mirror


LiiL

58
toilette-glass,

Inlaid-mahogany, bow-fronted, mirror placed lengthwise


Inlaid-harewood
pier-table,

with

58
plaster
. .

Liv.

with
gilt
.

work
60

decoration and carved legs,


Lv.
LVi.

Satinwood cabinet. Sheraton Bow-fronted satinwood commode.


century

....-58
Late eighteenth

60
inlaid

Lvii.

Mahogany

sideboard,

with

shaped

front.

Late eighteenth century


Lviii.

62

Inlaid corner cupboard.

Late eighteenth century

62

Lix.

Small satinwood Pembroke table, inlaid with

tulip-

LX.

wood and greenwood slips. Eighteenth century Satinwood card-table, with broad band of harewood
inlay.

64

Eighteenth century

64
green.

LXi.

Light mahogany square piano, inlaid with satinwood,

ebony,

and

boxwood

stained

Late

eighteenth century

66
Sheraton
painted
.

LXiL
LXiii.

One

of a pair of satinwood pier-tables.


with panels

66
68
69 7

Satinwood commode, Angelica Kaufmann,


Pergolesi

by

R.A

LXiv.

commode, with panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann, R.A.

Lxv.

Pergolesi china cabinet, white enamel with painted

decorations
Lxvi.

Pergolesi china cabinet, with marble top


plinth

and marble
70
.
.

Lxvii.
Lxviii.

Carved chair. James I. period Carved wood chair, stained dark brown.
.

-72
7*

Stuart

Period

ix

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


PLATE
LXix.

TO FACE PAGE

Stained-wood

armchair.

Early William

and
72 72

Mary
Lxx.
Lxxi.
Lxxii.

Carved-walnut " chaise longue." Stuart Period Short walnut-wood settee. William and Mary Period
Stuffed easy-chair with wing sides.

74

Queen Anne
74
rail.

Period
Lxxiii.

Walnut-wood chair with turned

Queen
74
.

Anne Period
Lxxiv.

Lxxv.
Lxxvi.
Lxxvii.
Lxxviii.

Walnut framed chair Carved stained-wood chair. Carved-wood chair with


.

.74
.

Stuart Period
single

76
76

cane

panel.

Stuart Period

LXXiX;

Walnut-wood chair Walnut-wood settee. Queen Anne Period Early Carved-mahogany stuffed easy-chair.
.

76 76
78

Chippendale

Lxxx.
Lxxxi.
Lxxxii.
Lxxxiii.

Mahogany

stuffed armchair.

Late Chippendale

Lxxxiv.

Chippendale Chippendale Hepplewhite Hepplewhite

ribbon-back settee

ribbon-back chair
chair chair
.
.

...78
.

78 78

78
.
. .

.80
80

Lxxxv.

Pergolesi chair

LXXXVL
Lxxxvn. Lxxxvin.
Lxxxix.
xc.

Carved chair, with cane seat and back. Probably


Stuart Period

Mahogany

chair with honeysuckle-pattern back

80 80

Walnut-wood chair with carved shell on back and legs. Early Georgian Mahogany chair. Probably by Main waring Carved-mahogany settee. Probably by Chippen.

.82
.

82

dale
xci.

.84
:

Pergolesi settee

white enamel, picked out with


. .

gold, painted woollen upholstering

XCI I.
xciii.

Pergolesi settee

xciv.

Wheel-back Windsor chair Rail-back beechwood chair.


Period

....
Probably Stuart

84 84 84
84

Plate

II

OAK-DINING SIDE TABLE. Tudor period. {In the possession of Seymour- Lucas, Esq., R.A.) The chief features of this piece are the undecorated struts, nearly square in section, the cutting- off of the corners of the square of the legs at the top and bottom of the turned part, and the carved brackets.

OR

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


THE FIRST CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION
began, in a small way, to collect a few pieces of old English furniture, the present craze was almost in its infancy. There were, of course, a host of distinguished collectors, but the vast army of small bargain hunters had not sprung into being. Most people were then content to furnish according to the housefurnisher's taste, and you did not hear every couple setting up housekeeping chatter about old oak and Chippendale. The modern movement is undoubtedly a change in the right direction, for despite the fact that it has
I
first

HEN

created a

and brought into existence a vast array of bad imitations of the


for

demand

work of
copies
before.

the eighteenth century masters, these

are an
It

improvement on what went

does violence to one's feelings to see the twelve by ten drawing-room in a suburban villa furnished with *'old carved I B

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


oak " (made in Belgium or the Midlands) backed by an **art" wall-paper, or to see cottage chairs of the Chippendale period in the drawing-rooms of the wealthy; but at least these things show a hankering after improvement. It is not every one who has instinctive feeling for what is beautiful in design and correct in form not every one who is born with a sensitiveness which is

outraged when a beautiful piece of furniture is insulted by being placed in unsympathetic surroundings, and I am not at all sure that the vast majority are not much to be congratulated on the circumstance.
collector,

The modest

who has scraped up a little knowledge and is the easy prey of the modern manufacturer, often forgets, if he ever knew, that the furniture of the great makers was intended for certain styles of rooms. The

oak-panelled rooms and tapestry-hung walls took their dignified solid oak and exquisite walnut-wood work, and the painted rooms of a later period show up the dainty work of Sheraton, Adams, and Hepplewhite. Divorced from their proper surroundings, you miss half I do not the effect which the designer saw. suggest that there are not a fair number of people who have this inborn knowledge which

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INTRODUCTION
enables them to detect at once the false from the genuine, and approximately date every
piece of furniture.

not prepared to say that I am one of them, but I wish here to express my thanks firstly, to Mrs. C. W. Wyllie, whose intuitive knowledge exceeds that of any one I have met, and who has come to my assistance in the writing of this
I

am

book; secondly, to Mr. James Orrock for allowing me to include certain photographs of examples in his fine collection and thirdly, to Mr. S. E. Letts, who has also lent photographs, and whose knowledge of Chippendale furniture is, I imagine, unrivalled in England. I am particularly glad to include specimens of Mr. Orrock's collection, because I do not
;

think

it

is

much he

widely known how has done to uphold the merits of


sufficiently

English furniture, to
superiority in
ture,

undoubted workmanship to French furniinsist

on

its

and

to arouse a feeling of national pride

in the

work of the

best makers.

He

gathered

round him an almost priceless collection, and though it has now been dispersed under the hammer, there was at one time no better education for the would-be collector than a visit to his house under the owner's intelligent
guidance.

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


And now
to

go back

for

moment.

When some years ago I first began buying a little furniture, one of the charms of acquiring old things was that, apart from their aesthetic value, they were very much cheaper than their modern equivalents. beautiful Sheraton chest of drawers, with dressingtable fittings, did not cost more than a japanned deal atrocity. Chairs could be acquired from half a crown upwards. bureau was the cheapest form of writingtable in existence, and those fine old wardrobes and tall chests of drawers stood neglected in dark corners of dealers' shops. Now all is changed the genuine antique is hard to find. It is either on its way to

America or its price is prohibitive to those of moderate means. There is one direction though in which the enthusiast, with a little knowledge, can do real service. I take a
myself that I have saved sundry beautiful pieces from the rubbish heap. Few people are courageous enough to buy a much dilapidated article which appears to be tottering on broken legs to the wood heap, but I have been occasionally I have marvellously repaid for so daring. for long had the services .of an extremely
little

credit

to

INTRODUCTION
skilful

and intelligent workman at my command, and nothing in my possession gives

me

greater

pleasure

than a

little

Stuart

it was to and in the last stages of decrepitude, which he devoted three weeks of careful It is one of the curious things about work.

cabinet which he took in

hand when

the poor collector that he will reluctantly pass by a table or cabinet offered to him in considering perfect condition for, say 2^

beyond him but if he can buy it for, say \o, he will cheerfully pay another \^ for having it restored. Restorathat the price
is
;

a gem from a terrible fate. I have been over factories in the Midlands and elsewhere and
tion
is

often difficult, but

it

saves

many

full swing the horrid work of transforming genuine but faulty pieces of furniture. Beautiful square pianos are transmogrified carved chests are cut up into secretaires into cupboards chairs are taken to pieces, and bits of the old wood are put into half a dozen new imitations. The clever ignoramus is then allowed to scrape a genuine leg with his pocket-knife, and goes away quite satisfied about the antiquity of the wood, and hugging himself with the thought that he has secured a bargain, although nine-tenths of the chair

seen in

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


are

new.

This same clever ignoramus

is

responsible for much.


tion that fine

It is for his delecta-

and whole pieces of china are broken up and then rivetted together; he then snaps up greedily a thing which he would not have touched in the first instance. The little knowledge about old furniture, which every one has nowadays, so far from
alarming the dealer in frauds has made him rub his hands. No fool is so easily imposed

upon as the clever fool. One more point, and that

is

that

it

is

mistake to suppose that the finest furniture cannot be made nowadays. piece of furniture is beautiful in itself, not by reason of its age and the most finished workmanship can be put into anything at the present day.

The

great difficulty lies in the fact that the public will not pay for the best work. Masters

and men

alike are afraid of spending too long


:

does not pay. The best work is necessarily very costly, and I know, when I have had a skilled workman repairing things for me, my chief difficulty has been to make him take long enough over the task. He has felt that he had not enough work to show if he devoted a day to some tiny but all important detail.
they
it

over a given task

know

Plate IV

CHEST, with "linen-fold" carving- and old lock. (/;/ This is a particularly the possession of Seymour Lucas^ Esq. ^ R. A ^ interesting chest, first on account of the great beauty of the " linen-foid " carving-, and secondly on account of the short centre panel, obviously made to allow space for the lock.

EARLY

Plate V

EARLY CHEST,
VHI

Henry or Henry with "Unen-fold" carving. This period, {^bi the possession of Seymour Liicas, Esq., R. A.) piece is interesting by reason of the carving being on the spandrils The brackets under the front and framing as well as on the panels. legs are also noteworthy.

VH

INTRODUCTION
Lastly, I

would say that


all

have bought

furniture in

parts

of the country from

Penzance, but there is really no occasion for the Londoner to go wanderLondon is the happiest hunting-ground ing. in the world, and those who are able to add anything rare and beautiful to their household treasures, will find the possession of it a constant joy. You never tire of the really good thing as you do of something emanating from a bad period. Above all, do bad financial crisis may not sell anything. be weathered, but the treasure which you parted with in an evil hour becomes yearly more difficult to acquire again. Buying good furniture is a sound investment, for its value constantly increases, but do not regard a hobby in this light. You only get an aesthetic dividend, and the time comes when you would as soon sell your chief gems of furniture as a mother would sell her children.
to

Dundee

My

chief object in this

out what admirable taste masters showed, in the different periods, in constructing furniture which was at once beautiful and perfectly adapted to people's requirements, and to show the collector of moderate means what is worth buying.
7

book is to point and fitness the great

THE SECOND CHAPTER

OAK FURNITURE
mentions ''wicker chairs" in one of his Canterbury Tales, otherwise we might presume that oak was *'the only wear" in furniture up to the end of Henry VIII/s reign, as we have no remains of anything but oak furniture of that Probably the oldest pieces of early period. oak furniture are the long narrow tables on massive pillared legs, with stretchers or struts at a short distance from the floor. These stretchers served to strengthen the table and also made a rest for the feet, in the days when carpets were unknown and rooms were very far from draught proof. The tops of these tables are one and a half to two inches thick, and
generally their sole decoration
consists of carving on the frame just some under the top, as is shown in Plates 2 and 3. difficult to date It is these tables probably none are later than Elizabeth how much earlier they may be one can only guess, but that they are not later is certain. Most people err in thinking them much less old than
;

HAUCER

Plate VI

possession of Mrs. Wyllie.)

with drawers. {In the This chest may be of a fairly late date, as this kind was made in Yorkshire until about lOO years ago. The form of the rising panels, however, belongs to the Stuart period, and the chest is pegged together with wooden pegs after the manner of quite remote times. There is a curious hinged flap on the inside to hold up the lid.

PLAIN OAK YORKSHIRE DOWER-CHEST,

Plate VII

LARGE OAK GATE-LEG TABLE.


{In the possession of Mrs. Wyllie.) very fine deeply cut spiral legs.

Stuart period.

This table possesses

OAK FURNITURE
Mr. Seymour Lucas, R.A. (who is one of the best authorities on antique oak) had formerly in his possession an extremely fine one with the top inlaid with bog oak and holly, which he dated Henry VIII. It is the only one I have ever heard
they really
are.

of that was decorated in this way the two illustrated are probably of earlier date. These
;

very massive dining- or side-tables are so thick and substantial in every way, that there is no reason why they should not date from the earliest times of English history, since even those that have been put away in a barn or disused stable for centuries, are not materially damaged. There is really nothing short of fire, or chopping them up, that will get rid of them, and most of them probably date from the early Henrys. There is no furniture,
traces of the occupation of Britain, unless it is these long-shaped massive tables, which may have been derived from furniture in use by the Romans, for the same longin

my

opinion,

which shows

influence of the

Roman

shaped tables appear in early Italian pictures, and we may reasonably suppose them to be
the outcome of

Roman

furniture.

Some of the dower-chests must also date from the Tudor kings, possibly from the
c

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


be even from Saxon times. Oak settles and oak dressers plain, not inlaid are often very old too though, being of thinner wood, it is, unlikely that any of the earliest of them remain to us. The dowerchest, filled with linen of her own spinning, which was each bride's possession when she went to her new home, was really the beginning of all our elaborate wardrobes and chests of drawers and cabinets. It shows
Conquest, or

may

the

dawn

of the first idea for furniture, as

distinct from the necessary tables and chairs. Apparently even the poorest bride would not, or could not, be married without one; for

there are

immense numbers
ones too

genuine old
the country.
are plain,

remaining
and

of

them

and
over

all

The

earliest,

rarest of these

with the lid made of one very thick plank, with great wrought-iron hinges on the inside of the lid. They are not espiecially beautiful they are rude and heavy, but interesting as showing the beginning of the
;

and tables were made, probably the planks were all cut from the felled tree with an axe, which would explain why the wood is so
dower-chest.
these
first

When

chests

thick.

After the plain

thick-plank

chests

came the carved


ID

chests, the finest of

which

S -S

1^

W
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ft.

en

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o o

^^
(u

irf^

ROUND OAK CLUB-FOOTED

TABLE.

Early

XVIII

century, This form (/ the possession of F. Fenn, Esq.) of table is common in mahogany, and less usual, though not rare, in oak.

OAK FURNITURE
show the Norman arch and sometimes the Tudor rose. Genuine oak chests with the Norman arch and the Tudor rose are not
plentiful
;

and

if

any reader of

this should

come across one, I counsel him, or her, to buy it, no matter what its condition. One of the objects of this book is to try to persuade people to save what little remains of the oldest furniture which still exists in the
remote parts of the country, before it is used for firewood. And here let me say generally that the shabbiest, dustiest, greyest looking piece of old oak, may be made quite beautiful. It should first be scrubbed with a good scrubbing brush and hot water and soap, then allowed to get thoroughly dry; and afterwards well rubbed, first with boiled oil,
'*to feed
it,'*

as the carpenters say,

and then

with good bees-wax and turpentine, to give it a wear resisting surface. Let no one be afraid of the shabbiness of old things, they only want cleaning and rubbing up they cannot be scratched or warped or blistered, for they are so hard that they will turn the edge of the very best steel tools, and there is no easy way of hurting them short of burning. One reason why so many of these oldest oak pieces have survived until
II

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


now,
is

that the labour of chopping

them up
!

would have been so great that it has been found easier to gather sticks If you chance upon one of these oldest oak chests, with the lid in one piece, and its long wrought-iron hinges, you may feel you have found a prize; if, in addition, it happens to
for firewood

you may know that you have lighted on something dear to the
retain its old iron lock,

heart of the collector.

Next after the plain or carved chest with the lid in one piece, comes the chest with
5 inches to 8 feet long. Those of the smaller size, a little carved and really genuine and ancient, are still very plentiful and very moderate in price. They should be brown in colour, or if nearly black, they should not be a purple black, and the little pip marks in the grain of the oak should be lighter than the surrounding wood in stained or fumed oak these pip marks are darker than the surrounding wood, because they absorb the stain more readily than the rest of the wood. It is easy to give directions by which the amateur may know really old oak so far as the wood is concerned. The worst of it is that
panels,
feet
;

varying from 3

many
12

fine old

oak chests,

tables, dressers, etc.,

Plate XI

SMALL OBLONG OAK TABLE.


Mrs. Wyllie.)

the possession of the pattern of the turned legs prove this to be a table of an early date. The feet have obviously been cut off at some time.
(//?

The dog-tooth carving and

Plate

XII

PRESS. XVI century. {In the possession of Seymour This press is a remarkably fine example on Lucas, Esq., R.A.) account of its untouched condition. The design of the carving is unusually good.

OAK

OAK FURNITURE
which were genuine, simple and perfectly plain, have been cheaply carved by the sinful antique furniture dealer; and when utterly
ruined, they are sold to the inexperienced as

old carved oak.


first

Nothing but

talent in the

and experience in the second, which comes from studying really fine old carving and learning to understand its character and details, will teach the non-expert the difference between these spoilt oak articles and the valuable antique carved treasures. One can only say live and observe and learn. The longest oak chest I have seen was 8 feet 6 inches in length, decorated all over its
place,

panels with the carving, geometrical in pattern

and of uniform depth, which looks like fretwork laid on. This chest was called *'the hutch" by its owners, who told me it had always been so called and was an old family is a well-known old possession. ** Hutch" term for these chests, though one does not

come across it in use nowadays. Quite the most desirable thing in oak chests, is one linen-fold panels. with what is called Linen-fold carving was the fashionable thing There is one room in Henry VHI.'s time.
often
*'
'*

in

Hampton Court

Palace, in the older part,


it,

entirely panelled with

so that any linen-fold


13

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


chest probably dates from then or the two or

three following reigns.

One

of the illustra-

tions (Plate 4) shows a very fine chest, which is in the possession of Mr. Seymour Lucas.

This

is

especially interesting because


its

it

has

its

old iron lock on the front, but

original lid

appears to have been replaced at some time by the present one, which is slightly too large. This panelling may be found in many country At Coles Park, Buntingford, on the houses. estate of Mr. R. P. Greg, there is an old dower house in which several rooms have this panelling in fine preservation.
tion of a
rare
''

Another

illustra-

linen-fold

because the
mirable.

chest (Plate 5) is given spandrils are carved, which is

"

and curious, though not, I think, adThis also is in the possession of

Mr. Seymour Lucas. The most ordinary carved oak chest is one with a little carving along the top spandril just under the lid; if dated, so much the Another very common kind, peculiar better. to Yorkshire and the northern counties, is the plain panelled chest, rather large and high, with two, three, or four drawers under the The illustration (Plate 6) shows one chest. I imagine there must with two drawers. have been some dower-chests made inlaid with
14

OAK CABINET,

inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Stuart period. (/;/ Though this may be the possession of Seymour Lucas, Esq., R.A.)

considered an English piece it was probably made by a foreign workman. The lions' heads, carved figures, and the capitals of the columns are un-English, whilst the spiral legs and curved
struts are characteristically Stuart.

OAK FURNITURE
holly and

bog-oak, as there are dressers, beds, and cabinets with that ornamentation, but I have never chanced to see one nor have I seen an English chest inlaid with mother-of;

pearl or decorated with

mouldings

in

what

we

call

the Jacobean style.


of oak furniture,

The commonest form

using commonest in its meaning of plentiful after dower-chests is the gate-leg table, and
the club-footed table.

The

gate-leg table

may

be of any
that
is

size.

The

present writer has one

so small that it is an ideal sofa table for serving afternoon tea on, and another which is large enough to seat ten people. These are both oval tables of solid oak, with the tops fixed on to the framework by large oak pegs. Illustrations (Plates 7 and 9) of both of these are given in order that the differ-

ence in the legs may be pointed out. Those of the large table are spiral legs of considerable beauty, and probably date from Charles I. or Cromwell. These spiral legs are, unluckily, rare the most usual form being variants on I do the turned legs of the smaller table. not advocate the refusal of any gate-legged table unless it has spiral legs but what I do say emphatically is, buy any table, however bad its condition, even if only the framework
;
;

15

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


has Neither of the these beautiful spiral legs. pieces illustrated possesses a drawer, though one drawer is often met with in such tables.
is

left

and a new top

is

necessary,

if it

The

club-footed table

is

more

attractive to

me, personally, than the gate-leg table. It is of a later date and is fairly common in oak, but more common in mahogany; it is generally oval in shape when both leaves are extended, but I have one (Plate lo) which is round. It is the only round oak one I have ever come across. There is a still finer form of club-footed table with high-shouldered (cabriole) legs, which occurs in both oak and mahogany. There are many forms of small tables in oak with one or three drawers. These have turned legs with strengthening the later ones have rails at the foot (Plate 1 1) legs without the cabriole or club-footed strengthening rails. They are all interesting, but the piece to look for is one with its Even if only one of these original brasses. brasses should remain, it will serve to have copies made from, and the table can thus be
;

Never make the tasteless off the old handles because taking mistake of they are incomplete; get some good brass worker to make the best copy he can of the i6

made

complete.

Plate XV

with adjustThis is {In the possession of F. Fejm, Esq.) probably an early attempt at a writing table or desk, before the bureau form was evolved, and might date back to Elizabeth or Henry VI 11. The table contains a narrow pen drawer and deep well above, and three lower drawers. The brasses, which are original, are of the engraved type common on Stuart furniture.
able slab.

CLUB-FOOTED OAK WRITING TABLE,

OAK FURNITURE
one that
is
if

always supposing that it original, which is most likely to be the case the set of handles and key plates is not
is original,

complete.

Large carved oak presses chiefly belong to the North of England and the Lake Country. They are not to be picked up for an old song nowadays, but can generally be bought, if they are especially wished for, for anything The one illustrated from ^^^ upwards. (Plate 12), by kind permission of Mr. Seymour Lucas, is a handsome one of the ordinary form, with characteristic carving, and it is Then in an unusually untouched condition. there are the so-called Jacobean oak chests of drawers, with mouldings put on in patterns, which should have drop brass handles, and are
always desirable.

Next we come to inlaid oak. I do not think any one knows who brought the fashion of inlaying into this country, or quite where it dates from. It is certainly later in date than the earliest carving, though it may belong to as early a period as Edward VI., or Elizabeth, judging from the panelled room from Sizergh Castle in the South Kensington Museum (Plate 13), which is inlaid with bog-oak and holly in the characteristic pattern found on

17

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


have seen two oak bedsteads of exceeding beauty, both inlaid with bog-oak and holly in this manner both were also decorated with carving. In fact, carving and inlay in oak seem to have been considered the right thing at one period, and that a very beautiful period. To come to still more elaborate oak
inlaid
furniture.
I
;

oak

furniture,

there

are

cabinets of

the

early

Stuart period, which were carved and inlaid These are believed to with mother-of-pearl.

have been made by Italian workmen, who were brought over to the Eastern counties by one of the numerous patrons of art at that time, as all that have been found have come from that district. This would explain the foreign, or, more strictly speaking, un-English character of these particular pieces, which would otherwise be puzzling. Their workmanship is undoubtedly English, though The one illustrated their feeling is not. (Plate 14) is a specially good one from Mr.

Seymour Lucas's

collection.

Here, perhaps, mention should be made a of detail to be looked for in early chests of drawers, or tables with drawers in them, namely, what are technically called double runners. These are grooves in the sides of 18

Plate XVII

CARVED

OAK FLOUR HUTCH.

{A^ one time in the possession of S. E. Letts, Esq.) Plain flour hutches are still to be found in the Eastern counties, but not with carving like that on the one shown in the illustration, which is totally different in character from most other English carving on oak. The origin of the design may have been Scandinavian. It is difficult to assign any date to this
piece.

Plate XVIII

OAK BEDSTKAD
bedstead
is

Stuart period. This at Goodwood House, Sussex. very richly carved, the pillars with enwreathed floral designs, and the tester with characteristic perforated work.

OAK FURNITURE
drawers about halfway up the sides, which run on mouldings in the inside of the chest, thus preventing the drawers from shaking as they pull in and out, and also serving to hold them up when they are pulled out to more than half their length a prethe
;

caution which
the depth,
it is

was more necessary

then, since

length from back to front of the drawers, was considerably greater than
i.e.

in

modern

furniture.

In writing of oak furniture, mention must also be made of the carved-oak desk and Biblebox, of which many examples exist all over
the country.
Strictly speaking, these
etcetras,

must

be regarded as

not

as

furniture.

The
is

club-footed oak writing-table (Plate 15), obviously the outcome of the desk placed

upon legs. After this was evolved the bureau, which is one of the most usual as well as most useful pieces of antique furniture of
later date.

Bureaux, of plain oak, generally

with one or more secret drawers, and often with a well, used to be as plentiful as apples in autumn and almost as cheap. This was when writing-tables were the fashion, and before the public taste had revolted from the
gentility of early, or rather middle, Victorian
furniture.

Nowadays one must pay

at least

19

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


;^4 for a good oak bureau, though this is not an extravagant price for an article which
is

certainly

worth ;8 on

its

merits.

It

is

well to reflect that, in spite of the


rise in the price
still

enormous of antique furniture, you may

buy a few things for far less than it would cost to reproduce them, even with modern machinery. If you want a piece
really reproduced, with the beautiful joinery

workmanship accurately copied, have to pay considerably more, t.e, ;^io or ;j^i2 for the bureau which you now buy for ;^4 from a second-hand dealer.
careful

and you

one of the great safeguards fraud with the commoner pieces of antique furniture, that ordinarily you can buy them for less than cheap reproductions can be made; but very few, if any, genuine antique carved bureaux exist. Only once in all my wanderings have I come across a Jacobean oak bureau with mouldings for ornament. Besides the articles of oak furniture mentioned above, there were large cupboards, sometimes six feet long, made of panelled oak like the panelling of rooms. I am not sure that they were originally made as cupboards at all some of them, no doubt, were 20
Indeed, against
it

is

Plate XIX

CARVED OAK BEDSTEAD


period.

at

Aoecrott Haii,

J.ancashirc.

btuart

Plate

XX

OAK DRESSER,
the possession of

with mouldings as decoration. E. S. Grew, Esq.)

Jacobean.

{In

OAK FURNITURE
cupboards built in a panelled room but most of them, I suspect, were made out of old panelling when it was pulled out of the houses to make way for the plastered walls necessary to hang wall-papers upon. One of the curious things about antique furniture is, that there appear to have been no oak wash;

stands or towel-airers. Oak cradles there were, and some of them are quite beautiful and worthy of preservation, just as are the oak kneading-troughs, though there is no longer any possible way of using them, and

they should be looked upon as objects for museums rather than furniture to be put

home. There remain only the oak settles and The oak oak chairs with which to deal. settle is well-known to most people, and varies very little from the one illustrated (Plate 1 6), which is a very nice one in the
into the

possession of Mrs. Elam at Kent, who has kindly had


for use here.
It is

Lenham
it

Court,

photographed

hardly necessary, perhaps, to say that, with plenty of cushions, an oak settle makes a very admirable piece of furniOne ture for a hall or large dining-room.

oak
seat

settle,

which

saw

once,

had the whole

made

of plaited strips of leather, about 21

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


a quarter of an inch thick and of the same width. It was very curious and remarkably
comfortable, the leather giving with the weight

of one's body.

Oak

chairs will be dealt with in a special


all

chapter devoted to chairs of

periods.

X.

22

cj 't:

Ti "^
03
(

2
"i cu

"i:

3
03

_
b/)

C ^ P

CTJ

_
crt

^ ^c -^
--:
""

aj

u
^

b
?

03 "^3

r^

a;

5 O

03 '"^
cfi

c o-^ oJ " S
03

P^--" ii

n
03

.5
dj

'tj

03

-Q^

^-

:S

^ 'd
g;
u,

<H

j:^

c/j

oj

d)

_ o

03

^
t''

^^

- > u r- " S.2 S ^ ^


':5
(1)

n3

>-;

<D

iD

Plate XXII

OAK "GRANDFATHER," OR LONG-CASE CLOCK.


{A^ the School of Art Needle-work^ South Kefisington
)

THE THIRD CHAPTER

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


EXT
after

oak
It

came
is

walnut

furniture.

particularly

attractive

by reason of its beauty and delicacy of workmanship, and for its unforced effects and
I

charm of
the
little

colour.

shall try to point out

differences in detail

by which the

probable period of walnut furniture may be determined, for the study of these details has been a special pleasure to me, and it is perhaps because of them that I find walnut-

wood
until I
alive

furniture
to

so attractive.

It

began to acquire
the

pieces, that

was not I became

developed

furniture had gradually carved oak to inlaid mahogany. One puts down changes in furniture^ to fashion and the individual influence of certain makers, when, like most

way

from

fashions,

the change

is

due more to the

bringing into use of a new material than to anything else for the material controls the fashion and workmanship, not the fashion
;

and workmanship the material. Thus the bringing into use of saw-cut
23

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


pollard walnut-wood veneer threw carved-oak

doubt the beginning of the decline of carving was due to


furniture out of fashion.

No

the

first

workman

or master-craftsman

who

started

inlaying oak in patterns with bog-

There is a very fine oak and holly woods. example of this style of work in South Kensington Museum, the panelled room from Sizergh Castle, Westmoreland, before referred and there are occasional pieces of furnito ture to be met with with this decoration such as dressers, oak chests, and oak bed;

steads.

In the beginning of furniture making, probably it was not possible to get wood in planks much less than an inch thick, and no one, therefore, thought of inlaying as a form of decoration, and carving was the only course
open.
Later,

an

art,

when sawing became more of and it was possible to get wood


the astonishingly delicate thinness

sawn

to

of an eighth or the sixteenth of an inch, people naturally delighted in the use of the

wonderful
thinly
at first
;

new thing. sawn wood was


that
is

imagine that

all

cut across the grain

to say, the trunk of the tree

was cut up
24

in rounds from the root to the branches, instead of lengthwise in planks

Plate XXIII

OAK CHEST OF DRAWERS MADE

IN

TWO

PIECES,

with veneer of walnut on the front only. Stuart period. {^In the This interesting piece of furniture Possession of F. Fen?t, Esq.) shows the beginning of the use of veneering, and consequently it is an example of the first step in the departure from carved oak.

ns^s
<

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


therefore
first

we have

tried

thank the man who sawing thin rounds of wood off


to

a tree for much of the beautiful furniture Boxwood is cut that has come down to us. across the grain to the present day, and so was all the wood used in inlaying old oak Having once obtained thin wood furniture.
it on oak in patterns, the idea of covering the whole surface of a piece of oak furniture (when finely figured oak was becoming more difficult to obtain) with these thin pieces of walnut wood, soon followed. A modern overworked furniture maker would have produced a quite ugly result in all probability, for he would, in his hurry, hardly have had time to invent one of the chief beauties of walnut-wood furniture, i.e. the accurate match-

of beautiful colour and started glueing

to

ing of the figure of the wood so that the grain makes a beautiful pattern. The wood used on any piece of old walnut furniture always appears to have been taken from the same tree. It is possible to trace the figure growing smaller through the various pieces, but these are always so exquisitely arranged that the pattern is an added charm.

The

oldest pieces of walnut

wood

have

met with have the oak upon which the walnut E 25

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


is laid

showing quite frankly

For instance,

some the chest of drawers shown


in

parts.

in the

which is a peculiarly beautiful example of walnut wood, is oak at the top and sides flush with the moulding, though Another the moulding itself is walnut.
illustration (Plate 23),

thing that is interesting about this chest is, that it has rounded mouldings between and around the drawers and no moulding on the edge of the drawers themselves. If you want to understand this difference, pull out the drawer of a later piece of furniture, a quite

you will find that the little moulded finish comes out with the drawer, because it is on the drawer itself and not on the chest, or ''carcase'' as the workman would call it. I was lucky enough to find most of the old handles and key-hole plates on this chest, all being perfect except for one or two of the handles, which have been care-

modern

chest will do, and

In order to prevent the chipping off of the veneer or " facing," the drawers are bordered all round for about half an inch with walnut cut a different way of the wood, like a piece of stuff cut on the cross instead of
fully copied.

on the straight

this is called ''cross-cutting."

In later pieces of walnut furniture you seldom find this at the edge of the drawers, and

26

Plate XXVI

WALNUT BUREAU,
period.
{Ifi

with cabinet top.

the possession of
fine

has unusually

Ashby Sterry, Esq.) mouldings and panelled doors.

William and Mary This bureau

Plate XXVII

WALNUT " TALLBOY" CHEST OF DRAWERS.


the Possession of F. Fenn, Esq.) The handles and The slide in the centre is unusual in a walnut chest.

XVII

century.

{In

key plates are original.

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


always much less broad, and there is often a double row. As it does not show very clearly in an illustration of a complete piece of furniture, I have had photographs made of the two different kinds of cross-cutting (Plates 24 and 25), one of which occurs on the chest of drawers (Plate 23), which probably dates from James I. By the time of Charles II. the art of furniture making in walnut wood had become so highly finished and elaborate in workmanship that it has never been surpassed indeed, to my thinking, it has never since been equalled. It was then that the exceedingly fine marqueterie work of boxwood or sycamore inlaid in walnut was made. This is sometimes so delicate that it is more like brush work than anything else, and one marvels afresh every time one sees any of it, at the beauty of both design and workmanship.
do,
it

when you

is

To

return to this

James

I.

chest,

which

It is made in two parts, is so instructive. the base or short stand (the part consisting

of the three small drawers at the bottom) on which the actual chest of drawers stands,

being quite separate from the chest itself. This is very characteristic of Stuart work, and is very familiar in later furniture in

27

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


such
articles as the cabinets of small

drawers

enclosed with two doors, often of fine lacquer work. The very finest piece of Stuart furniture I ever saw was a large cabinet of walnut

wood, covered with exquisite English marqueterie work, on a walnut-wood stand, which had spiral rails at the bottom of the frame This was a Charles II. to strengthen it.
piece.

One more

interesting feature of the

James

I.

chest of drawers (Plate 20)

I pointed out. gether with the other characteristics, are what make one certain of its early date. They do not show very clearly in the reproduction their ground-plan is the square block of oak, but they are shaped so that they are smaller In at the top, and curved at front and sides. them, I think, one can just see the beginning of the hoof foot of later date, and also the beginning of the idea which later developed Many claw-andinto the claw-and-ball foot.

remains to be refer to the feet, which, to-

ball foot chairs of Stuart period

have their

back legs shaped at the bottom


feet of this

James
piece

I.

chest.

much like the As an object


possesses so
I

lesson, this

of

furniture

many

features

that

are

illuminative, that

have had to 28

give a considerable amount of

Plate XXVIII

SMALL WALNUT BUREAU.


century.
(/w
the

Early

XVIII

The

possession of F. Fenn, Esq.) mouldings on this piece are on the drawers.

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


I only hope I have said enough space to it. to induce any one who possesses, or comes upon, any furniture of the same period to do all they can to preserve it untouched if possible or, if in too bad a condition for that, to call in some expert to put it right, and on no account

to let

it

go

to an ordinary furniture

man

to

be repaired or restored, and on no account No Stuart furnito have its polish touched.
ture, or

any made before that period, was French polished, because French polish was

not invented until a much later date. The exceedingly beautiful bright polish on walnutwood furniture, the peculiar quality of which is that it retains its absolute transparency and whiteness so that the wood is unchanged after centuries, was obtained by the use of some remarkable varnish, the secret of which has been lost since the invention of French polish therefore, if a piece of old walnut-wood furniture is French polished, half its value is destroyed for the connoisseur, who knows that without the old varnish the colour of the walnut will certainly change, probably within ten years* time. Next in beauty and age to the James I. chest (referring only to pieces of which illustrations are given), comes the bureau with cabinet top, which is the property of Mr. Ashby
;

29

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


have seen very many after this pattern, called by the dealers Queen Anne, often, I regret to say, with the doors made hideous by having had looking-glass panels inserted but Mr. Ashby Sterry's is the earliest and best I have ever yet seen, and I should date it William and Mary. It is difficult to point out from a photographic reproduction
Sterry (Plate 26).
I
;

why this is so superior to the majority of others,


because the differences are so slight, though so all-important to the real lover of old furniture, who can see at once the superiority in the planning of the old work as well as in the workmanship. The one thing is eminently satisfactory to live with, the other produces restlessness and a desire for change for something else in its place a feeling which the perfectly planned and made work of the true artist never produces. Think how common it is nowadays for middle-aged, or even young people, to refurnish as soon as they can Think how the getting rid of most afford it. of their household gods seems an absolute necessity which has been only held in check by the spirit of economy this was a feeling unknown to people in the old days, when they had less furniture perhaps, but each piece was perfect of its kind, and had probably cost as

30

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


much, or a great deal more, than a whole suite The of modern machine-made furniture. cottager one hundred and fifty years ago paid ^c) sterling when money was worth more than it is now for his grandfather clock, and had it made for him by the best clockmaker of his county town or nearest large town. How many years of saving and waiting But did a grandfather clock represent ? now there is no saving and no waiting the

rustic

or

townsman

invests

in a i^.

\o\d.

American alarm clock, which is renewed every two or three years, and a \ \os, suite of furniture, which is kept in an unused parlour, because he knows instinctively that it would stand no wear and tear, and there is no
with the middle classes, and the rich tradesmen who have made a sufficiency in business, to say whether good workmanship shall cease in the country or not. If they will have it, and will not mind paying for it, there are still enough of the older men left who have learnt their trades of joinery and cabinet-making from those that have gone before, and who retain, therefore, all
pride of possession.
It rests

the traditions to hand on to teach the younger

men what joinery and cabinet-making should be. It would be a much greater thing to save
31

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


these traditions of the country, which has produced unquestionably the finest furniture in the world, than to spend large sums in constantly redecorating and refurnishing with the latest production of some well-known firm
that

makes

furniture

by the stack

for the

million.

Happily the fashion

for covering

up

ugly walls with pictures, hung so closely that they jostle each other in subject and design, is going out and a hope may be expressed that the large sums which were formerly spent upon pictures will now be devoted to fostering
;

the art of furniture-making. What is written above may give the impression that I dislike

but that would be entirely wrong. I do not want to live in a room without any pictures at all, any more than I want to live in one that is overloaded with them. Good pictures should be hung separately on the walls, spaced as though the room were panelled, as all rooms should be, and as all rooms were until cheap wall-paper pushed out wooden panelling. With the pictures so hung, the need for a small amount, and a small amount only, of beautiful furniture will make itself felt. In an overcrowded, overcurtained room the furniture is not a feature, and it passes almost
pictures,

unnoticed.

32

THE WALNUT WOOD PERIOD


(Plate 27) of a walnut wood, the natural development of the shorter chest on a stand. This chest also is in two pieces, but the lower half is higher, and although no
tall

An

illustration is given

chest of drawers

in

more floor space is taken up, there is more room given for putting things away. Note
that this chest has a writing slide, or slide

on which to fold clothes a most convenient shelf, which pulls out at will from among the drawers and forms a table on which to work or place things out of one s hands table which is always at hand and always empty, as no ordinary table ever is. The handles on this chest are original, but though a beautiful shape, are without the engraving or punched work of the earlier handles on the
;

first-mentioned chest of drawers.


Pictures of a walnut-wood bureau and kneehole table (Plates 28 and 29), both charming
pieces of later date, are also given.

There

were beautiful walnut-wood card-tables (there is one in Hampton Court Palace) on club feet, with sunk places for the candlesticks and deeper sunk oval-shaped hollows for the
counters
or

money

of the players.

That
is

there are no old walnut-wood dining-tables

probably because our practical ancestors did

33


OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE
not consider a veneered surface sufficiently durable for a dining-table. I am always puzzled about the washstands of the walnut-wood period. There do not appear to have been any! I certainly have never seen one, or the remains of one. Probably any sort of small table was used (possibly the knee-hole table was made for that purpose) as a dressing-table, and looking-glasses hung upon the wall were common. Of the regular

on standards to tilt, I have and partly walnut, a tolerably early one (Plate 31 ) while Jacobean toilette glasses often with two tiers of drawers, and made of walnut wood, used to be fairly common. To me it seems that the much appreciated Chippendale and later makers or masters, as it is now the fashion to call them debased the most attractive and most suitable
toilette glasses

one that

is

partly oak

shape for a toilette-glass when they varied from the Jacobean form, and invented the
shield-shape and oval toilette-glass.

34

Plate XXXII

This cabinet was given doubtful whether it is of that date. The framework is ebony and some lighter wood. The raised parts and the flats inside the moulding round the drawers and doors are of tortoiseshell laid over a bright red paste. The inside is inlaid with white ivory, and contains four mirrors divided by black pillars with gold capitals. The insides of the doors are inlaid with ivory. This piece of furniture has never been out of the possession of the Wren family, and it is reproduced here by permission of Mrs. Pigott, a lineal descendant of Sir Christopher
to Sir Cliristopher

EBONY AND TORTOISESHELL CABINET.


Wren by Queen Anne,
but
it

is

Wren.

THE FOURTH CHAPTER

THE INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY


NLIKE
oak and walnut wood,
furniture
is

very frequently dated earlier than its actual age by the non-expert, though the difficulty of dating it is not great, the wood not having come into this country until 1724, when some was sent from the West Indies as a present to a certain Dr. Gibbon. He, so the story goes, finding that the workmen, who were building a house for him, would not use it, alleging it to be

mahogany

unworkable for their purpose, afterwards had a candle box made of some of it, possibly by
a cabinetmaker living in St. Martin s Lane, near by Anyhow, Thomas Chippendale the doctor. appears to have been one of the first cabinetmakers to become enamoured of the new material, and his name has come down to us with renown as the producer of extremely That he only beautiful mahogany furniture. made mahogany furniture is impossible, if he was in business as a cabinet-maker when the
Chippendale,

Thomas

who was

35

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


new wood was brought
to this country, a fact
;

which has been rather overlooked and one wonders what he was making in the way of walnut-wood cabinets before his genius had its way with mahogany. He must have learnt his trade on the Queen Anne furniture of his immediate forerunners, if he ever
say **if" because he is reputed to have been a woodcarver by trade, and the son of a woodlearned cabinet
at
all: I

making

carver.

undoubtedly, and must have been the possessor of a considerable personality, which enabled him to inspire his work-people with his own individuality and ideas so we owe to him the great revolt from inlaying or veneering as a means of furniture decoration. He straightway went to carving, which had gone almost entirely out of fashion, on account of its unsuitability to the material, when faced walnut furniture took the place of

He was

an

artist,

solid oak.

That carving had never entirely ceased to be used on furniture we see by the familiar shell on the legs of tables and the legs and backs of Queen Anne chairs but less and less of it had been used, and it was little short of a stroke of genius on Chippendale's part to 36
;

Plate XXXIV

MAHOGANY OCCASIONAL TABLE, WITH FRET RAIL AND BRACKETS. Ince and Mayhew, This is a beautiful
example of the
in

mahogany

by fretwork cabinet making.

possibility of combining lightness with strength furniture. The two turned rails, held together carving, show marvellous skill in the art of

Plate

XXXV

MAHOGANY OCCASIONAL
is is

TABLE. Chippendale. This a good specimen of fretwork edge, and the carved rail-support
very
fine.

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
perceive that the

way
its

to bring the

new wood
and

into fashion against

exquisitely figured

much more

delicately coloured predecessor,

walnut, was to return to carving. This he did in a style which was his own certainly but even the greatest artists are invariably

indebted to the work of other men who have gone before them, and to me it seems that Chippendale, in his earliest and finest work, clearly shows his indebtedness to Grinling Gibbons, and the great school of wood-carvers of Stuart times. But for the Grinling

Gibbons tradition
that,

in carving,
utilise

it

is

possible
material,

in order

to

the

new

Chippendale might have gone back to the Tudor for his models of decorative carving on furniture. One thinks, with a shudder, of the effect which would have been the result and once again one places Chippendale on his high pedestal. He suited his workmanship to his material, and greatly as one may admire the beauty and decorative quality of Tudor carving on oak, one would dislike
;

it

on a

finer

wood

calling for

more elaborate

it is Still to hear Chippendale spoken of as is often done as a master who came suddenly into being, and produced from nothing a great period

treatment.

irritating

37

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


students of is sheer heresy. His work was excellent, and made again a great period in furniture, which had been slowly but surely growing less beautiful as
all
it fell away from the earlier Stuart models but in no case did he improve the form of a single piece of furniture which had existed

English furniture. To older English furniture this


in

before his time.

the

Take an undoubted Chippendale cabinet, workmanship and carving of which are

so exquisite that they compel admiration, and compare it with a Stuart cabinet. You will find the Stuart piece perfectly proportioned and perfectly constructed, with beautiful struts giving rigidity to the openwork frame

on which the necessarily heavy top part stands, and your satisfaction will be absolute. Look at the Chippendale cabinet, and you will find yourself wondering how the absolutely unstrengthened frame, on its beautifully carved straight legs, can possibly support the heavy top and you will have, besides, an uncom;

fortable

feeling

that the

china within the

glazed

This is where doors is not safe. Chippendale fails this is what in the end I have met many sent him out of fashion. people who cannot, or will not, care for his
;

38

c/}H g ^

g c
4) <U

c c 5
-^

^^

SO

<^

iJ .'S

^ O

>-H *~j i>^ -

1-1

Q^*^

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
slighter chairs
insecurity.

on account of

this feeling of

In both cases there is nothing really weak in the construction, or the furniture would not have lasted for one hundred and fifty years but any form which produces such an uncomfortable impression is removed from perfect taste and therefore, much as I admire Chippendale's workmanship, I consider him a decadent in furniture-making, though I shall probably get few people to agree with me. The great cabinet-maker himself, in his
; ;

later years,

seems to have felt the necessity of showing that his forms were not so weak as

they seemed, for he commenced the use of the obvious bracket in his tables, chairs, and

The bracket shows in most cases his fret-work or Chinese period, and is an enhancement to the beauty of the furniture.
cabinet-stands.

which he has much eulogy, as though he had invented it, is the claw-and-ball foot. This is absurd, for claw-and-ball feet were used over and over again on Stuart chairs, and he merely revived the use of them. Still, much credit is due to him for the skilful way in which he treated their revival. There comes to my memory as I write,
of the
features
for

One

received

39

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


a small mahogany medal cabinet on a stand, with high shouldered, or, technically speaking, cabriole legs and claw-and-ball feet, which is perhaps the most perfect thing in mahogany cabinets that has ever been made.
It
is

now

in

the possession of Mr.

Letts,

from the famous Strawberry Hill collection, and is supposed to have been made for that apostle of taste, Horace Walpole. All uncomfortable feeling
originally

but came

as to lack of strength

is

absent in this piece,


legs,

on account of the cabriole

which make,

without heaviness, the supporting stand larger than the cabinet, and thus produce the most complete feeling of satisfaction. But Chipon the pendale did not invent that form contrary, it had been used for a century before He, in fact, departed from it, and his time. employed the straight leg, which I maintain is structurally weak, and shows a retrograde
;

tendency in taste. In his later work he used frets, as he calls them, largely, and departed more and more from the carving of his early Grinling Gibbons inspired days. This may have been because he found, as his business developed into a large one, the cost of production of his earlier work too great and he had to make furniture for
;

40

Plate XXXVIII

PLAIN
{hi

MAHOGANY BOW-FRONTED CHEST OF DRAWERS.


is

of F. Fenn, Esq.) This chest of drawers unusually fine shape. The beautiful handles are original.
the possession

of

an

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
people of moderate means.
is

what we should

call

it

Supplying a want now, or making

furniture for the masses instead of for the


classes.

This was an inevitable development,

certain to
fact,

come sooner or

later

as

soon, in

as the poorer people began to ape the manners and customs of the richer. It was

much more beautiful world when the furniture made for cottages and farmhouses was

designed for use in them instead of being a plainer, cheaper sort of copy of the furniture made for the palace but we must not, I suppose, blame Chippendale for that. He was a tradesman doing the best for his trade a master endeavouring to get the largest
;

employment for his workpeople; in fact, it was the factory creeping into existence, which was in the end to kill
possible

amount

of

craftsmanship.

The only chance

of the revival of crafts-

manship possibly lies in the rather hopeless hope of a revival in taste, strong enough to induce the wealthy people of to-day or to-

morrow

to interest themselves in the production of beautiful things. They might inaugurate workshops where furniture for themselves could be made without thought of a profit. Many of the older houses in

41

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


the country are filled with unique examples of everything that is beautiful in furniture,

which,

used as models, would soon teach taste to the artisan, who often has a great deal of that quality born in him, and only needs an outlet for it. Another illustration (Plate 38) shows a very excellent bow-fronted chest of drawers. although so It is exceptionally beautiful plain, and the handles in particular should be observed. These are French in feeling, though not in workmanship, and the legs,
if

which add so much to the character of the whole, show a striking variation from the
straightness usual to

the legs of chests of

drawers.

Fine bow-fronted chests, such as this one, are rare, and should not be neglected by the
collector.

Serpentine chests of this period are more common, though not less esteemed, or less worthy of esteem. Their workmanship is irreproachable, and the design pleasing,

though never so fine in the mahogany as in the older walnut-wood specimens, from which the idea of the serpentine front was probably
taken.

Other large pieces of plain mahogany furniture were the tall chests of drawers on

42

Plate XXXIX

WARDROBE, with panelled Hepplewhite. (/;/ the possession of Mrs. Wyllie.) The carved rose or rosette decoration is one of the distinguishing- marks of Hepplewhite.
PLAIN
doors.

MAHOGANY

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
the

same plan

as the walnut one illustrated

(Plate 27), but with the Greek-inspired moulding at the top, similar to that shown on the

wardrobe in Plate This wardrobe, though a very plain one,


has the roses or rosettes which are one of the distinguishing marks of Hepplewhite's work, at the four corners of the panels. It is a very perfectly proportioned piece, of admirable workmanis
it

interesting because

ship, so restrained

and

refined in detail as to

suggest that

it

did not

come
the

into existence

until after the

work of
ultimate
detail

Adam

brothers

had

begun
the

to

influence

furniture

makers

towards
floridness

of

suppression of the belonging to the true

Chippendale period. The name of Hepplewhite, as a cabinetmaker, is best known after Chippendale s for mahogany furniture distinct from inlaid

mahogany; and, of
the

course,

the designs of

Adam

brothers,

whose

and far-reaching
latter,

effect,

had a wide are well known. The


taste

however, were not cabinet-makers or craftsmen, but architects who designed furniture suited to the style of decoration they were using in the houses they were then building in various parts of London. Their

43

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


inspiration

was purely Classic Greek,

their

ornamentation being the honeysuckle pattern, the ram s heads holding the wreath, the urn, and other unchanged Greek patterns, pure and delicate as well as beautiful, but not original in any way, except in their application to furniture.

small makers must have been many, but their names have not come down to us, except in the case of Mainwaring, Copeland, Lock, Johnson, Ince, and Mayhew, whose

The

names have been recorded mainly through


the fact that they are appended to signed plates of designs published in various books, or in catalogues of designs for cabinet-

making.
for

The idea of publishing woodwork and interior


have been
first

a book of designs
decoration appears

to

conceived, or at any rate,

put into practice, by a certain W. Jones, who published such a book in 1737, which was followed in 1744 by the plates of Inigo Jones, and Kent, and in 1746 by those of Copeland. But these are, strictly speaking, architectural, and deal little with furniture in The first comprehensive its ordinary sense. book of designs for chairs, tables, cabinets, etc., was published by Thomas Chippendale
first

44

Plate

XL

ADAM

CABINET.
Esq.)

Late period.

{^From the collection of

James Orrock,

Plate XLI

CHIPPENDALE CHINA CABINET.


of

{From

the collection

James Orrock, Esq.)


INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
in

Hepplewhite's 1754. and Upholsterer's Guide "

*'

Cabinet-maker s did not appear

1787; and Sheraton's equally famous and valuable designs were first given to the Had it not trade and the public in 1792. been for the publication of these books or catalogues, we might never have known the names of Chippendale, Hepplewhite, or Sheraton, though the Adam brothers would have been famous in connection with their
until

work

as

architects.

However, what

am

not the finest pieces of furniture made by any of these wellknown masters, but a more or less general description of mahogany furniture of the eighteenth century, in the hope that what I write may be of some help to beginners who are absolutely ignorant on the subject and distrustful of their own taste and judgment. For their benefit I write one easily learnt "tip,'' i.e. that genuine antique mahogany furniture is solid and immensely heavy. This is particularly noticeable in the case of club-footed tables, either of the dining or breakfast pattern, or the folding card-table
is

chiefly concerned with

now

pattern. Pembroke tables i.e. oblong tables with semi-circular or else oblong flaps, which, when up, are supported by brackets hinged

45

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


on immediately under the top
solid
;

are

also of

mahogany but being of much


at

later date,

and half the thickness


particularly heavy.
tables are of early date.

the top, are not

All club-footed
I

mahogany

have even seen

some with the carved cockle-shell decoration, and they are always made of thicker wood than the later date mahogany furniture.
Semi-circular
card-tables

which

open out

by revolving on their frame into a circular table, and have a deep well between the top and the legs which is only accessible by moving round the top are occasionally seen in mahogany. These, of course, being a Queen Anne pattern, and with club-footed Later mahogany legs, are of early date. card-tables with straight legs and tops based on the plan of the square, though generally with the square relieved by being cut into a serpentine form, are also of solid mahogany. When one comes to bureaux, book-cases, wardrobes, and knee-hole tables, and the
larger pieces

of furniture generally,
the

it

will

invariably

early good ones are oak faced with finely Speaking generally, no figured mahogany. mahogany furniture which is made up on deal is of any value. 46

be

found

that

made

of

CU

-^ >

OJ

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
of the most regrettable things that has happened to so many pieces of fine as well as modest mahogany furniture is the replacement of the original charming brass handles by turned wood knobs. This is a
manifestation of the barbarous want of taste of the early Victorian. Certainly brass handles do get out of order occasionally. In

One

course of time even, and unless they were quite the finest, and had originally undergone a process of mercurial gilding, they needed relacquering, but at least those of the earlier patterns fell down flat against the drawers when they were not in use, instead of projecting into space apparently for the express purpose of tearing women's dresses. Then, too, the yellow touch of colour of the
brass handles is delightful on any furniture, so that the change from it to black knobs is incomprehensible; but it is history, and Try, however, when buying incontrovertible. an old piece to get it with one or two of

the original handles and lock-plates on it, and never allow the dealer who is selling
it

you

to

replace the one or

two originals

with a complete set of


brasses off

some other

quently offer

even genuine old Dealers freto do so in order to effect a sale


piece.
;

47


OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE
but in nine cases out of ten the handles from one piece will be utterly unsuitable to the other almost as much an eyesore as the plain black knob. It would be far better to get the best copies obtainable made of the remains of the originals, though these will be, when

closely inspected, inferior in finish to the old

but that does not, after all, matter very much, for the imitations will not be apparent to any one but an expert, especially when they are in their places on the furniture. The mahogany chairs and sofas will be dealt with in a separate chapter, but there are hosts of smaller articles of furniture urn-stands, small tables, unusually long in the leg, nest-tables which, to be complete, should be in a set of four, candlestick-stands, besides knee-hole tables, generally small, and the old ones always with a cupboard in the middle, set back about half the depth of the drawers, and varying very little from the form

ones

of the walnut-wood one illustrated on Plate 29.

Then there are mahogany-framed screens, with wonderful wooden hinges that allow the leaves to turn either way, and show absolutely no
daylight through. These are a revelation in the art of cabinet-making, when one first comes across a specimen, but having done so,

48

Plate

XLV

ADAM MIRROR.

{From

the collection of

James

Orrock, Esq.)

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
nothing else will ever satisfy one in the shape of a screen. Of washstands there are great numbers of the well-known corner shape, and also of the small square shape, unenclosed, in plain mahogany. These, by the way, are rapidly diminishing in number since the antique dealer has hit on the happy idea of converting them into tables with glass sides, These washstands are a for showing china charming shape, yet scarcely any one thinks it possible to use them for their original purpose, because the hole for the basin is small. I them for their original delight in purpose; they take the largest modern basin, placing it at a most comfortable elevation for any one of average height, and the tops do not get splashed and soapy because the large basin extends over them, while a couple of shelves fixed on the wall above give one more than the usual accommodation for soap and brushes and I should mention that toilette requisites. originally the smaller holes in them were filled with turned mahogany shallow cups. Every modern luxury seems to have come in with mahogany, for there are plenty of dainty towel-horses to match the washstands. They are like miniature kitchen clothes-airers, with long feet to keep them steady. There
!

49

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


are dumb-waiters and
inlaid
trays,

carving-tables of un-

mahogany, and very delightful plain usually round ones but there are singu;

larly

few sideboards of the carved mahogany


is

period, that

to say, of the period before

satinwood inlaying became the fashion. Mr. Orrock had in his possession a truly magnificent Adam sideboard (Plate 44), with its two end cupboards surmounted by their urn knifeboxes, and an elaborate rail of ormolu, not brass, across the back. This is perhaps the finest known, and possibly one of the finest ever made. Knife-boxes and wine-coolers in mahogany are also worth the attention of collectors, and the same may be said of the thing which Chippendale not only invented, but made more exquisitely than it has ever been made before or since, namely, the bracket. One of his fine sets of bracket shelves, with fret sides jutting out slightly in the centre front of the lower shelves, is a thing to search for, and when found to save at any cost. Reproductions of these brackets should sell by the thousand if any modern maker had the enterprise to buy one of the originals, and have it carefully copied without trying to improve

upon 50

it

Plate XLVI

IIEb JiEDSTEAl) in the State Bedroom at House, Sussex. A typical XVIII century bedstead, with posts in the Chippendale manner.

GEORGE

Goodwood
fine

carved

INTRODUCTION OF MAHOGANY
Mahogany
quite
four-post bedsteads used to be
plentiful,

though

not, as

far

as

the

cornices are concerned, of the elaborate style

shown

Posts were Chippendale's book. often to be met with which were not unlike those drawn by him, but the craze for easy cleanliness, and saving of trouble to the servants, which brought in the iron or brass bedstead, completely ousted the four-poster. They had gone mostly to the cottagers, who bought them because they were to be had for less money than the new iron ones and they would still be in existence in quantities but for the bright idea invented by some clever
in
;

using up the best of the old posts by turning them into what are called ** lampThis idea was so successful and stands." remunerative that it is quite difficult to find an old mahogany bedstead with beautiful
lady, of

many people However, the them. are willing to purchase metal bedstead has proved just as difficult to keep clean and in order as the wooden one, and fashion has decreed that wood is less At the time of writing, wood is all unsightly. in favour once more, and the few four-posters remaining may therefore escape cutting up. Many of the fine old country houses in
posts at the present time, though
51

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


is so rich contain very beauticarved bedsteads in oak and mahogany. Indeed, the state bedroom in an important

which England
ful

house invariably contains a most imposing bed, and some of these, though rather florid in design, produce with their elaborate carving a very rich effect.

52

Plate XLVIl

LIGNUM VIT^ CHEST OF DRAWERS ON STAND.


period.
(/;/

Stuart

Fenn^ Esq.) The spiral legs tapering towards the top are very fine. Other features of interest are the rounded mouldings between the drawers, and the geometrical inlay of sycamore wood.
the possession of F.

THE FIFTH CHAPTER

INLAID

MAHOGANY AND
Chippendale,
the

SATINWOOD

HEN
white,

Hepplebrothers,
to
possibili-

Adam
the

and
have
to

others

seemed almost

exhausted

ties of mahogany, it occurred some one (we do not know for certain that it was Sheraton) to revert to inlaying as a means of decoration or embellishment for furniture. Whether Sheraton was the actual originator of the new style or not, the designs he drew for it, and the pieces which he had made of it, were so exquisite that this particular style is known exclusively by his

name, though very few people can ever hope to be possessors of a veritable piece from his own small workshop in Soho. The poor unsuccessful drawing masters book on furniture making, with its insistence on the necessity of drawing according to the
rules of perspective,

shows

in a pathetic

way

that he

was a born

artist,

just as

much

as his

pieces of furniture

born colourist.

show that he was also a Born at Stockton-on-Tees, he


53


OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE
had served his time
at cabinet-making,

and

in spite of all his efforts to

do other things,

he perforce lived by the making of furniture. Still, he could not content himself with being '' a tradesman. He was an author, a bookseller, a teacher of drawing, and a preacher
besides," says
his memoirs.
his abilities

Adam
And

Black, writing of

him

in

he says

also,

**

believe

and resources are his ruin, for by attempting to do everything he does nothing.** Would that most people s nothing " might prove to be as much I find myself wondering if his paintings or his writings would have
'*
!

given as

much

pleasure to the world as his

furniture has undoubtedly given, supposing he

had been able to devote himself to these arts. Much as one may appreciate the workmanship of Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and the

Adam
feeling

brothers, in the

presence of a true
help

piece of Sheraton's work, one cannot


that their
;

productions are coarse, almost blatant that they were workmen while Sheraton was a poet, and a poet blessed with the sense of colour. Of seeing genuine pieces of these two masters side by side only the fortunate few ever have a chance, for our national museums are wretchedly poor in specimens of any period of English

54

Plate XLVIII

INLAID MAHOGANY BOOKCASE AND From the collection SECRETAI RE. Sheraton
(

of James

Orrock,

Esq.)

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


furniture
;

and only the

rich

man, who

is

also

a man of taste, is likely to be able to acquire a fine piece of Sheraton nowadays, when its value is at last appreciated. Was Sheraton the introducer of satinwood, of kingwood, and of tulipwood ? Did he, in seeking after colour, invent what is known as *'harewood," which is sycamore dyed a delicate pale shade of brown ? Was

he who, dyeing sycamore, thought also of staining some white wood the delicate
it

green, which seems

most exquisite of

^11

as

a companion to the apricot of satinwood ? Strange woods had been used in the past
(there were cabinets made of lignum vitae or guaiacum, in Stuart times, see Plate 47),

was

seeing one of them which urged him to seek for new kinds ? or was it accident which
it

brought satinwood into England, and within his reach, just at that time ? Accident, at any rate, did not bring him harewood, or the green stained wood, both of which are peculiar to English furniture. Tulipwood was much used in France, to make cabinets and secretaires, but not to inlay with. However
it

came
of

about,

we

are

lucky in the

possession

Sheraton's

furniture.
it

His
55

exquisite satinwood pieces

is

impossible

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


to reproduce,

though the exact reproduction


is,

of

all

other, even the finest furniture,


for a consideration.
will

know, possible

Perhaps

hear that absolutely indistinguishable reproductions can be made; I am most glad. I should like immediately to order the most perfect possible reproductions to be put in hand, so that when finished they might be placed in different buildings, far away from the originals, in order that, at any rate, the copies should remain, in case the regrettable accident of fire or a falling house should destroy the I do not hanker after the pleasure originals. of possessing a unique thing, but this does not mean that I have not a unique thing in my possession It means that to possess the only one of its kind of anything, especially of a beautiful thing, fills me with something of alarm and a sense of responsibility towards my fellows, which I should be freed from could I commission the production of a Therefore I am glad to know that duplicate.
!

some people

be sorry to

the reproduction of them is possible. To return to the work of Sheraton.

Not
form,

only was his


in

furniture
colour,

exquisite

in

shape,

in

to the outside,

and in decoration as but it was also full of neat

56

Plate XLIX

LIGHT -COLOURED

MAHOGANY CHEST OF

Sheraton. {In the possession of F. Fenn^ Esq.) This chest of drawers contains elaborate dressingtable and writing-table fittings.

DRAWERS.

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


contrivances in the inside, carefully planned

with

much

ingenuity, to

add

to the comfort

of the owners without spoiling the appearance of the object. He did not really invent the idea of his famous drawing- or writing-table, for the clubfooted oak table (of which an illustration
is

given on Plate 15), was made many years before he was born, and its plan is much the same except for the side slides, which are a clever Neither did he, I think, invent addition.
the enclosed washstand and

more

elaborate

with their collapsible toiletglasses, though of this we cannot be sure.

shaving

tables,

due entirely the invention of the screen-table, which is both so elegant and so practical that one wonders why it has not

But

to

him

is

continued to be made down to the present namely, time, as another of his inventions has library steps taken a permanent folding One of the place in domestic furniture. neatest of his contrivances was for the toilettetable, and consisted of a mirror swung on pivots in the doors of the upper part of the table, held in position by a spring when the door was to be closed. This mirror could be adjusted to any angle when released by touching the button attached to the spring,

57

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


and with one fixed in each door of the any lady would be furnished with a
table,

triple

mirror such as we know the use of nowadays, only far superior on account of the adjustability of the glasses. He seems to have revelled in designing dressing-table fitments. One apparently ordinary chest of drawers in my possession (Plate 49) is an excellent example of this. The top drawer, on first being opened, discloses a baize-covered writingslide, only different from an ordinary writingtable by reason of two sunk half-circles near the front, obvious handle places, with the help of which it is easy to slide it back. When this is done a looking-glass is revealed in the centre, while on both sides, exquisitely made in unpolished cedar-wood, are the most elaborate fittings on the right hand for writing materials, and on the left for cosmetics apparently, for many of the boxes are lined with tinfoil. This is a characteristic Sheraton piece. Judging by the inlay, a band of satinwood half an inch wide close to the edge, it is an early piece. Its colour is curious. It is very light, though of mahogany, and it has a curious translucent appearance, almost as if it were made of satinwood stained red. I have seen a few other pieces with this same curious

58

Plate LIV

INLAID

HAREWOOD

PIER TABLE,
gilt.

decoration and carved legs possession of Mrs. Wyllie.)

with plaster - work Late XVIII century. (/ the

TOP OF HAREWOOD PIER TABLE,


green-stained

inlaid with

satinwood and

wood

etched.

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


a serpentine-fronted chest-of-drawers, with a serpentine-fronted cabinet above, containing the toilette-glass and cosmetic boxes in smallsized drawers shut in by solid wood doors. Sheraton seems to have disliked the deep red mahogany of Chippendale's and Heppleappearance,
in

one

particular,

white's fancy,

and to have communicated his

dislike toothers, for all the pieces of genuinely

antique inlaid furniture are of lightish coloured mahogany, though not many have this curious translucent appearance. One of the things most commonly known as *' Sheraton " is the pier-table. It is a half-circle table, always with an inlaid top, generally of harewood or satinwood, standing on four legs, taper legs in some cases, in others round or grooved, and carved and decorated with plaster work before they were gilt. Sheraton is responsible for the introduction of the round leg in English furniture. It is one of the few details which, I think, would '* never have been missed." Taste in furniture has been making for
delicacy

and simplicity from early Chippentherefore entirely Sheraton's

dale days right through the Hepplewhite reign,

and

it

was not

idiosyncrasy of idea that gave us the

new
59

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


even though we credit him with inventing inlaying with various coloured The Hepplewhite firm advertised woods. their readiness to undertake orders for painted furniture some time earlier, so the feeling for colour must have been in the air, while the desire for delicacy of ornament is said to have spread to us from the Court of Marie Antoinette, where everything that was dainty, delicate, and minutely finished was then the vogue. However much this may have influenced public taste and private enterprise, our cabinet-makers were not content to make actual copies from the French, but evolved a style of their own, which is considered by many people more charming than that from which it was derived. Sheraton was the great designer of this style, to which his name is attached for all time, though only a few hundred pieces at most can have been made
style of furniture,

under his own personal supervision. Of these, many pieces were made in satinwood and not in mahogany, and all the pieces
of

mahogany reasonably

attributable to

him

that I have seen have been


light

made of unusually

wood, with a singularly pleasing result. The so-called Sheraton, found occasionally all
over the country, was probably the work of

60

Plate LV

SATINWOOD CABINET.
James Orrock,
Esq.)

Sheraton.

{From

the

collectton

of

Plate LVI

BOW-FRONTED SATINWOOD COMMODE.

Late XVIII century.

{In the possession of F. Fenn, Fsq.) This piece is in satinwood with bands of harewood. An etched pattern divides the cupboards from the drawers. The handles are the original ones and are said to be by Cipriani.

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


the ordinary cabinet-makers of the time,

who

necessary to follow the prevailing fashion. There is not a vast amount of genuine furniture of the Sheraton period, that is to say work which was inlaid at the time
it

found

it

was made

though there

is

a good deal of

originally plain

mahogany of

later date,
'*

which
"

the dealer has had inlaid since

Sheraton

became easy to sell. This is the pitfall into which the unwary may easily fall when starting buying. The only safeguard against such a mistake is a knowledge of or feeling for the forms which belong to the genuine inlaid period. These are much more elegant than the later styles and give the impression of lightness. When a piece appears heavy and a trifle clumsy, and its plan is little removed

from the square or oblong shape, it may generally be left unacquired without fear of This applies to inlaid wardafter regrets. robes and sideboards particularly.

when they are good, are " very very good but when they are bad, they are horrid.'* The best are perhaps the large
Sideboards,
;

semicircular ones of the

same shape

as the

satinwood commode illustrated on Plate 56, but a good deal larger and of course with space underneath. Others of the serpen tine61

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


front order, like the illustration,

may

safely

be purchased when found. Those which should not be touched at any price are the ones which would be oblong except that the front ends are just rounded a little at the corners. Most people have seen these shapes, which generally had turned legs in their

though shop they are changed


original state,

in the dealer's

work-

for the taper variety.

sideboard illustrated (Plate 57) is untouched and completely in its original state. It is an excellent object lesson for the study of good old inlaying. Observe the ovals in the
little

The

end drawers these ovals, sometimes circles, mark the good period in inlaid work and look, too, at the variety in the shells, which seem each to have been specially drawn to suit the particular place it fills, and in this lies the
;

secret of the beauty of the old inlaid work.

Nowadays shells of several different sizes are made by the gross, and plastered on like
postage stamps without any real regard for the plan of the piece they are to embellish. The corner cupboard (Plate 58) is not a specially good piece of inlaid work, but it serves as a specimen of a two-tier corner cupboard which is somewhat rare and it also shows a pair of excellently designed glazed doors, so
;

62

Plate LVII

MAHOGANY INLAID SIDEBOARD,


XVIII
century.

with shaped front.

Late

The inlay is (/ the possession of F. Fenn, Esq.) kingwood, except the shells and hairlines, which are satinwood. The handles are original. There is no appearance of any rail ever having been at the back.

Plate LVI

INLAID CORNER CUPBOARD.


{In the possession

Late XVIII century.

The inlay consists of of Mrs. Wyllie.) satinwood bands and shells of a rather uncommon pattern. The inside is painted white with gold edges to the shelves.

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


simple that there is nothing remarkable in the design, yet so charmingly planned and proportioned that few glazed doors are capable One detail of giving one greater pleasure. about glazed doors may be mentioned here. The earlier ones have quite flat woodwork for
the pattern or lattice work between the glass. This one, like all the later ones, has a small

and well-known moulding, similar to that used to form the panels on the doors of many houses which were built at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth
century.

To
oak.

return to satinwood.

This,

if

of the

best period,

is, like mahogany, veneered upon Other signs of the best period in satinwood are the inlays of greenwood, harewood, Satinwood inlaid with roseor tulipwood. generally speaking especially if rosewood,

wood

not of the best period, though almost any piece of genuine satinwood is worth having on account of its exquisite colour. This colour is the outcome of age, and is absolutely unobtainable with
is

the chief

inlay

is

modern satinwood, though every furniture maker will tell you otherwise. This is the
reason, as
realizes
I

said earlier,

why

old satinwood

such high prices.

63

"

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


While on the subject of colour, let one more warning about the tricks of the trade be given. Genuine old satinwood is really scarce, and unfailingly commands a high
price

price far

beyond the pocket of the

generality of people
to

who
is

are merely seeking

furnish

their

homes.
it

But

''

collectors

and so inquire for it at every furniture shop. These '* collectors have mostly a smattering of knowledge, and know that genuine satinwood should be upon oak; so they pull out the drawers and examine the ** carcase," and when they see it is veritably an old one, are satisfied
have heard that
''

fashionable,

that

they
!

Alas
is

purchasing real satinwood. too often what they are buying really
are

the carcase of a

Queen Anne

piece of furni-

ture,

when which was it was covered with its carefully chosen and matched walnut-wood facing, but is now
originally beautiful

horrible in the sight of the connoisseur be-

cause it has been stripped and covered with new satinwood of bad colour, toned down to look like the old to the easily satisfied eyes of the ordinary buyer. This has been going

on

for

some

years,

and one

is

horrified to

think of the destruction of really beautiful old furniture which the satinwood craze is

64

Plate LIX

SMALL SATINWOOD PEMBROKE TABLE,


inlaid

XVIII

with tulipwood and greenwood slips. century. (/;/ the possesstofi of F. Fenn^Esq.)

Plate

LX

SATINWOOD CARD TABLE,


inlay.

XVIIl

century.

with broad band of Harewood {In the possession of F. Fenn^ Esq.)

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD responsible for. A favourite form for this


spurious satinwood
for
is

the bureau

two reasons.

Firstly,

and this every one wants


;

a bureau in his house; secondly, walnutwood bureaux were plentiful. I am doubtful whether satinwood bureaux were ever made. There were satinwood writing-tables, satinwood cabinets, satinwood bookcases, sideboards, dressing-tables, washstands, screens, trays, tea-caddies but to ask for a satinwood bureau is rather like asking for a satinwood four-poster. I trust the exposure of this very specious fraud may help to stop people buying satinwood bureaux, and so prevent the further destruction of Queen Anne walnut furniture. The small satinwood table illustrated (Plate 59) is a particularly charming example of a Pembroke table, more delicate in shape than most. The top of
;

the centre

that the table when the leaves are down made of four triangular pieces
is,

is

of satinwood with the points meeting in the middle then there is an inlaid oval of green
;

wood
tulip

the edge has a rather broad band of

wood, while the legs and the drawer with a narrow inlay of the green to match the centre oval. The satinare decorated

wood

card-table illustrated (Plate 60) has a

65

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


broad band of harewood well set back from the edge, and finished on either side with very narrow strips of boxwood, alternating with black wood. It is unusual, because it is lined with satinwood that is to say, when it is opened, instead of there being the usual green cloth common to most card-tables, there is a square table of polished satinwood, with a band of delicate inlay all round it. Besides the articles of furniture mentioned above, there was the square piano, the case of which was often elaborately treated with inlay, the frame on which it stood being also decorated. These square pianos have in many cases been broken up, no one being able to find a use for them in a room which contains a modern pianoforte, either grand or cottage. Lately, the dealers have been using up the old cases by converting them into writing-tables while some people use them just as they are for dressingtables. I, personally, have a weakness for their sweet, mellow tone as musical instruments on which to play the simple old accompaniment to the songs belonging to their time. It seems to me a pleasanter backing to a single human voice than the loud tones of the modern pianoforte. The one illustrated (Plate 6i) is the finest ma; ;

66

Plate LXIf

ONE OF A PAIR OF SATINWOOD PIER TABLES.


Sheraton.

[From

the collection of

James

Orrock, Esq.)

MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD


one I have seen. Its inlayconsists of a broad band of satinwood, bordered by a sort of cable pattern of ebony and boxwood, with strings of black, green, and red on either side. I am fortunate in being able to give an illustration (Plate 62) of one of a pair of Sheraton pier-tables from Mr. Orrock's very
inlaid
fine

hogany

collection.

The

other pier-table

illus-

trated (Plate 54) has a harewood top inlaid with boxwood, greenwood, and satinwood. The broad satinwood border has a convolvulus wreath inlaid in it in greenwood and boxwood, with the veins of the leaves and flowers etched. There is a rosewood border on the outer edge. The legs and frame are carved wood with very delicate applied plaster work. It is believed to be a piece of genuine Sheraton. The frame is curiously like Pergolesi's work, so far as the design goes, but the workmanship differs from his and the legs and frame are entirely gilt, while Pergolesi's
;

are generally part gilt


that illustrated

and part white, like from Mr. Orrock's collection.


of
the

The

satinwood illustrated commode bow-fronted 56) already mentioned. Its shape shows well in the picture, but the inlaying comes out rather
other
piece
is

(Plate

67

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


because it at the edges with
faintly,
is

of harewood finished tiny lines of boxwood

and ebony stripes on

alternately.

The harewood

inlay

either side of the centre drawers

are etched with a delicate pattern diminishing


as it goes towards the base. The handles, which are unusually fine lions' heads, are thought to be by Cipriani, and, fortunately, are complete, for they are quite unmatchable by any workmen of the present day.

68
1

Plate LXIII

SATINWOOD COMMODE, with panels


R.A.

painted by Angelica Kaufmann,

{From

the collection of James Orrock, Esq.)

Plate LXIV

PERGOLESI COMMODE,
Kaufmann, R.A.
{From

with panels painted by Angelica

the collection of Jaines Orrock, Esq.)

THE SIXTH CHAPTER

PAINTED FURNITURE
UITE
one of the most beautiful
is

pieces of painted furniture

at

the South Kensington

Museum.

It is a toilette-table of exquisite shape by Sheraton, and painted by Angelica Kauffman. Through the kindness of Mr. Orrock, illustrations are here given of two exceptionally fine painted pieces from his collection Besides (Plates 63 and 64), both commodes. these, illustrations are included of two Pergolesi china cabinets (Plates 65 and 66), Pergolesi both from the same collection. was an Italian who worked for the Adam brothers. His work being finely finished

and made from

their beautiful designs,

com-

enamelled in white picked out with gold, with no wood showing, it is not attractive to those who
price
;

mands a very high

but as

it is

appreciate
to

good cabinet -making


at

sufficiently

be

offended

the covering

up of the
Mr. value by

joinery with paint.

A
is

fine pier-table in

Orrock's collection

enhanced

in

69

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


a

Wedgewood
It
is

plaque which ornaments the

centre of the front.

unlikely that readers of this will

ever acquire a piece of furniture painted by Angelica Kauffman or made by Pergolesi, but
it

will

slight

do no harm for them to have some knowledge of such pieces. Ordinary Pembroke tables of satinwood

painted with wreaths of flowers are not very rare, and it is quite possible some reader may rescue one, which he should not hesitate to I have also seen satinwood screens and do.
toilette-glasses painted, both of
;

which were charming in their way but the most common articles of painted furniture made were chairs, and they belong to the next chapter.

70

Plate

LXV

PERGOLESI CHINA CABINET,


painted decorations.
Esq.)
(

white enamel, with

From the collection of James Orrock,

Plate LXVI

PERGOLESI CHINA CABINET,


[From
the collection of

James

with marble top Orrock, Esq.)

and marble

plinth.

THE SEVENTH CHAPTER

CHAIRS AND SOFAS

HAVE
as

thought

it

better
'*

to

leave the chairs


white's book, to

and

sophas,"

they are called in Hepplebe treated by themselves in a separate chapter, since in this way it is easier to write of the evolution from the Tudor to the late Sheraton chair with a certain amount of clearness. but they Chairs are a very old institution were not general in early times, stools and forms being considered good enough for every one but the master and mistress of the house. This, and the supposition that beech was, perhaps, always used, even in the earliest times, for this kind of furniture, would explain the scarcity of very old chairs, for beech has not the staying power of oak. Mr. Seymour Lucas has in his possession a massive oak one of the familiar chancel-stall order, though its owner is of opinion that it is not a church chair. It is a particularly good specimen, absolutely untouched by the restorer's hand, and both the Norman arch and the Tudor rose as well as the holly and bog-oak inlaying
;

71

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


of that period are features of
its

decoration.

This chair was not made


class household.

a castle, or else for

farm or middleIt must have been made for the house of an exceedingly
for a
this,

well-to-do burgess.

the nearest approach to a sofa being the settle, which was the '* form " grown grand and

There were no sofas as early as

provided with a back. few really fine carved settles of early date exist one was to be seen a few years ago at Moyse's Hall, Bury St. Edmunds. It was a remarkably good specimen, longer than the settle of later date. It had eight legs along the front, and the back, which was carved, was lower than that of the settle we are accustomed to, which may be seen in use yet in some out-of-theway country inns. These are usually almost
;

plain, except for the relief afforded

by

their

backs being panelled, like the one illustrated (Plate 1 6). I have never seen a genuine old settle with its legs enclosed forming a sort of chest, though I have been shown several that were originally chests which have had a back and arms supplied by the dealer, because in that form they have a ready sale as *' nice old oak settles, so useful for a hall."

Those modern
72

useful articles are not for the

Plate LXVII

CHAIR. James I period. {At one time in the This chair is somewhat Possession of S. E. Letts^ Esq.) similar to the one at Knole, in which James I is supposed to have sat for his portrait to the painter Mytens.

CARVED

Plate LXVIII

CARVED CHAIR, stained dark brown. Stuart period. [In the possession of F. Fenn, Esq.) This is a good specimen of the double panelled high back chair, with all the characteristics of the period namely, the shell, the claw and ball feet, and the

WOOD

half circle stretcher.

Plate LXIX

STAINED

WOOD

ARM-CHAIR.

Early William

and Mary. {In the possession ofJ. Ashby Sterry, Esq.) The scroll-fronted frame and the scroll top of the back
are unusually fine.

CHAIRS AND SOFAS


lover of genuine old furniture at any price,

even the cheapest but a really fine old settle should be saved when found, particularly if a low-backed one of the earlier period. I have seen a mahogany settle very finely carved with a sort of shell pattern on the back; I only saw one, but was told by the dealer who showed it me that he had had a pair. They were probably made for the hall of some large country house about the middle of the eighteenth century. To return to chairs. If we leave beech chairs out of count for the present, and continue to look at the evolution as it took place
;

in the chairs of the nobles,

we

find the next

thing after the stall shape, already referred to, is the so-called " Hamlet " chair. Whence came this name I do not know, unless it was acquired more or less lately through its having been the fashion for all the Hamlets on the stage to use a chair of this shape. Anyhow, the design is really old. One is still in existence at Knole, which is reputed to have been made for James I., and to have been used by him when sitting for his portrait Its seat and back to the painter Mytens. are covered with old velvet, and it has a certain charm, though nothing to the charm

73

"

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


successor the tall-backed chair. By the kindness of Mr. Letts, an illustration is

of

its

given of a chair of a similar type (Plate 67). This is the low-backed armchair, which was apparently the form subsequently displaced by the more dignified and far more comfortable high-backed kind known to us as the '' Stuart

and the " William and Mary " chair. Other illustrations include several reproductions of very beautiful high-backed chairs, some from Mr. Seymour Lucas's collection and others in the possession of Mr. Letts and Mr. Ashby Sterry. beech chair carved and painted black is in the possession of Mr. Seymour Lucas. It is unusually large in size, and is probably of the date of Charles I. Sometimes these tall-

backed chairs are oak, but most generally


they are beech. Occasionally they are of walnut, but these are of later date, and are generally smaller in size, though still highbacked. Quite one of the most beautiful
forms,
to

my

thinking,

is

that

with

the

double panelled cane back,


(Plate 68).

like the illustration

These
and

chairs,

with their claw-

and-ball

feet,

cabriole front legs, half-circular


shell carving,

struttings,

combine almost
the

every

distinguishing

mark of

Stuart

74

^i3

Plate LXXII

STUFFED EASY CHAIR,


Anne

period. (/// the possession This chair has a walnut frame.

with wing sides. Queen of F. Fejut, Esq.)

Plate LXXIII

WALNUT- WOOD CHAIR,

with turned

rail.

Queen Anne

This period. (/ the possession of Seymour Lucas, Esq., R.A.) settee or chair has the curious wide seat which obtained until Chippendale departed from it in his late period.

Plate LXXIV

CHAIR. (/ the possession of Seymour Lucas, Esq., R.A.) The chief features of this chair are the beautiful half-circle rails and finely-turned legs.

WALNUT FRAMED

CHAIRS AND SOFAS


They are beech or pearwood, painted a very dark brown, and their probable date is Charles II. The illustration shows one of a set of six, two of which still retain their
period.

original old velvet cushions.

One may almost


back the
will not

say that the higher the

earlier the chair,

though

this

remark

apply to makes before the time of Charles I. Afterwards the height of the backs gradually declined, though they were still very high, according to our modern

William and Marys reign. The difference was quite well marked by Queen Anne's reign, however, as will be proved by an examination of the types of Queen Anne chair, which must have been in ordinary use until they were displaced by the Chippendale
ideas,

in

models. An illustration is given of a stainedwood armchair of the William and Mary period (Plate 69), with an* unusually fine scroll- fronted frame. Up to six or seven years ago, Queen Anne chairs were tolerably common and extraordinarily cheap, for every one was seeking Chippendale, and would look at nothing else; but now the dealers find there is a ready sale for ''Queen Anne*' pieces, so, of course, they have gone up in I do not remember that the really price.

75

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


finely carved Charles or

James

chairs were

ever very cheap.

was

that the dealer,

Perhaps the reason of this though not always a man

of taste, did generally

know

the cost of labour


I,

represented by fine carving.


chairs for as
little

personally,

have bought Queen Anne and Chippendale


as five shillings each years
offered a carved Jacobean
for
less

ago, but

was never
chair

or

Stuart

than

thirty-five

shillings.

Of

early sofas an illustration

is

included

(Plate 70) of a Stuart piece, with an exquisitely carved front rail and the characteristic

This sofa has a cane seat and Upholstery on sofas or settees and easy-chairs appears to have crept into fashion
spiral struts.

back.

somewhat
is

later.

An

illustration

given of a William and Mary It also has a fine carved a stuffed back. rail in the front, but this rail seems a sadly rude and degenerate one when we compare it with the rail on the Stuart sofa.

(Plate 71) settee with

Another

illustration

Queen Anne stuffed sides, or what we call now a


and
this brings

(Plate 72), shows a easy-chair with wing

grandfather-chair,
First,

me down
many

to the Chippendale

period, rich in so

varied forms.

however,

would

like to point out the reasons

76

Plate

LXXV

CARVED STAINED -WOOD CHAIR.


period. (/;/ the possession of J. Sterry^ Esq.) This chair is interesting because it has a carved wood centre panel instead of a cane one.

Stuart

Ashby

Plate LXXVI

STAINED

WOOD

CHAIR,

with
{In Esq.)

This chair is much spoilt in appearance by the stuffed seat. It would have a cane seat in its original condition, and, indeed, the cane still exists under the
stuffing.

single cane panel. the possession of J,

Stuart period.

Ashby

Sterry,

Plate

LXXVII

WALNUT-WOOD

CHAIR. {In the possession of J. Ashby Sterry, Esq.) This is a beautiful specimen of the cane back chair of a period
when makers were beginning to tryto strengthen the tall backs, and hit
on the device of pillars at the sides for this purpose. The chair should of course have the stuffed seat removed in order to uncover the
original caning.


CHAIRS AND SOFAS
for dating the
It
is

Queen Anne grandfather-chair. walnut wood secondly, the legs and


;

turned struts are typical of the period, while the shape, when compared with a later one, is finer. The curve of the arms, too, is bolder, and the wings are set on to the back not quite at a right angle, as they are in later chairs.

A much

finer chair of this period is the


s collection

one

from Mr. Seymour Lucas


;

illus-

but perhaps less interesttrated (Plate 73) ing to the ordinary buyer of antique furniture,

because

it is

scarcely likely that he will

come
I

across one.

Before

leave early chairs,

want

to say

particularly that

though there

are many very fine ones with straight backs witness those from Mr. Ashby Sterry's and Mr. Letts's collections in my opinion, the finest have always curved backs which fit the figure of the person sitting on them so delightfully that the chairs are more comfortable than any others. Possibly it was because this curve in time was gradually omitted that the high-backed chair went out of fashion, as a really straight back is not comfortable. Very often Stuart and later chairs, which were made with cane backs and seats, have been stuffed over sometimes the backs, but Generally the caning oftener the seats only.

77

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


remains, and can be felt distinctly by just putting the hand under the seat. Of course
the stuffing should

be removed, and the original caning uncovered. The reader may be interested to hear that three of the walnutwood high-backed chairs from Mr. Ashby Sterry*s collection were originally the property of Albert Smith, which shows that there were some literary men with taste even in the
early sixties.

looked upon as the great chair period began about 1728, when Chippendale started making use of mahogany. particularly interesting specimen of an early period of Chippendale stuffed chair is given in the illustration (Plate 79). The shape of this differs very little from the Queen Anne one belonging to Mr. Lucas (Plate 73). Like his, it is shallow, i.e. its seat is wider across the front from arm to arm than it is from back to front. Its legs are the cabriole shape, with club feet, but it has no struts, and the carving is quite different in style from the bolder work of the earlier period. When I bought this chair, it was covered with several layers of dirty materials, but underneath them all was the original orange woollen rep, finished all round with brass studs, giving
is

What

usually

78

Plate LXXIX

CARVED MAHOGANY STUFFED EASY CHAIR.

Early Chippen-

dale. {In the possessio7i of F. Fenn, Esq.) This chair, which is very delicately carved, is of a particularly elegant shape, with a serpentine front. It had its original woollen covering fixed all round with brass nails when it came into its present owner's possession.

Plate

LXXX

MAHOGANY STUFFED ARM-CHAIR.


possession

Late Chippendale.
chair
of

of F. Fenji, Esq.) Chippendale period.

characteristic

{In the the late

1^

w w H

U
O PQ W 2 w

Q 55 W
cu

<j

CHAIRS AND SOFAS


a good idea of what the chair was like when it left the maker's hands. This woollen rep, though one hundred and fifty years old, is still so strong that it is untearable, and its colour is hardly changed. I know no covering so harmonious or so durable, but though I have
tried all the largest firms in

London,

am

unable to get the material reproduced.

I in-

tend to go on trying, however, for I believe most possessors of old furniture would, like myself, be thankful to be able to obtain a reproduction of one of the characteristic coverings of the period for their chairs or settees, which are often almost spoilt by incongruous

modern upholstering.
Another example of a Chippendale stuffed This one chair is illustrated on Plate 80. is in Chippendale s later manner, with fretwork rails and carving to match on the arms.

Though
this
is is

fine of its period, its

shape

is

quite

commonplace beside the


as
is
it

earlier one,

though

not so evident in the reproduction when one sees the actual chair. It

not very likely that the ordinary searcher after moderate-priced chairs will find such fine examples as these, but any stuffed chairs approaching them in shape are worth buying at the full price of any good modern *'easy-

79

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


chair,"

though,

In no case, ;^8 or ^io. should any such purchase be restuffed with down springs or buttoned stuffing, either of which styles completely spoils them. I have seen an old easy-chair and also an old settee or double-ended sofa, which had been sent to a well-known London firm of upholsterers to be done up, utterly ruined in this way. As a general rule, for the safe guidance of people who wish for old furniture, let me say here, that my experience is, that there is no way of getting antique furniture done up satisfactorily out of one's own house. The best thing to do, though not the cheapest perhaps, is to have a worki.e.

at

man

sent to the furniture, instead of letting

workman, and then to make him understand that you intend to have the old work done in the old way as nearly as possible, and to visit him yourself several times during the day in order to make
the furniture go to the

sure that he is keeping as near as possible to the original. Of course, this means paying by time, and it is impossible for an estimate
of the cost to be given
satisfactory
;

but

it

is

the only

way

to get the restoring of old


it is

furniture done, and

no more expensive than the ordinary way of procuring an 80


often

<U

>

>

OJ

l>^ SS 0)

^
i^

en

Oh J

<^ (L)

nun

1^

03

'd

CHAIRS AND SOFAS


estimate.

Moreover,
it

the almost certain spoiling of the piece


will result if
is

you take into account which sent away and done by


if

estimate,

it

is

decidedly

cheaper

in

the

end.

Of Chippendale's ribbon-backed

or carved-

back chairs and settees, illustrations are given of some very fine examples from Mr. Orrock's These need collection (Plates 8i and 82). no description or comment, since the illustrations speak for themselves, and nowadays almost every one knows that any chairs approaching these are very well worth saving as a money speculation, even if not for their
intrinsic beauty.

Another celebrated maker of chairs was Hepplewhite (see Plate 83), the first known maker to depart from the square-shaped back. His chairs usually show the shield-shaped
back, and, as the basis for their ornamentation,
either the wheat-ear, the honey-suckle flower,

Wales feathers. Yet another chairmaker's style is shown in Plate 89, which
or the Prince of
is

pendale

Mainwaring, one of Chipminor contemporaries. Much more elaborate were the beautiful chairs and settees made by Pergolesi for the Adam brothers. These are not so generally
characteristic of
s

81

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


well known, but the style
in the illustrations
is

excellently

shown

from the very fine and Mr. Orrock's collection (Plates 85, 91, and 92), which should make it possible for any one to recognize Pergolesi's work, if lucky enough to come across it.
perfect specimens in

does not show in the illustrations is the fact that these pieces are white enamelled picked out with gold, and the coverings are cashmere, painted with a design exactly
suiting the chair or settee.

What

In conclusion I come to Sheraton's chairs. The prince of cabinet-makers did not make very beautiful chairs, but he did entirely alter the style that had been in favour before. He adopted or invented the round leg and the straight square back-rail, supported by the two principal uprights from the back legs, with a light interlaced centre-support. This, at a later period, degenerated into the hideous chair of early Victorian days, by the simple process of curving the top rail and replacing the slender perpendicular supports by the incredibly inartistic horizontal one, which is now, I believe, only used in the cheapest form of Windsor chair made for
kitchen use.

Sheraton's chairs are often very beautiful

82

'|^.
S^

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X

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en en

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nj

TO

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C.t

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en

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CHAIRS AND SOFAS


being generally of satinwood or pale mahogany inlaid with satinwood, and the workmanship is very fine and delicate. Of course, for a room which is furnished in Sheraton style, they are far more suitable than any others. Few people seem to realize this, for it is quite usual to see a room furnished with delicately inlaid Sheratoninspired furniture with heavy claw-and-ball footed Chippendale chairs, the effect being quite incongruous and untasteful. If there are several styles of antique furniture represented in the room it does not matter, but when the
in colour,

sideboard, the table,


are
all

and the
style,
it

principal pieces

Sheraton in
effect
if

quite spoils the

whole

out of character; and there is the less excuse, seeing that Sheraton-style are still the cheapest antique chairs of the later makes on the market.
the chairs are

83

USEFUL BOOKS OF REFERENCE


Book
of Designs.

By R. and

J.

Adam.

Elements of Style In Furniture.

By R. Brook.

Book

of Designs.

By Thomas Chippendale.
By K. Warren

Chippendale and his Contemporaries.


Clouston.

Furniture.

By Falke.
By Henri Havard.

Dictionnaire de TAmeublement.

Book

of Designs.

By Hepplewhite.
By Hepplewhite.

Cabinet Makers' Guide.

Illustrated History of Furniture.

By Litchfield.

Specimens of Antique Carved Furniture.


shall.

By A. Mar-

Sketches of Antique Furniture.

By W.

C. Ogden.

Examples of Carved Oak


W.
B. Sanders.

Work

in Furniture.

By

Specimens of Furniture.

By Henry Shaw.

Book

of Designs.

By Thomas Sheraton.

Cabinet Makers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book. By Thomas Sheraton.


Cabinet Makers' Dictionary.

By Thomas Sheraton.
By Esther Singleton.

Furniture of our Forefathers.


English Furniture.

By T. A. Strange.

Homes

of our Forefathers.

By Wright.

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a,

4-1

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W O O
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cfi

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3 ? ^

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"

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^ c

-C

INDEX
Adam, Robert and James,
xliv, xlv

21, 43, 45, 5o53, 54, 69, 81; Plates xl,

Boxwood, 25, 27, 66, 67, 68 Boxwood, stained green, Plate

Ixi.

Agecroft Hall, Lancashire, carvedoak bedstead at, Plate xix

Anne, Queen,
76,

30, 36, 46, 64, 65, 75,

Brackets, 50 ; Plates, ii, iii, v, xxxiv Bracket shelves of Chippendale, 50 Brass handles, 16, 17, 47, 48, 68
;

n^

78;

Plates xxxiii,

Ixxii,

Ixxiii, Ixxviii

Plates, xxvii, xxix, xxxviii, Ivi Brasses, original, their importance,

Armchair, stained wood, William and Mary, 75


Ixix

early Plate

Armchair, mahogany. Late pendale, 79 Plate Ixxx


;

C hip-

16 ; Plate xv Bureau, walnut, early eighteenthcentury, 33 ; Plate xxviii Bureau, walnut, with cabinet top, William and Mary, 30 ; Plate xxvi

imitations really an improvement on modem designs, i Ball-feet, Plate iii Bedstead, early English carvedoak, Plate i (^Frontispiece)

Bad

Bureaux,

19,

20
late period, Plate

Cabinet, Adam,
xl.

Bedstead, carved-oak, at Agecroft Hall, Lancashire, Stuart period, Plate xix Bedstead, oak, at Goodwood House, Sussex, Stuart period, Plate xviii Bedstead, carved-oak, in the King's room, Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, temp. Henry VIL, Plate xxi Bedstead, George the Third's, in
State bedroom. Goodwood Sussex, Plate xlvi

Cabinet, ebony and tortoiseshell, Plate xxxiii Cabinet, oak, inlaid with mother-ofpearl, Stuart, 1 8 ; Plate xiv Sheraton, Cabinet, satinwood, Plate Iv " Cabinet - makers' and Upholsterers* Guide," the first comprehensive book of designs, 45 Cabriole legs, 16, 40, 74, 78 ; Plates

H ouse,

xxxvii, xciii

74, 75 Beech-wood chair, Plate xciv Bible-box, 19 Black, Adam, on Sheraton, 54

Beech, 71, 73,

Candlestick stands, 48 Cane backs, 'J^ Cane panels, Plates Ixviii, Ixxvi,
Ixxxvi

Black knobs, 47, 48 Black wood, 66 Bog-oak and holly inlaying,


18,

Cane Card

seats, 77, 78 tables, 33, 46, xxxvii, Ix

65

Plates

15, 17,

Carved-back chairs and settees of


Chippendale, 81

71

Plate

xiii

Bookcase hogany
xlviii

and
inlaid,

secretaire,

ma-

Sheraton, Plate
;

Carved legs, Plate liv Carved rose of Hepplewhite, Plate


xxxix

Bow-fronted chests of drawers, 42


Plate xxxviii

Carved

settees,

72

Bow-fronted commode, 67
Ivi

Plate

Carving, 17, 18, 36, 37, 38, 40, 76, 78 ; Plates xii, xiv, xvii, xviii, xix,
xlvi, Ixix, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxviii

85

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


Carving tables, mahogany, 50 Chairs and sofas, 71
Chair, beechwood, rail-back, probably Stuart period, Plate xciv Chair, carved, James I., 74 ; Plate
Ixvii

mahogany, Sheraton, 58
xlix

Plate

Chair,
Chair,

carved-wood, cane panel,


;

Stuart, 74

Ixviii

carved-wood,

with

single

Chest of drawers, oak, with veneer of walnut on front, Stuart, 26, 27, 28 ; Plates xxiii, xxv Chest of drawers, "tallboy," walnut, seventeenth century, 33, 43 ; Plates xxiv, xxvii China cabinet, Chippendale, Plate
xli

cane panel, Stuart, Plate Ixxvi Chair, carved, with cane seat and back, probably Stuart, Ixxxvi Chairs, Hepplewhite, 81 ; Plates
Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv

China cabinet, Pergolesi, 69


Ixv

Plate

China cabinet, Pergolesi, marble top and plinth, 69 ; Plate Ixvi


Chinese period, the, of Chippendale, 39 Chippendale, 1-3, 34-41, 43-45, 50,
51, 53, 54, 59, 75, 76, 7^y 79, 81, Plates xxxv, xli, xlvi, Ixxix, ; Ixxx, Ixxxi, Ixxxii, Ixxxvii, xc

Chair, mahogany, honeysucklepattern back, Plate Ixxxvii Chair, mahogany, probably by Mainwaring, 81 ; Plate Ixxxix Chair by Pergolisi, 82 ; Plate Ixxxv Chair, ribbon-back, Chippendale, 81 ; Ixxxii Chair, stained-wood, carved, Stuart, Plate Ixxv Chair, walnut, Plate Ixxvii Chair, walnut- framed, Plate Ixxiv Chair, walnut, carved shell on back and legs, early Georgian, Plate Ixxxviii Chair, walnut, with turned rail. Queen Anne, 'JT^ 78 ; Plate Ixxiii Chair-backs, 75 Chaise longue, carved walnut, Stuart, 76 ; Plate Ixx Chancel stall style of chair in the possession of Mr. Seymour Lucas, 71 Charles I. period, 15, 74, 75 Charles II. period, 27, 28, 75 Chest, oak, with linen-fold carving and old lock. Early, 14 j Plate
iv

83

Cipriani, 68

Plate

Ivi

Claw-and-ball feet, 28, 39, 40, 74, 83 ; Plates Ixviii, Ixxviii Club-feet, 78 ; Plates x, xv, xciii, xciv Club-footed table, 15, 16, 45, 46;
Plates X, XV

Coles Park, Buntingford, linen-fold panelling at, 14 Commode, panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann, R.A., Pergolesi, 69 ; Plate Ixiv Commode, bow-fronted, satinwood, late eighteenth century, 61, 67 ; Plate Ivi Commode, panels painted by Angelica Kaufmann, R.A., 69 ; Plate
Ixiii

Chest, oak, with linen-fold carving, Henry VII. or VIII., 10, 11, 14; Plate V Chest of drawers, lignum vitae, on stand, Stuart, 55 ; Plate xlvii Chest of drawers, mahogany, bowfronted, 42 ; Plate xxxviii Chest of drawers, light-coloured

Copeland's designs, 44 Corner cupboard, inlaid, late eighteenth century, 62 Plate Iviii Corner-table, mahogany, Plate xlii Cosmetic boxes, 58, 59 Cottage chair, rail-back, beechwood, Plate xciv
;

Cradles, oak, 21 Cross-cutting, 26, 27 xxv, xxix

Plates xxiv,

Curved backs, 77 Curved foot-rail, Plate

xciii

86

INDEX
Designs, first comprehensive book of, by Chippendale, 44 Development from carved oak to mahogany, 23 Dining-room, Old Place, Sussex,
Stuart, Plate xxxii Dining-tables, oak, Tudor, 8
ii, iii
;

Factory

system, the, opposed to craftsmanship, 41. Fenn, Frederick, specimens in the possession of ; Plates x, xv, xxiii,
xxvii,
Ivi,

xxviii,

xxix,
xliii,

xxxi,
Ixviii,

xxxvi,
liii,

xxxviii, xlii,

xlvii, xlix,

Plates

Ivii,

lix,

Ix,

Ixi,

Ixxii,

Ixxix, Ixxx, Ixxxviii

Distinctive marks on old furniture, 12 ; imitated by dealers, 13 Dog-tooth carving, Plate xi Domestic interiors, Plates xxi,
xxxii, xlvi 18, 19 oak, with drawers, Yorkshire, 14 Plate vi Dower-chest, the forerunner of wardrobes, chests of drawers, and cabinets, 9 Dresser, oak, with mouldings as decoration, Jacobean, Plate xx Dressing-table fitments, the, of Sheraton, 58 Dressing-table, mahogany, inlaid with satinwood bands, eighteenth century, Plate 1 Dumb-waiter, mahogany, 50; Plate

Double runners,
Dower-chest,

Folding library steps, 57 Four-post mahogany bedsteads, 5 Fraud, the cheapness of commoner pieces, a safeguard against, 20 French polish not on Stuart furniture, 29 Fret-work carving, 39, 40, 50, 79 ; Plates xxxiv, xxxv

Gate-leg
period, 15

tables,
;

oak,
vii, ix

Stuart
Plate

Plate

Georgian,
Ixxxviii

early,

period,

xliii

Durability of early oak tables, 9, 12

Gibbon, Dr., 35 Gibbons, Grinling, 37, 40 Glazed doors for cupboards, 63 Goodwood House, Sussex, early specimens at. Plates xviii, xlvi Grandfather - chair, Queen Anne period, 76 Plate Ixxii Grandfather clock, oak, long-case,
;

Easy

chairs,

mahogany 78

early Ixxix

Chippendale,

carved, Plate

Plate xxii

Greek - inspired

moulding

and

Easy-chair, stuffed, with wing sides, Queen Anne, 76 ; Plate Ixxii Ebony, 67, 68 Plates, xxxiii, Ixi
;

decoration, 43, 44 Green, the, of the Sheraton period,


55

Green-wood,
liv, lix

63,

65,

67

Plates

Edward VI.

period, 17 Eighteenth century, early, period, Plates X, 1, lix, Ix Eighteenth century, late, period, Plates xlvi, li, liv, Ivi, Ivii, Iviii,
Ixi

Greg, R. P., Esq., panelling in dower-house at Coles Park, 14 Grew, E. S., Esq., oak dresser in the possession of, Plate xx

Elam, Mrs. A. W., 21

room

at

Court, Kent, Plate xvi. Elizabeth, Queen, period, 8, 17 Plate XV Embroidery in the King's room, Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, Plate
xxi.

Lenham

Half-circle
Half-circle
Ixviii

rails,

stretcher,

Plate Ixxiv 74 ; Plate

Hamlet

chair, 73

Hampton Court

Palace, 13, 33 Handles, old, to be preserved, 16, 17

87

;;

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


Harewood,
Plates
55,

59,
Ix

63,

66-68;
v, xxi
9,

Lenham Court, room


Plate xvi
Letts,

at,

21

liv, Ivi,

Henry VII. Period, Plates Henry VIII. period, 8,


Plates V, XV Hepplewhite, 2, 43, 45,

13;

specimens at one
possession of
;

S. E., Esq., 3, 40, 74, 77 ; time in the

Plates

iii,

viii, xvii,

53, 54, 59,

Ixvii, Ixx, Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii,

xc
;

60, 71, 81 ; Plates xxxix, Ixxxiii, Ixxxiv, Ixxxvii Hinges, long wrought iron, 12

Lignum
iv, V,

vitae or

walnut root, 55
Plates

Linen-fold panels, 13, 14


xxi
14,

Honeysuckle-flower ornamentation, the, of Hepplewhite, 81 ; of Adams, 44 ; Plate Ixxxvii Hoof-foot, the, its probable origin, 28 Hubbard, P. Egerton, Esq., ma-

Locks,

44
for

London a good hunting-ground

old specimens, 7 Lucas, Seymour, Esq., R.A., 9, 14, 17, 18, 71, 74, 77, 78, specimens belonging to ; Plates ii, iv, v, xii,
xiv, Ixxi, Ixxiii, Ixxiv

hogany
Hutch,

chair, Plate Ixxxix

the, 13, Plate xvii

INCE AND Mayhew, 44;


xxxiv

Plate

Mahogany, its introduction, 35 made up on deal generally valueless,

Incongruous

effects

produced by

46

heaviness and solidity

the use of different styles, 83 Inlaid mahogany and satinwood, 53, 61, 62 Inlaid oak, 17, 18 Inlaying, 18, 24, 36, 53, 60, 67, 68 ; Plate Ivii Insecurity, feeling of, suggested by Chippendale's slighter chairs, 39 Italian workmen, 18

indications of genuineness, 45 ; light-coloured, 59, 60, 83 ; Plates


xlix, Ixi

Mainwaring, 44, 81 Mary, Queen of

;
I

Plate Ixxxix
Scots,

em-

Jacobean
Plates
ix,

style, 15, 17, 20, 34,


;

76

broidery said to be her work, Plate xxi Marie Antoinette, English taste influenced by specimens from her Court, 60 Method of dealing with old speci-

James
Ixvii

I.

xx, xxix period, 27-29, 73

mens, II
Esq., specimens bePlates xxxvii, Iii Mirror by Adam, Plate xlv Modern ways of acquiring furniture

Plate

Mew, Egan,
longing

to.

Johnson, a small maker of furniture, 44 Jones, Inigo, 44 Jones, W., idea of producing books of designs first practised by, 44

compared with the old, 30, 31, 32 Mother-of-pearl inlaying, 15, 18 ;


Plate xiv

Kaufmann, Angelica,

69,

70;

Mouldings, 26

Plates

xx,

xxvi,

Plates Ixiii, Ixiv Kent, his book of designs, 44 Key plates, 17 ; Plates xxvii, xxix King-wood, 55 ; Plate Ivii

xxviii, xxxiii, xlvii

Moyse's Hall, Bury St. Edmunds, carved settles at, 72

My tens,
;

73

Plate Ixvii

Knee-hole tables, Jacobean,


Plate xxix Knife-boxes, mahogany, 50

33, 48

Nest-tables, 48

Norman

arch, the, 11, 71

88

INDEX
Oak
furniture,
-

kneading

8 ; chairs, 22 ; troughs, 21 ; wash-

stands and towel-airers, apparently non-existent, 21 Occasional-table, mahogany, Ince and Mayhew, Plate xxxiv Occasional-table, mahogany, Chippendale, Plate XXXV Occasional-table, mahogany, shelledged, Plate xxxvi Old Place, Sussex, dining-room, Plate xxxii Ormolu, rails of, 50 Orrock, James, Esq., 3, 50, 67, 69, 81, 82, specimens belonging to ; Plates xl, xli, xliv, xlv, xlviii, Iv,
Ixii,
Ixiii,

Ram's head and wreath, the, of Adams, 44 Reason why the finest furniture is
not now produced, 6 Reproduction, the, of unique specimens, 56 Repairing and restoring, 4, 5, 6, 29,

80
Revival of taste, a, the only hope for craftsmanship, 41

Ribbon-back,
Ixxxii

81

Plates

Ixxxi,

Roman occupation, the, its probable


influence on furniture, 9 at Lenham Court, Kent, 21 ; Plate xvi Room, the King's, at Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, Plate xxi Roses or rosettes, the, of Hepplewhite, 43

Room

Ixiv,

Ixv,

Ixvi,

Ixxxi,

Ixxxii, Ixxxiii, Ixxxv, xci, xcii

Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, The King's room at, Plate xxi


69, 70 panels, Plates Ixiii, Ixiv, Ixv Panelling, Plate xiii, xxvi ; in the Hall, King's room, Oxburgh
60,

Rosewood,

63,

(i^

Painted

furniture,

Satinwood,

55, 58-61, 63-^7, 70,

83

Plates XXX,

liv, Iv, Ivi, Ivii, lix, Ix,

Norfolk, Plate xxi; oak, from Sizergh Castle, 17 ; Plate xiii Pear- wood, 75

Ixi, Ixii, Ixiii

Satinwood
Iviii

bands

Plates

1,

li^

Pembroke Pembroke

tables, 45, 65, 70 table, satinwood inlaid

Satinwood bureaux, 65 Satinwood screens, painted, 70^


toilette-glasses, painted, ib

with tulipwood, eighteenth-century, Plate lix

Pergolesi, 67, 69, 70, 81, 82; Plates Ixiv, Ixv, Ixvi, Ixxxv, xci, xcii Pier-tables, 69 Pier-table, harewood, 67 ; Plate
liv

Sawing, improvements in, their influence on inlaying, 24 Screens, mahogany framed, 48 Screen table, 57 Serpentine-fronted chest of drawers,,
59
;

commode,

61

Sheraton, satinwood, Plate Ixii 59, 67 Pigott, Mrs., ebony and tortoiseshell cabinet in her possession, Plate xxxiii Press, oak, sixteenth-century, 17 Plate xii Prince of Wales' feathers, 81 Probable cost of specimens, 5, i7j
Pier-table,
;

Settees, 76 Settee, mahogany, probably Chip-

pendale, Plate xc
Settees,

by

Pergolesi, 82

Plates,

xci, xcii

Settee, ribbon-back, Chippendale,. 81 ; Plate Ixxxi Settee, walnut, Queen Anne, Plate
Ixxviii

80 Proper surroundings an important


20, 76,
factor, 2

Settee, walnut,

William and Mary^


73
;

76

Plate Ixxi
Plate xvi

Settles, 21, 72,

89

; ;

OLD ENGLISH FURNITURE


Seventeenth century, walnut "
tall-

37-39, 55, 74, 76,


vii, xiv,

Plates

vi,

boy," Plate xxvii Shell, the carved, of the Queen Anne period, 36, 46, 62, 73, 74 decoration. Plates xxxvii, Iviii,
Ixviii, Ixxviii

XV, xviii, xix, xxiii, xxxi, xxxii, xlvii, Ixviii, Ixx, Ixxv, Ixxvi, Ixxxvi, xciv
;

Sycamore, 55

Plate xlvii

Sheraton,
Iv, Ixii

2, 4, 4S 53-56, 58-61, 67, 69, 71, 82, 83 ; Plates xlviii, xlix,

Table,

Shield-shaped back, the, of Hepplewhite, 81 Shield-shaped toilette-glass, Plate

club-footed, oak, seventeenth-century, 15, 16 Plate x Table, small oak, 16 ; Plate xi Tables, small mahogany, with long
;

legs,

48

XXX
Side-boards, 61 Side-board, Adam, 50 ; Plate xliv Side-board, mahogany, late eighteenth century, 62 ; Plate Ivii six-sided oak table, Six-legged, Tudor, Plate viii Sixteenth-century period, Plate xii,
xiii

Tall chests of drawers, 42 Tapestry in the King's Room, Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, Plate xxi Testers, Plate xviii
Toilette-glasses, 59 Toilette-glass, mahogany, inlaid, Plate Iii Toilette-glass, mahogany, inlaid, serpentine-fronted,shield-shaped, Plate XXX Toilette-glass,mirror placed lengthwise, bow-fronted, Plate liii Toilette-glass, oak, inlaid, Stuart, 34 ; Plate xxxi Toilette-table, 57, 69

Sizergh Castle, 17, 24 ; oak panelling at, Plate xiii Smith, Albert, specimens originally his property, 78 Smoker's box, Plate xvi Sofas, or " sophas," 71, 72, 76 South Kensington School of Art needlework, Plates i, xxii

South Kensington Museum, 69 ; Plate xiii


Spandrils, carved, 14 Spiral legs, 15, 16 ; Plates
xlvii
*

17, 24,

vii, xiv,

Towel-horses, mahogany, 49 Trays, mahogany, 50 Treatment of old specimens, 1 Tricks and frauds of dealers, 5, 6, 13, 47, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72 Triple mirror, 58 Tudor period, 9, 37,71 Plates ii,
;

Spiral rails, 28 ; Plate Ixx Spiral struts, 76 piano, mahogany, late Square 66 ; Plate eighteenth-century,
Ixi

iii,

viii

Tudor

rose, 11, 71
;

Tulip wood, 55, 63, 65 ; Plate lix Turned legs, 15, 16, 62 Plate Ixxiy

Turned
xciv

rail.

Plates xxxiv,

Ixxiii,

Sterry, J. Ashby, Esq., 30, 74, 11^ 78, specimens belonging to Plates xxvi, Ixix, Ixxv, Ixxvi, Ixxvii,
xciii

Turned struts, ']^ Twisted carving, Plate

xliii

Straight square back-rail, the, of Sheraton, 82

Unsuitable
Urn,

Strawberry

Hill,

40

surroundings, 2 Upholstery, 76, 78-80, 82; Plates


xc, xci, xcii the, of Adams,

Struts or stretchers, 8, 38, 78; Plates ii, iii, viii, xiv Stuart period, the, 5, 18, 27-29,

44

Urn

stands, 48

90

INDEX
Varnish, a remarkable early, 29 Veneering, 34, 36, 63 ; Plate xxiii Victorian period, 19, 47, 82
" Wicker-chairs Chaucer, 8
;

"

mentioned

by

William and Mary period, 30, 7476 Plates xxvi, Ixix, Ixxi

Windsor

chair,

wheelback, Plate

Walnut furniture,
in the possession

23

xciii

Walpole, Horace, a piece supposed to have been made for, now


of Mr. Letts, 40 Wardrobe, mahogany, by Hepplewhite, 43
;

Plate xxxix

Washstands, mahogany, 49 Washstand, mahogany, late eigh-

Wedgwood

teenth century, Plate li plaque in a pier-table in the possession of James Orrock, Esq., 70 Wheat-ear ornamentation, the, of Hepplewhite, 81 ; Plate Ixxxiv

Wine-coolers, mahogany, 50 Wooden hinges, 48 Wooden pegs, 15 Plate vi Wren, Sir Christopher, cabinet presented to, by Queen Anne, Plate xxxiii Writing-slide, 33 ; Plate xlix Writing-table, club-footed, oak, 19, 57 ; Plate xv Wyllie, Mrs. C. W., 3, specimens belonging to ; Plates vi, vii, ix,
;

xi,

XXX, xxxix,

liv, Iviii,

Ixxxiv
vi

Yorkshire

dower-chest, Plate

THE END

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LONDON AND BKCCLBS.

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