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1. Child Development Test: The Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes Test


... Falender and Mehrabian Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes scales are offered here ... Framework for a comprehensive description and measurement of emotional states. ... www.kaaj.com/psych/scales/att.html - 6k - Cached - More from this site

2. NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE: youths


To assess parental attitudes, NHSDA respondents aged 12 to 17 were asked how ... introduce a higher degree of measurement (or misclassification) error in these ... www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/1997Main/nhsda1997mfWeb-118.htm - 18k - Cached More from this site

3. Tests and Measures in the Social Sciences: Keyword PARENT(S)


Scales for the measurement of attitudes. NY: McGraw Hill. Pg.62-64 ... Parental Modernity in Childrearing and Educational Attitudes and Beliefs. ERIC ED202605 ...

libraries.uta.edu/helen/test&meas/AlphaKeyword/Keyword PARENT(S).htm - 100k Cached - More from this site

4. Parental Education
... the child is the first standard measurement of the success of their educational method. ... that may reach a degree of contradiction in their attitudes. ... www.isesco.org.ma/pub/Eng/Parental/page10.htm - 33k - Cached - More from this site

5. Effects of Parental Involvement on Students' Attitudes Towards Learning


... a survey of students' attitudes about parental involvement with both academic ... Measurement: This survey measured students' perceptions of the involvement ... psy1.clarion.edu/rp/archives/research/brownetalEPA03.html - 5k - Cached - More from this site

6. UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1976 Issue 4 - 002


The influence of parental drug use and attitudes on perceived children's drug use ... panel study in which repeated measurements were made of the same ... www.unodc.org/unodc/bulletin/bulletin_1976-01-01_4_page003.html - 71k - Cached More from this site

7. Evaluating the National Outcomes: Parent/Family--Parents; Nurture_Measures


... received two positive reviews in the Mental Measurement Index. ... The Parental Attitudes Toward Child rearing questionnaire has been used in research. ... ag.arizona.edu/fcs/cyfernet/nowg/parent_nurture_measures.html - 60k - Cached More from this site

8. Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention in Modifying Parental ...


... would be effective in improving parental attitudes about the judicious use of antibiotics. ... Measurement-induced improvement" may have occurred as ...

pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/111/5/e548 - More from this site

9. www.johann-sandra.com/doc/AttitudesBody.doc (MICROSOFT WORD)


Research has shown that parental attitudes significantly influence alcohol use ... an undergraduate Testing and Measurement class at Washington State ... www.johann-sandra.com/doc/AttitudesBody.doc - 34k - View as html - More from this site

10. Evaluating the National Outcomes: Parent/Family--Parents ...


... received two positive reviews in the Mental Measurement Index. ... The Parental Attitudes Toward Child rearing questionnaire has been used in research. ... ag.arizona.edu/fcs/cyfernet/nowg/parent_ustand_measures.html - 36k - Cached More from this site 12345678910 Next
parental attitud Search

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Albert Mehrabian, Ph.D.

email: ampsych@gmail.com voice mail: 888 363 1732

Please specify the following information when you inquire about psychological tests: The institution where you will conduct your testing The individuals you will test Your reasons for testing

Personality & Emotion Tests & Software; Psychological Books & Articles of Popular Interest

Albert Mehrabian, Ph.D.

Personality & Emotion Tests


Tests & Software to Measure Personality, Psychopathology, Emotion or Affect, & Child Development Tests & Software for: Personality Test Inventory, Emotional Empathy, Emotional Intelligence, EQ, Self-Esteem, Optimism-Pessimism, Integrity & Honesty, Achievement & Life Success, Arousal-Seeking & Sensation-Seeking, Affiliation & Sociability, DominanceSubmissiveness, Internal-External Control, Violence, Aggression (workplace violence, domestic violence), Trait Anxiety, Depression, Panic Disorder, Alcohol & Drug Use, Child Emotionality, Child Language Ability & Skills, Parental Attitudes, Affect, Feelings, & Emotions. Covert or Camouflaged Assessment of Highly Sensitive (Desirable or Undesirable) Personality Traits Assessment of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, violence-proneness), honesty or integrity, worker reliability and other sensitive traits using indirect approaches. Administration & scoring with software.

A Mimimalist Philosophy of Product and Software Design; Consulting Services to Improve Usability
Consulting Services to Improve Product Usability: The New Minimalist Approach Consulting Services for Improving Software User Interface & Software Usability

Psychological Books and Audio Recordings of Popular Interest


"Baby Name Report Card: Beneficial and Harmful Baby Names" -- Revolutionary Research-Based Approach for Selecting Names "Silent Messages" -- A Primer of Nonverbal Communication (Body Language) for the General Audience Interviews with Albert Mehrabian About Nonverbal Communication "Beyond IQ:" A monograph that includes reviews of available data plus extensive new research findings on emotional intelligence. Uses personality scales and other individual-difference measures (e.g., IQ, physical attractiveness) to predict a person's chances of becoming successful in various areas of his/her life. "Your Inner Path to Investment Success" -- Insights into the Psychology of Successful Investing

Guidance for Students


Novel Research Ideas & Methods for Student Researchers Wide Range of Tests for Student Researchers, Includes Section on "Tests Available Free Online"

Research Findings & Articles of Popular Interest


Personality Characteristics That Help a Person Become Successful in Life

Have you ever wondered if poll reports by news media affect the ways in which the public votes? Do Polls Influence Votes and What are the Dangers for Democracy? How do Liberals and Conservatives Differ? What are the Prevailing Emotions in Your Family and Work Life? (Available for Free Download) What Kinds of People are Happy in Marriage? Understanding Sexual Desire and Sexual Dysfunction in Terms of Emotions Generated Outside the Immediate Sexual Relationship. What Characteristics Contribute to a Person's Physical Attractiveness? What Kinds of People Believe in Psychic Phenomena, Magic, Extra-Terrestrials, Luck, or Astrology (i.e., magical, esoteric, and unfounded concepts and hypotheses)? What happens to Temperament and Personality Characteristics as People Age? Incorporating Life-Like Qualities (Feelings, Personality) in Intelligent Robots

Background Information
About Albert Mehrabian Comprehensive List of Albert Mehrabian's Publications Books by Albert Mehrabian Book Descriptions and Ordering Information

Some Useful Related Links


Some Journal Abstracts from UCLA Enter a journal name or words from a journal name and then follow links. Some journals will allow you to view abstracts. UCLA Library Search American Psychological Society Links from the Canadian Psychological Association An Excellent Online Dictionary

Contact Information
Copyright 1995-2007 by Albert Mehrabian

General Tests of Emotion or Affect for Evaluating Consumer Reactions to Products and Services, Including User Interface
Uses of the PAD Emotion Scales in Consumer Research Uses of the PAD Emotion Scales to Evaluate Corporate Culture Use of the PAD Emotion Scales to Evaluate User Interface of Products & Software

General Background and Definitions Description of the Full-Length Scales Description of the Abbreviated Scales Software for Administering and Scoring the Scales Translations of the Software Reliability and Validity Key Articles Important References Contact For Price and Ordering Information

Uses of the PAD Emotion Scales in Consumer Research The PAD Emotion Scales, when used in the software package, supply a highly useful and convenient assessment of consumer emotional reactions to services, products, or combinations of products and services. Within the software, each object of evaluation (e.g., automobile, electronic product such as a camera or stereo component, particular packaging idea, advertisement, web site, call center, shoe model, store decor, corporate culture, work supervision structure) is given a unique stimulus number or ID. Reactions of 30-50 consumers are obtained to each stimulus of interest. For example, consumer reactions might be obtained to two different digital camera models, to an automobile under development and a competitor's automobile model, three different advertisements under consideration, or to different names under consideration for a particular product. The software averages responses of consumers to each stimulus and thus quickly and easily highlights differences in consumer emotional reactions to the stimuli being compared. Averages of the three basic pleasure (P), arousal (A), and dominance (D) values (scores) supplied by the software for each stimulus yield common-sense and meaningful data for evaluating and redesigning any stimulus. Comparison of products or services on pleasure-displeasure are fundamental for understanding consumer preferences and/or satisfaction. Comparisons on arousal-nonarousal show how products or services might differ in terms of how much alertness and/or physical activity they elicit from consumers. For instance, color schemes or decor of a store can be made to increase or decrease arousal of customers. And, whereas high arousal might be in line with consumer expectations and preferences in some stores, the opposite could be the case for other types of shopping environments. Additionally, dominance-submissiveness reactions of consumers to services could shed light on the quality of consumer experience. For instance, a pampered consumer would report submissiveness, pleasure, and low arousal; an excited consumer would report dominance, pleasure, and high arousal; an upset consumer would report submissiveness, displeasure, and high arousal. Importantly, dominance may be the desired consumer reaction for some, whereas submissiveness may be the preferred reaction in other, service or product situations. Or, and even more importantly, PAD constellations expected by consumers might depend on consumer income and age levels.

The PAD Emotion software can be used not only to study consumer reactions to specific products or services, but also to obtain consumer expectations about those products or services. Such expectations can be obtained for targeted groups differing in age, income, or educational categories. Also, once such PAD reactions (or expectations) are obtained for any specific product or service, the PAD values should help provide guidelines on ways in which a product or service can be modified to enhance consumer preferences and satisfaction. Available Translations of the PAD Emotion Scales and Software The PAD Emotion Scales and Software are currently available in Spanish and German. Uses of the PAD Emotion Scales to Evaluate Corporate Culture An important application of the PAD Emotion Scales is in their use to quickly and easily measure the emotional climate created by corporate cultures. The scales can be used to ascertain employee emotional reactions to the conditions within their specific work groups, the broader divisions in which they are employed, their reactions to supervisory policies, reactions to coworkers, and so forth. There is considerable versatility in targeting the PAD toward any specific aspect of the corporate environment and the way in which that environment typically influences everyday emotions (feelings, affect) of workers. Pinpointing the emotional impact of corporate culture can be critical for understanding levels of worker satisfaction, morale, absenteeism, or productivity. The Mehrabian Worker Satisfaction Scale (WSS) can be used along with the PAD Emotion Scales to investigate relations among the Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance dimensions of the PAD with worker reports of their levels of satisfaction. Understanding and measuring corporate culture in R&D institutions is crucial for improving productivity, but may appear particularly difficult to measure. However, when such cultures are examined within the PAD framework, it is not only easy to conceptualize and inexpensively assess those cultures, but also to do so in a way that allows workers to provide confidential responses so that results won't be contaminated by worker apprehensions about supplying honest, negative reports. Use of the PAD Emotion Scales to Evaluate User Interface of Products & Software The PAD Emotion Scales readily lend themselves to the evaluation of user interface effectiveness of products and software. Products burdened with unnecessary "bells & whistles" are more likely to elicit distress and frustration, than excitement and enthusiasm. Suggestions regarding product and software interface design given in the following two links can be augmented and tested by using the PAD Emotion Scales. How to Improve User Inteface of Consumer Products How to Improve User Inteface of Software

The PAD Emotion Scales: General Background and Definitions The theoretical rationale and experimental foundations for the PAD Emotional State Model have been detailed by Mehrabian (1980, 1995, 1997). The Model consists of three nearly independent dimensions that are used to describe and measure emotional states (or feelings, affective conditions): pleasure- displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness. "Pleasure-displeasure" distinguishes the positive-negative affective quality of emotional states,

"arousal-nonarousal" refers to a combination of physical activity and mental alertness, and "dominance-submissiveness" is defined in terms of control versus lack of control. Importance of using all three of the pleasure, arousal, and dominance dimensions (versus using the pleasure and arousal dimensions only) has been amply demonstrated in research dealing with consumer retail environments. In particular, the review of Yani-de-Soriano and Foxall (2006) has highlighted the critical role of dominance-submissiveness for understanding consumer behaviors. Specific terms describing emotions can be visualized as points in a three-dimensional PAD emotion space. Alternatively, when the PAD scale scores are standardized, each emotion term can be described succinctly in terms of its values on the pleasure-displeasure, arousalnonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness axes. The following sample ratings illustrate definitions of various emotion terms when scores on each PAD scale range from -1 to +1: angry (-.51, .59, .25), bored (-.65, -.62, -.33), curious (.22, .62, -.01), dignified (.55, .22, .61), elated (.50, .42, .23), hungry (-.44, .14, -.21), inhibited (-.54, -.04, -.41), loved (.87, .54, -.18), puzzled (-.41, . 48, -.33), sleepy (.20, -.70, -.44), unconcerned (-.13, -.41, .08), violent (-.50, .62, .38). Thus, according to ratings given for "angry," it is a highly unpleasant, highly aroused, and moderately dominant emotional state. "Sleepy" consists of a moderately pleasant, extremely unaroused, and moderately submissive state, whereas "bored" is composed of highly unpleasant, highly unaroused, and moderately submissive components. Use of the PAD Emotion Scales for Assessment of Specific Emotions: Within the PAD Model, there are eight basic and common varieties of emotion, as defined by all possible combinations of high versus low pleasure (+P and -P), high versus low arousl (+A and -A) and high versus low dominance (+D and -D). Thus, for instance, Anxious (-P+A-D) states include feeling aghast, bewildered, distressed, in pain, insecure, or upset; hostile (-P+A+D) states include feeling angry, catty, defiant, insolent, and nasty; and exuberant (+P+A+D) states include feeling admired, bold, carefree, excited, mighty, and triumphant. The PAD Emotion Scales Manual provides detailed and straightforward instructions for calculating highly representative scores for each of the eight most common variants of emotional state. The software for the scales calculates the eight basic emotion scores described in the preceding paragrah. In addition, the test manual provides instructions for calculation of highly specific emotions (e.g., feeling empathic, optimistic). Guidance regarding computation of other emotional states from the PAD scores can be obtained from Albert Mehrabian. Windows Software for the Full-Length PAD Emotion Scales Windows software for administering, scoring, and interpreting the full-length PAD Emotion Scales is available. It runs on IBM-compatible machines. The PAD Emotion Software does a good deal of computational work. Besides supplying the P, A, and D scores and z-scores, it derives 8 basic emotion scores (e.g., relaxed, anxious, exuberant) and then ranks those scores (giving you the top ranked and bottom ranked emotions) for each case you test. In other words, it generates a list of 8 basic emotion terms that are closest to (or alternatively, furthest apart from) the emotion reported by each participant to a specific stimulus. Additionally, the software provides group results for all individuals who have rated their emotional reaction to the same stimulus (or situation). In this way, the software can be used to evaluate differences in averaged reactions of your respondents to different products, services, or any combination of products and services (e.g., electronic device, clothing, store environment, call center handling of consumer inquires, advertisements, web sites).

The software have several additional useful features of which some are noted here. For example, it allows you to export the data as an ASCII DOS TEXT file (.txt) that you can print. It also will export a spreadsheet file (.csv) for additional analyses, e.g., with Excel. Conversely, the software will allow importing of data from various testing sites so that data obtained from several locations can be combined into a single file, thereby providing a quick summary of averaged reactions of respondents to stimuli. The software is easy to use and is password protected so that the Administrator can control access to the database of results. In this way, individuals being tested cannot have access to the results, unless the Administrator chooses to report such results to them. Scale Description for the Full-Length PAD Emotion Scales: Format, Sample Items, Features The full-length PAD Emotion scales should be used when precise assessments of emotions are needed. These scales include: A 16-item State Pleasure-Displeasure Scale A 9-item State Arousal-Nonarousal Scale A 9-item State Dominance-Submissiveness Scale Items of these three scales are intermixed within a 34-item inventory to minimize subject awareness of the scale dimensions, thereby enhancing validity. For each item, respondent place a check-mark in one of nine spaces separating two adjectives to indicate how they feel in a specific situation. Administration: does not require tester to be present; can be used with individuals or groups Test format: semantic differential format, 34 items Appropriate population: English fluency, ages 15 and older Time required for administration: approximately 7 minutes Scoring: hand scored; yields three total-scale scores; computer scored using software supplies a great deal more information. Manual: contains complete scale, scoring directions, norms Background literature: includes a general background article on the PAD Emotional State Model (Mehrabian, 1995) Possible uses for research and hypothesis testing, e.g., to study how people react to a particular product or service (e.g., a store decor, an architectural design, an electronic product, a package, an advertisement, a political candidate, a web site, a call center). Validity data: Experimental data bearing on validity of the PAD Emotion Scales were reviewed by Mehrabian (1995). Additional validity data were also supplied by Mehrabian (1997). Scale Description for the Abbreviated PAD Emotion Scales: Format, Sample Items, Features Experimenters are sometimes compelled to use abbreviated scales because respondents are required to rate a large number of stimuli. Accordingly, a 12-item abbreviated version of the PAD Emotion Scales also has been prepared. When respondents rate multiple stimuli, rating of the very first stimulus takes three to five minutes because some time is required to read the test instructions. Each of subsequent stimuli can be rated in two to three minutes. An additional and very important feature of the abbreviated scales is that the adjective pairs used are easy to understand. This makes the scales suitable for large-scale commercial and survey applications where respondents have a limited vocabulary (e.g., testing the emotional impact of a

feature length film, television advertisement, shop or shopping mall, musical recording, political advertisement, personal image projected by a political candidate) . These scales include: A 4-item State Pleasure-Displeasure Scale A 4-item State Arousal-Nonarousal Scale A 4-item State Dominance-Submissiveness Scale

Items of these three scales are intermixed within a 12-item inventory to minimize subject awareness of the scale dimensions, thereby enhancing validity. For each item, subjects place a check-mark in one of nine spaces separating two adjectives to indicate how they feel in a specific situation. Reliability and Validity Data Alpha internal consistency coefficients were .97 for the full-length State Pleasure Scale, .89 for the full-length State Arousal Scale, and .80 for the full-length State Dominance Scale (Mehrabian, 1995). Alpha internal consistency/reliability coefficients for the abbreviated State Pleasure, State Arousal, and State Dominance scales, based on a sample of 798 observations, were .95, .83, and .78, respectively. Additional reliability data plus extensive discussion of validity data are given in the scale manual (Mehrabian, 1998). Work by Gordon Foxall and his colleagues (e.g., Foxall & Greenley, 1998; Soriano, Foxall & Pearson, 2002) illustrates the value of the PAD Emotion Model and scales for understanding consumer behaviors and preferences. Key Articles on the PAD Emotion Scales If you are unable to obtain any of these important articles bearing on the PAD Emotion Scales, contact Albert Mehrabian to get Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files: Key review article on the PAD Emotion Scales: Mehrabian, A. (1995). Framework for a comprehensive description and measurement of emotional states. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 121, 339-361. Product preferences of consumers analyzed in terms of the PAD values of the product names. Theoretical predictions strongly supported. Mehrabian, A., & de Wetter, R. (1987). Experimental test of an emotion-based approach to fitting brand names to products. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 125-130. Illustrates Power of the PAD Emotion Model by analyzing the Positive-Affect, NegativeAffect scales and showing the greater ease with which the PAD framework can differentiate depression from anxiety. Mehrabian, A. (1997). Comparison of the PAD and PANAS as models for describing emotions and for differentiating anxiety from depression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 19, 331-357. Illustrates the power of the PAD Emotion Model for easy and comprehensive study of a large and complex area of research: The emotional impact of color. Valdez, P., & Mehrabian, A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 394-409. Analysis of everyday situations and activities in terms of the PAD Emotion Scales -- in particular see the Appendix for PAD values of varied situations. Mehrabian, A., Wihardja, C., & Ljunggren, E. (1997). Emotional correlates of preferences for situation-activity combinations in everyday life. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123, 461-477.

Applies the PAD Emotion Model to broad fields of worker and marital satisfaction and shows how existing findings in the literature and new findings from the study can be conceptualized and summarized easily. Mehrabian, A. (1998). Correlations of the PAD emotion scales with self-reported satisfaction in marriage and work. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 124, 311-334. Study of Shopping Environments Using the PAD

References Foxall, G.R., & Greenley, G. (1998). Thee affective structure of consumer situations. Environment and Behavior, 30, 781-798. Mehrabian, A. (1980). Basic dimensions for a general psychological theory: Implications for personality, social, environmental, and developmental studies. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Cambridge, MA. Mehrabian, A. (1995). Framework for a comprehensive description and measurement of emotional states. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 121, 339-361. Mehrabian, A. (1996). Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in temperament. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 14, 261-292. Mehrabian, A. (1997). Comparison of the PAD and PANAS as models for describing emotions and for differentiating anxiety from depression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 19, 331-357. Mehrabian, A. (1998). Manual for a comprehensive system of measures of emotional states: The PAD Model. (Available from Albert Mehrabian, 1130 Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA, USA 93940). Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., & Tannenbaum, P.H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Soriano, M.Y., Foxall, G.R., & Pearson, G.J. (2002). Emotion and environment: A test of the behavioural perspective model in a Latin American context. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 2, 138-154. Yani-de-Soriano, M.M., & Foxall, G.R. (2006). The emotional power of place: The fall and rise of dominance in retail research. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 13, 403-416.

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Copyright 1995-2007 by Albert Mehrabian

The Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes Test


The Falender and Mehrabian Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes scales are offered here primarily for research use by students. In the event they are employed in clinical settings or for any other purposes, it is strongly advised that findings based on the present instruments be checked against additional data from alternative tests and interview materials.

Student researchers can request the entire test manual free of charge by emailing a description of their project Falender and Mehrabian (1980) developed an emotion-based general framework for assessing parental attitudes toward child-rearing practices. In that approach, parental attitudes are viewed as constituting an "Emotional Climate" within which children are reared. Furthermore, the latter emotional climate is described very generally using the PAD Emotional State Model (Mehrabian, 1995). The PAD Emotion Model The theoretical rationale and experimental foundations for the PAD Emotional State Model have been detailed by Mehrabian (1980, 1995). You'll find detailed information about the model at: The PAD Emotion Scales and Model Briefly, the model consists of three nearly independent dimensions that are used to describe and measure emotional states: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominancesubmissiveness (or PAD). "Pleasure-displeasure" distinguishes the positive-negative affective quality of emotional states, "arousal-nonarousal" refers to a combination of physical activity and mental alertness, and "dominance- submissiveness" is defined in terms of control versus lack of control. Specific terms describing emotions can be visualized as points in a three-dimensional PAD emotion space. Alternatively, when the PAD scale scores are standardized, each emotion term can be described succinctly in terms of its values on the pleasure-displeasure, arousalnonarousal, and dominance- submissiveness axes. The following sample ratings illustrate definitions of various emotion terms when scores on each PAD scale range from -1 to +1: angry (-.51, .59, .25), bored (-.65, -.62, -.33), curious (.22, .62, -.01), dignified (.55, .22, .61), elated (.50, .42, .23), hungry (-.44, .14, -.21), inhibited (-.54, -.04, -.41), loved (.87, .54, -.18), puzzled (-.41, . 48, -.33), sleepy (.20, -.70, -.44), unconcerned (-.13, -.41, .08), violent (-.50, .62, .38). Thus, according to ratings given for "angry," it is a highly unpleasant, highly aroused, and moderately dominant emotional state. "Sleepy" consists of a moderately pleasant, extremely unaroused, and moderately submissive state, whereas "bored" is composed of highly unpleasant, highly unaroused, and moderately submissive components. The PAD Parental Attitutdes Test Features The Parental Attitudes Scales consist of three sets of items, with each set providing a single total score for each of the three PAD dimensions. Parents respond to the scales by agreeing or disagreeing with a variety of statements bearing on child-rearing practices (e.g., "Taking a few minutes to just be with my child helps me relax," "I don't believe in catering to my child's demands," "I leave my child with a lot of different people, so he gets used to change"). The Parental Attitudes Scales are intended primarily for experimental use. In the event they are used in clinical or applied settings, it is strongly advisable that findings based on the present instrument be checked against additional data from alternative tests and interview materials. Administration: does not require tester to be present; can be used with individuals or groups (parents reporting about their children) Test format: questionnaire, 46 items Appropriate population: English fluency, parent of child

Time required for administration: approximately 10 minutes Scoring: hand scored; yields three PAD total-scale scores Manual: contains complete scale, scoring directions, norms Background literature: includes an article describing the development of the PAD Parental Attitudes Scales (Falender & Mehrabian, 1980) Possible uses for research and hypothesis testing, e.g., for research studies of parentchild interactions; effects of parental attitudes on children's psychological adjustmentmaladjustment; investigations of problem children in school settings.

References: Falender, C.A., & Mehrabian, A. (1980). The emotional climate for children as inferred from parental attitudes. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40, 1033-1042. Mehrabian, A. (1980). Basic dimensions for a general psychological theory: Implications for personality, social, environmental, and developmental studies. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Cambridge, MA. Mehrabian, A. (1995). Framework for a comprehensive description and measurement of emotional states. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 121, 339-361. Mehrabian, A. (1997). Manual for the PAD Parental Attitudes Scales. (Available from Albert Mehrabian, 1130 Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA, USA 93940).

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Copyright 1995-2007 by Albert Mehrabian