Structure
9.1 Introduction
Objectives
9.2 Application
.
9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6
Analysis of Frame.,
Sway Correction
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Kani's Method was derived by Dr. Kani. This method is suitable to work out approximate moments for the whole frame, beam or statically indeterminate structure, due to dead load, live load or wind load. When a structure, whether a beam, a rigid frame or a truss, is statically indeterminate, i.e. the force response cannot be determined by the laws of statics alone, some of the unknown reactions or member forces, equal in number to the degree of indeterminacy, can be regarded as unknown forces acting on a partly determinate structure. Their magnitudes can be obtained. at the very beginning, from the conditions of consistent deformation. In establishing them, the conditions of geometry, q m b e r properties such as modulus of elasticity, stiffness constant etc. are required. Compatibility and adaptability to recent software packages are the major advantages of this method.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to analyse the framed structure whether determinate or indeterminate, work out the moments for various frame work, considering different categories of loads, i.e. dead load, live load, wind load etc., and analy~e framed structures having unequal spans or storeys.
9.2 APPLICATION
9 . 2 . 1 Analysis of Framek
In thismethod, for various members, first suitable stiffnesses are assumed. Moments due to dead load, live load'and wind loads, are worked out for the whole frame. me sections are designed for the bending moment, shear force and axial fi#ce. If there is a marked difference between actual values of stiffness and the assumed values, modified values are assumed and the analysis is done again. Let us consider member AB of a frame given in Figure 9.1 where is the slope at A and 8 , is the slope at B. Considering AB as a fixed beam, moment at A will consist of fixed , at A and rotation 0, at B. end moment M,and moment caused by rotation 8 Referring Figure 9.1, we get Moment at A caused by rotation 8, will be as follows :
= 2 x Ek x (28,)
M , + 2m, + mBA
is called the rototionfocrorof AB at A. This is expressed as 2ck yAB' For each member at each joint, the rotation factors ak worked out. The unbalanced moment at a ioint is the sum of the fixed end moments calculated and written inside the circle at eachjoint. Hence, unbalanced moment at A, MA =
>
meeting at A. Further, 
M,
Considering the first joint and assuming that, at any other joint, there is no rotation, , m =,y MA and, m = , y MA where MA is unbalanced moment at joint A. Coming next to joint B, rotation effect of end A is considered. Thus, meA = YBA( m+~
\
For a l l other joints, similar procedure is adopted and the fmt approximation is completed. Again for joint A, the rotational effect at B and E will be considered to find the modified value of mm This procedure is followed for the other joints also and the second cycle is compleQd. The moments can be found by repeating a few cycles.
9.2.2 Sway Correction H o r i z o n t a l shear will be produced in each column due to moments in the top and bottom
columns. The horizontal forces acting on the frame above each storey shatl be equal to the total shear in that storey.
same he~ght of colunms, the moment is balanced in propportions of the stiffnesses of the colum1s. For a column AB, if S be the displacement of the frame, the moment m', caused by this displacement will be,
m ' ~
Kani's Method
6EI6  h2
EPprurc 9 . 2
C,kABwhere C, =
C h
While ?rrtM is the moment due to displacement at A, total moment at A for column AB will
be,
,
MAB =
MBA=
and
+ m k E + m, + 2mE,, + mtM)
=
=>
=>
3C (m,
m',
+ m,)
2
C mtAB
3 Cmt,= 2 C (m,
+ %#A)
= .
~ A B
D.
C k
*
k~
2Ck
(mu + rnm):
kM is known as displacement
Sway correction is applied only after the completion of the first cycle of distribution. After that, seuxidXqcle is started. In the second cycle, effect of displacement contribution is considered. Note : In the above derivation, heights of all columns are assumed to be same. If the columns have unequal heights, the above formula will have to be ed.
.9.2.4 'Analysisfor Horizontal Loads If P is the horizontal force above the storeyefor which horizontal shear is being considered,
~ ( M M + MBA) P = 0 for equal heights of columns. h
(nrM + nlBA)
??I,,
= mgBA, 
In this case, analysis is exactly the same as in the first case, but only effect of storey Ph moment is taken into consideration when applying sway correction. 3 Cdlpnns with Unequal Helghts L e t us consider a frame having columns of unequal heights (Figure 9.3). If P is the wind force acting upto the bottom of the storey a d HM is thehorizon& force at the base of column AB,
Likewise,
+ P = 0where.
MCD + M~~
X
i l ~
h,
where, C, But
h ~ . =, ccD=
~ A B
*,
hw
hc,
M~~+ h,
Kani's Method
Ccn and so on
and so on.
~ + P = o
Now, the moment produced at the end of the member due to sway,
, ' n ~
=>
m '
6EIAB6 k~~ =c . ,
'
(where C = 6E6)
~
~AB'
~ A B
A B K
C .h2, xkABx hR h h
Thus,displacement factor 6, =   x
and storey moment =
~ABCAB C(kABcm2)
3
'
PAR
9.3 EXAMPLES
Example 9.1 Analyse the frame shown in Figure 9.4 by Kani's method.
Elgore 9.4
Solution
Rotation contributions at different joints are as follows : At Joint B, 1 2U6 = 0 . 2 Ym =  1 + 3V6)1 1 3V6 Yar =  ? [(2UL) + )+h~6)] =  0.3 At joint C, . 1 (3V6) *Ice =   x = 0 . 3 2 [(3V6) + (m)l 1 (ID) =  0.2 YcD = +  x 2 [(3V6) + (m)1 Considering the reference height hR as 6 m, we get
Displacement factors,
In Figure 9.5, the distribution process is shown. At each joint, two concentric circles are drawn. The fixed end moments are written above the beams, outside the circles. The rotation factors are written in the space between inner circles and outer circles, towards each side of the member. Rotation contributions are written below the line
for horizontal member and towards left side of vertical line for vertical members. Unbalanced moment at a joint is written in the inner circle. Displacement contribution for each column are written horizontally at centre of column.
'a
Method
The process is started at Joint B. At first the rotation contribution of end C is assumed as zero. The rotation contribution of end A is zero as it is fixed end Thus, the unbalanced moment of 3 is distributed for BA and BC in proportion of rotation factors  0.2 and  0.3 respectively. This gives, m,, = + 0.6 and mBc = + 0.9. At joint C, net distribution is carried out. Rotation contribution of end D is zero as it is a fixed end and rotation contribution of end B is now t e e n as + 0.9. The unbalanced moment of (+ 3 + 0.9) = + 3.9 is distributed for CB and CD proportionally with the rotation factors  0.3 and  0.2 giving mm =  1.17, mcD =  0.78. Thus, the first cycle is completed. In the second cycle, at joint B, rotation contribution of end A is zero and that of C is now taken as  1.17. Unbalanced moment of ( 3  1.17)=  4.17 is distributed for BA and BC, proportionally with the rotation factors. Their cycles are completed in this way and then sway correction is applied. The disttibution is shown in Table 9.1 and Table 9.2.
Table 9.1
+ 0.257
ccmnns, these moments are written honzonlally. Now, the fourth cycle is started at B. Moment to be distributed will be sum of unbalanced fixed end moment, 3, rotation contribution of C, 1.285, and displacement contribution of column BA, +0.257. Thus, M = ( 3  1.285 + 0.257). This has been taken as  4.005 which is not correct. This is distributed at B for BC and BA proportionally with the rotation contributions. Considering the displacement contributions of the columns, fourth, fifth and sixth cycles are completed. In further distribution, the error of the fourth cycle is rectified. Distribution of rotation contributions is given in Table 9.1 and distributionof displacement contributions is given in Table 9.2.
A:. "12.i:! :FL
X ( m M +mEA)CM
= 0.855 X 1
Z(~AB
Z(~AB
+ ( 0.944) X 2
+
+ ( 0.983) X 2
+ m , + m', M , = + 0.825 + 0.342 = + 1.I67 M , , = + 0.825 + 0.825 + 0.342 = + 1.992 MBc =  3 0.238 + 1.237= 2.001 McB = + 3  0.238  1.475 = + 1.287 McD =  0.983  0.988 + 0.684 =  1.282 MDc =  0.983 + 0.684 =  0.299
 0.009
Actually, the sum of moments at joints should be zero. However, the error calculated above is neglible.
Example 9.2
A frame is shown in Figure 9.6. Analyse the same by Kani's method. Solution The fixed end moments are all zero because the loading is on joints only, Rotation factors at joint C,
Similarly, at joint D,
Kani's Method
Similarly, at joint B,
Similarly, at joint E,
Displacement Factors For upper storey, all the vertical members are of equal heights.
Hence,
(7
=2
=  0.3
Thus, we get,
3 aAB =   X
(4IA) x1
[(4US);< 1
+ (21/4) x 231
8 Storey moment for upper storey = 6 x  = 16 kN m 3 Storey moment for upper storey = (6 + 12) x  = 48 kN m 3 All fixed end moments are zero in this case. Hence, unbalanced moments at all joints are zero. The process is started with distribution of storey moments. In the ratio of displacement factors, storey moment for upper storey is distributed in upper storey columns and storey moment for lower storey is distributed in lower storey columns.
At joint B, first cycle is started. Ullbalanced molllent at this joint will be Ulr sunl or displacement contribution of upper and lower storeys, i.e. ( 12  14.2) =  26.2. In proportion of rotation contributions, this moment is distributed in members BA, BE and BC. Afterwards, at joint C, unbalanced moment will be rotation contributioil (+2.62) of joint B and displacement contribution (12) of upper storey. The suill of these moments, i.e.  9.38 is distributed proportionally with the rotation factors. This process is carried out at joints D and E. Now, the first cycle is completed.
,
 d
i"' I
Considering the rotation contributions of first cycle, displacement contributions are calculated. Then second cycle is started. This process is continued till the difference in displacement contributions and rotation contributions is negligible. Final moments for horizontal members are, MM = 2mM + m , + M ,
McD =
+ 8.76+ 5.1 = + 13.86kN m M , = + 8.76 + 3.66 = + 12.42 kN m MBE = k 18.4 + 6.2 = + 24.6 kN m MEB = + 18.4 + 12.2 = + 30.6 kN m + mBA+ m',
M,
=
+ 6.2  23.58
=  17.38 kN m
M,, = +6.2+6.223.58 =  1 1 . 1 8 k N m
By carrying out one more cycle, better result can be obtained. The entire process is shown in Table 9.3, Table 9.4 and Figure 9.7.
T a b l e 9.3
1st Cycle
2nd Cycle Joint B M=  20.06  18.8 + 1.55 + 6.82 =  30.48 mgc = + 3.05 mg~=+ 6.1 ma=+6 1
P
3rdCycle
4th Cycle
5th Cycle Joint B M = 23.5  22.1 1 +2.5+12.04 =31.06 m~c=+3.11 BE=+ 6.2 m m =+6.2

+ +
Joint B Joint B M =  22.35 21.1 M = 23.2  2.38 +2.13+10.20 21.85+11.54 =31.12 " =31.13 mgc.=+3.11 me(=+3.11 nlBE = + 6.22 rng~ = 6.22 n t h = + 6.22 m u = + 6.22
Joint C Joint C M=20.06 18.8 M =  18.8+3.05 1 .55 + 6.82 + 2.96 =  9.38 = 12.79 mc~=+3.12 111c.n = + 4.26 mc~= + 1.56 meE=+2.13
+ +
Joint D M =  18.8+4.26 + 3.41 =  11.24 rrlne = + 3.7 1 IIIDE= + 1.86 Joint E M= 18.840.12 +6.10+ 1.86 =  50.96 n~~n=+S.l mEB = + 10.2 nlEF = + 10.2
Joint I) M=21.1 +4.76 + 5.10 =  11.24 rrrnc= + 3.75 rllnE = + 1.87 Joint E M=44.721.1 + 1.87 + 6.22 =  57.71 I I I E= ~ + 5.77 IIlEB = + 1 1.54 111EF = + 1 1.54
Joint D M=21.85+6.0 + 5.77 =  1 1.03 r~lnc'= + 3.69 1 1 1= ~+ ~ 1.85 Joint E M=46.1 21.85 + 1.85 + 6.22 =60.18 IIIU, = + 6.02 IrlEB =+ 12.04 IIlEF = + 6.82
I
T a b l e 9.4 ( a ) :S w a y Correction For U p p e r Storey Before 1st Cycle
M = 16
~'BE=O.~~ 16=,T X 12 ~ D E =  12
~ ' C= D m'nc
+ 6.41
= 25.07
+5.10 = 28.14
=  0.75 X 28.14
M = 16+3.11+2.38+5.77
+ 1.87
= 29.13
M = 16+2.55i 1.83+3.11
+6.10 = 29.59
~ ' C= Dm ' ~ c
M = 48
M = 48 +5:24+ (2 x6.82) = 66.68 ~ ' A= B  0.3 x 66.88 =  20.06 m ' p =  0.6 x 66.88 = + 40.12
After 4th Cycle
M = 48+6.10+ ( 2 10.20) ~ = 74.5 m'~g =  0.3 x 74.5 = 22.35 m ' p =  0.6 x 74.5 = 44.7
M = 48 + 6.22 + (2 X 12.04)
~ ' A= B 0.3
= 78.3
M = 43 + 6.20 + ( 2 x 12.20)
m%=
x 78.3 =  23.49
= 78.60
hd&dde strpcbmeII
SAQ 1
A continuous beam is shown in Figure 9.8. Analyse the same by Kani' Method.
SAQ 2
For vertical loads, analyse the frame shown in Figure 9.9. The live load and dead respectively. Spacing of frames is 4 m. load are assumed as 5 kN/m2 and 3.5 kN11n~
9.4
SUMMARY
In this u n i t ,you have 'beenintroduced to the Kani's Method for analysis of f r a m e s .You have 'been given guidelines to work out moments for various types of ftames, such as frames with unequal heights, multistorey frame works and corresponding diffeznt moments, such as moments resulting due to sway, horizontal forces, vertical forces and dead loads.
9.5
m Y WORDS
:
Rotation Factor
DlsplacementFactor
Rotation factor of a member is the negative ratio of stiffness of all individual,members, to the sum of stiffness of all the members connected to that joint, multiplied by 0.5. 'Ihisfactor comes into play when the sum of moments at top and bottom of a l l the columns in the storey is not zero. 'Ihe value of this factor differs according ta the type of the problem. To sum up, here are the cases :
Kani's Method
3 DFcn = 
C (k,
+ kc,)
(b) Consider the vertical members to be AB and CD of different heights and AB > CD; D to be hinged,
MA, = 11, Me, = 1 x 0.75 When the joint is hinged, i.e. D in this case, McD is multiplied by 0.75 or else it remains to be 1. Height is multiplied by 1.5. Hence,
"R
This takes place in case of analysis of horizontal force above the storey. Its value is found out by drawing free body diagram of the column in which the force acts and =0 then finding out the force 'P' by applying Ph Hence, storey moment =  _*l 3 Then, this storey moment is considered into the cycle.
%=
iLEG2 = 12
+12mm
x 3 2 (4 x 4)
= +2.35 +0.75)
G ==12  ( 4
M~~  
 3 Wrn
M,,

(4 x 4) =+ 3 3 m
( 48 =  2 m m G
~ 8= =++mm
For Joint C,
The process of distribution is shown in Figure 9.10. Now, the fixed end moments and rotation factors are calculated. At each joint, two concentric circles are drawn. The fixed end moments have been written outside the circles, above the beams. Rotation contributions have been written below below the beams. Rotation factors have been written in between the inner circles and the outer circles, towards each side of the member. Unbalanced moment at any joint have been written in the innefcircle. The process is started from joint B. At the begining, for joint B, rotation contributions of end C is assumed as zero. The rotation contribution of end A is also zero as it is a fixed end. Thus, the unbalanced moment of + 9 at joint B is distributed for BA and BC proportionally with the rotation factors  0.2 and  0.3 respectively. Hence, m, =  1.8 and mBc =  2.7 At joint C, next distribution is carried out. Rotation contribution of D is assumed as zero and that of end B is known as  2.7. The unbalanced moment of ( 2.7 + 1 ) =  1.7 is distributed for CB and CD proportionally with t h e rotation factors  0.25 and  0.25 respectively. mcB = m , = + 0.425 Hence, Next for joint D, taking rotation contribution of C as + 0.425, Unbalanced moment will be (+ 2 + 0.425) = + 2.425 Distribution for DC will be ( 0.5 x 2.425) =  1.213 The first cycle is completed in this way. In the second cycle, at joint B, rotation contribution of end A is zero. Rotation contributionof C is taken as + 0.425. Unbalanced moment of (+ 9 + 0.425) = + 9.425 is distributed for BA and BC proportionally with the rotation factors. 'Ihe process is continued until1 very negligible variation in rotation contributions is achieved. The calculations for four cycles are &tailed in the Table 9.5. Final moments at a joint are 'Ihe values of (m, + maA)for member are written at the centre after the final cycle. So, final moment at a joint is this value plus fixed end moment plus rotation contribution of the end. M, =  12 1.965 =  13.965kN m
Table 9.5
Joint
1st Cycle
K d ' r Method
2nd Cycle
M=+9+0.425 = + 9.425 l t t= ~ 0.2 X 9.425 = 1.885 rnsc=  0.3 x 9.425 = 2.827
3rd Cycle
M=+9+0.76 =+ 9.76 1 1 1= ~~ 0.2 x 9.76 =  1.925 met=  0.3 x 9.76 =  2.928
4th Cycle
M=+9+0.827 = + 9.827 ~ A= B 0.2 X 9.827 =  1.965 msc=  0.3~9.827 = 2.948
M=+l2.7 M=+l2.8271.213 = 1.7 =3.04 mc~=0.25 X ( 1.7) mce =  0.25 x ( 3.04) = + 0.425 = + 0.76 m a =  0.25 x ( 1.7) mca=  0.25 X ( 3.04) = + 0.425 = + 0.76
M=+I2.9281.38 M=+l2.9481.414 =  3.308 =  3.362 rtlcs =  0.25 x ( 3.308) mcs =  0.25 x ( 3.?52) = + 0.827 = + 0.841 mcn =  0.25 x t 3.308) mcn =  0.25 x ( 3.362) = + 0.827 = + 0.841 M =+2+0.827 = + 2.827 rnr,c= 0.5 x 2.827 =  1.414 M=+2+0.841 = +2.841 m m =  0.5 x 2.841 = 1.421
Errors
Moment at supportD will be  0.001 kN m Actual sum of the moments at B, (3 and D is very small and hence, may be considered as zero. SAQ 2 The stiffnesses for various members are assumed i s shown in Figure 9.1 1. For total load on span, the fixed end moments are calculated. Self weight of beams IJ, JK and KL are assumed as 5 kNim, 3 kN/m and 4 kN/m respectively.
Dead load from slab per metre run of girder = 3.5 x 4 = 14 kN Live load per metre run of girder = 5 x 4 = 20 Fixed end moments for dead load and total load for girders LT, JK and KL are shown in Table 9.6, Table 9.7 and Table 9.8. 1 k Rotation Factor, y =  
2D
Hence at Joint A,
Indeterminate Structures I1
Similarly, the rotation factors at others joints are calculated. Displacement Factor =   
3 k
2Ck
Table 9.6
BC and FG
27.75
Cycles of distribution of moments are shown in Figure 9.12. After second cycle onwards, the sway correction is applied. This gives results which converge easily. In Tables 9.7 and 9.8, exact calculations for moments at each joint are shown.
Table 9.7
Table 9.8
In Figure 9.12, rotation contiibution are written below the beams and fixed end moments above the beams. Displacement contributions for each column are written horizontally at the centre of the column. Rotation contributions for columns are written towards the left sides. Final moments in horizontal members are as follows : MAE = 208+111.5626.52 = 69.92Wm
,
M, = MBc =
 27.75  42.52  20.44 =  90.71 kN m MCB = + 27.75 + 21.58  20.44 = + 28.39 kN m MCD =  79.17 + 32.37  5.94 =  52.74 W m M , = + 79.17  31.37  5.94 = + 34.52 kN m M , =  208 + 68.04 + 16.44 =  123.52 W m MFE = + 208  51.6 + 16.44 = + 172.84 kN m MFG =  27.75  25.8  14.24 =  67.79 W m M,, = + 27.75 + 11.58  14.24 = + 25.07 kN m
MGH =  79.17 + 17.34  2.03 =  63.86 kN m MHG =
+ 57.77 W m
Final moments in vertical members are as follows : M , = + 27.89 + 44.90  3.03 = + 62.76 W m
M, = MBF =
MFI =