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Room 6.

2.4 2 4 OVERHEAD LINES AND CABLES Wednesday, 14th September (11.00 - 12.45) Chm: Pierre Argaut Rpt: Marco Marelli

241 HV submarine cables for renewable offshore energy - G. Dell Anna, P. Maioli, A. Micheletti, E. Zaccone 242 Past experience and future trends with compact lines to solve the right-of-way issue - K.O. Papailiou, F. Schmuck 243 Discussion of converting a double double-circuit circuit AC overhead line to an AC/DC hybrid line with regard to audible noise - U. Straumann, C.M. Franck 244 F Fault lt current t limiting li iti power cables bl f for mitigation iti ti of f fault f lt levels l l i in tightly interconnected systems - K. Howells, D. Folts, J. Mccall, J. Maguire

HV Submarine Cables For Renewable Offshore Energy


BOLOGNA 2011

Gaia DellAnna, Prysmian Power Link, Andrea Micheletti, Prysmian Power Link, Ernesto Zaccone, Prysmian Power Link, Paolo Maioli, Prysmian S.p.A. Viale Sarca 222 222, 20126 Milan, Milan Italy

CIGRE Bologna 2011

The Offshore power generation The recent years have shown a large development of the wind offshore power generation especially in the European northern Sea areas The location of these large off shore wind farms are in general very far from the energy users and requested the adoption of submarine cable connections that are the unique possible solution D Depending di on th the di distance t and d th the power to t be b transmitted both ad hoc HVAC and/or HVDC solutions have been adopted.
CIGRE Bologna 2011

Ambitious European Projects

Moreover, a so-called "BALTIC SEA INITIATIVE" is proposed for integrating offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Seas into a future EU internal electricity market.
SCOTLAND is also

mentioned as a key region having potentials for using various renewable energy sources accounting for up to 68 GW by 2050.
CIGRE Bologna 2011

Characteristics of HVAC Cables

Cable structure description Armoring g Losses IEC 60287 vs laboratory experience Short Circuit withstanding capability test experience Electromagnetic Fields Mechanical performance

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Typical HVAC submarine Cable


1) Copper conductors 2) Semiconducting conductor screen 3) XLPE extruded insulation 4) Semiconducting insulation screen 5) Swelling tapes 6) Lead alloy sheath 7) Polyethylene P l th l jacket j k t 8) Polypropylene fillers 9) Polypropylene binding 10) Polypropylene string bedding 11) Galvanized steel wire armour 12) Polypropylene string serving 13) Fiber optical unit

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Typical HVDC submarine Cable


1) Conductor 2) Semiconducting conductor screen 3) Extruded insulation 4) Semiconducting insulation screen and Swelling tapes 5) Lead alloy sheath 6) Polyethylene jacket 7) Polypropylene string bedding 8) Galvanized steel wire armour 9) Polypropylene string serving Typical weight: 20 to 35 kg/m Typical diameter: 90 to 120 mm
HVDC EXTRUDED CABLES ARE CURRENTLY USED WITH THE VSC COVERSION TECHNOLOGY; TRADITIONAL MI CABLES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE IF NECESSARY

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Cable testing
Magnetic field measurement Very low EMF emissions

Phase resistance of HV tricore cable.


5 0E-05 5,0E-05

4,5E-05 P hase e resistance [Ohm m /m ]

Magnetic field measurement Very low EMF emissions

4,0E-05

Pb closed with armouring Pb closed no armouring

3,5E-05

3,0E-05

2 5E 05 2,5E-05 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Current [A]

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Cable testing

Mechanical testing in laboratory

Magnetic field of 132 kV tricore cable: current 400 A.


1000,00 measured with armourning computed parallel 100,00

Magnetic fiel ld [microTesla]

computed helix

Magnetic field measurement Very low EMF emissions

10,00

1 00 1,00

0,10

0 01 0,01 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8 3,0

Distance from cable axis [m]

CIGRE Bologna 2011

HVAC or HVDC ?
HVAC is more practical and simple, but may have some limitation in the length and transmissible power. p HVDC require the conversion stations; the VSC technology converters allow the installation on offshore platforms and advantages in the management and regulation of the transmissible load.

The adoption of the solution is evaluated case by case, on a technical and economical evaluation.
As a rule of thumb, the range of convenience of HVAC Vs HVDC can be summarized by this graph.

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Greater Gabbard
One of the largest offshore wind farms

Customer: Fluor Ltd


Inner Gabbard site

Project ownership: 50:50 SSE (Airtricity) and NPower Project Scope: 504 MW with 140 wind turbine generators Cable: 160 km 3 core 800 mm2 Cu XLPE Pb SWA Submarine cable

Main offshore section 3 x 132kV Cables 800mm2 (each 47km) Galloper site

Cable to connect 2 platforms 1 x 132kV Cable 800mm2 (19km)

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Typical Layout of an Offshore Wind Farm


Transmission Grid

HV station

MV Cables 20 or 30 kV

HVAC or HVDC cable that is the scope of our contribution

Off Shore MV/HV Off-Shore transformer platform

CIGRE Bologna 2011

BorWin 2
400 km cable, 300 kV, 800MW HVDC Grid Connection of offshore wind farms
Route Length: 76.4 km HVDC Onshore Route (150 km cable) 123.4 km HVDC Offshore Route (246.8 km cable) 2x11.4 km & 2x28 km HVAC Offshore Route (79.8 km cable) Power Rating P R ti / DC V Voltage lt L Level: l 800 MW @ 300 kV

Typical Layout of the Offshore Wind Farm


155 kV AC 300 kV DC

CIGRE Bologna 2011

HelWin1
HelWin1 260 km HVDC cable, 250 kV, 576 MW
Route Length: 45.5 km HVDC Onshore Route (91 km cable) 85 km HVDC Offshore Route (170 km cable) 2x4.2 2 42k km HVAC Offshore Off h R Route t (8.4 84k km cable) bl ) Options: 2 x 7.6 km HVAC Route Power Rating / DC Voltage Level: 576 MW @ 250 kV

CIGRE Bologna 2011

SylWin1 & HelWin2


SylWin1 410 km cable 320 kV, 900 MW HVDC
Route Length: 45.5 km HVDC Onshore Route (91 km cable) 159 km HVDC Offshore Route (318 km cable) 2x9.7 2 97k km HVAC Offshore Off h R Route t (19.4 19 4 k km cable) bl ) Options: 2 x 40km & 2 x 35km HVAC Route Power Rating / DC Voltage Level: 900 MW @ 320 kV

HelWin2 260 km cable 320 kV, 690 MW HVDC


Route Length: 46 km HVDC Onshore Route (92 km cable) 85 km HVDC Offshore Route (170 km cable) ) 2x8 km HVAC Offshore Route (16 km cable) Power Rating / DC Voltage Level: 690 MW @ 320 kV

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Alpha Ventus
First Major German Offshore Wind farm
Customer: E.ON Netz Offshore Cable scope: p 66 km 110 kV 3 core 240 mm2 Cu XLPE Pb SWA cable and accessories

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Thanet Project
Customer: Thanet Offshore Wind Ltd Cables: 55 km 132 KV 3 Core 630/1000 mm2 72 km 33 KV 3 Core 95/300/400 / / mm2

180000

E1

F1

G1

160000

D1 Line 7 C1 Line 8

140000

B1

A1

Line 9

120000
Line 1

100000

Line 10 Line 2 G11

80000

Line 3

Line 4 F14

60000
Line 6

Line 5

40000
A12 B14 C15 D17

E17

20000

0 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Th k you for Thank f your attention tt ti

CIGRE Bologna 2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future Paper 242

PASTEXPERIENCEANDFUTURETRENDS WITHCOMPACTLINESTOSOLVETHE RIGHTOFWAYISSUE


by K O K. O.PAPAILIOUANDF F.SCHMUCK
PFISTERERHOLDINGAG PFISTERERSEFAGAG konstantin papailiou@pfisterer defrank konstantin.papailiou@pfisterer.de frank.schmuck@sefag.ch schmuck@sefag ch
UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

C Compaction i Line Li means


50m 9.6m

Idea January forCompaction 2006


UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

R Reasons f forC CompactLi LineA Arrangements


Reduction of total line costs. Optimization of energy delivery in the case of restricted Right of Way (ROW). Redundancy due to bracing longrod. g field. Reduction of influence of the electromagnetic aesthetic-visual impact, pleasing to public. in service since the 80ies.

e.g.in i USA USA,I Italy l and dG Greece

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Prosand dConsof fCompactLines


Pros Cost savings for tower and foundation construction because of smaller bending moments. moments Aesthetically pleasing. Reduced EMV on ground level. Higher power transfer capacity because of lower surge impedance. Fail-safe redundancy because of the use of two insulators in the case of braced line posts.

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Prosand dConsof fCompactLines


Cons Increased corona level because of shorter distances between phase conductors Shorter span lengths (if no phase spacers are used) More demanding conductor stringing process Maintenance issues, especially live-line-work Mechanical stability problems.

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Th S The Swiss i experience i


Switzerland inthelateNineties

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Th S The Swiss i experience i


ComparisonofTowerConceptsfortheSwissCompactLine
420kV compact p 420kV traditional

19m 8.6m
125kV

9m

Steellatticetowerof125kV lineandSwisscompacttower for400kV/132kVlineaswellas standarddesign

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Real-life appearance pp of unique compact tower

Profiles optimized p for mechanical strength versus material use

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

EMCConsiderations C id ti

compact conventional

Simulationforcurrentof1000Aandat1meteraboveground UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

E Example l of fS Swiss i tradition di i

Ad t Federer! Advantage F d !

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

The h Swissexperience
Combinationofinnovativeconcepts

CarbonFiberReinforcement +lowerweight +nocorossion


UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Solutions l of fConductor d Attachment h

Suspended p solutionwitha plasticbumper

Fixedsolutionwith rigidattachment

Multifunctional rigidattachment

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

R Requirements i t for f Testing T ti


MechanicalDesign FEMSimulation,especiall BucklingCase FullScaleTesting

ForceProbe

ResultingForce Angle

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

R Requirements i t for f Testing T ti


ElectricalDesign FEM(BEM)Simulation,especiall FieldStressonHousingandFittings
PhaseB PhaseB

FullScaleTesting

PhaseC

PhaseA

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

Summary
Insulated cross-arms cross arms for compact lines are well accepted solutions to solve right-of-way constraints and to provide a technical solution to reduce electromagnetic g field on ground. They are a very attractive solution when upgrading an existing transmission system, e. g. from (123 kV as in CH) 245 kV to 420 kV. They have been introduced for voltage levels up to 420 kV so far, further developments for 525 kV and if possible for higher voltage are in the study phase. phase A full scale mechanical and electrical testing is highly recommended for the complete cross cross-arm arm set.
UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Cigr 2011 Bologna Symposium The Electric Power System of the Future

R Response toQuestions Q i 1+2 1 2


Insulated crossarms for compact lines are a cheaper solution in comparison to cable or gas-insulated line (GIL). ( ) Due to the reduced mechanical load to the p pole or tower, very aesthetic solutions can be introduced. It is recognized to be the only solution when upgrading an existing transmission system, e. g. from (123 kV as in CH) 245 kV to 420 kV. The existing standard IEC 61952 provides general rules for composite post insulators, however the solutions are always of individual nature because of the different in in-situ situ conditions and locally applicable laws.

UniversityofBologna,FacultyofEngineering September13th 15th,2011

Discussion of Converting a Double-Circuit AC Overhead Line to an AC/DC Hybrid y Line with Regard g to Audible Noise
U Straumann U. Straumann, C.M. C M Franck
High Voltage Laboratory, ETH Zrich

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 2

Problem
Renewables Capacity increase of transmission i needed is d d No new transmission corridors alternatives to increase capacities within existing ROWs e.g.: g converting g AC to DC Existing lines in densely populated areas (limiting land use): multi-circuit lines Converting results in hybrid lines Contents of the presentation 1) Interaction Between Circuits in a Hybrid Line 2) Capacity Increase of Investigated Conversions 3) Audible Noise Characteristics of OHLs 4) Tower Geometries, Calculation Methods 5) Calculation Results Conclusions/Outlook

U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 3

1. Interaction Between Circuits in a Hybrid Line


Coupling between AC/DC surface gradients

capacitive and magnetic coupling (AC-current in the DC-poles) ion current from coronating DC- pole collected by AC phases (DCcurrents in AC-phases) AC phases) Technical consequence transformer saturation overvoltages of the DC circuit is increased in hybrid environment unknown consequence on requirements on insulators in a hybrid environment
U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 4

2. Investigated Conversion
Original line 400 kV AC double circuit line Conversion Replacing one circuit with a 500 kV DC circuit Conductors and their thermal ratings

Transmission capacity 1) Corridor: 160 % 2) Single circuit: 220 %


U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 5

3. Audible Noise Characteristics of OHLs


Corona leads to Ion currents Radio R di i interference t f RI Losses Audible noises (AN) AC Broadband and tonal noise (2f) tonal crackling No oise leve el DC Only broadband crackling & hi i noise hissing i Strongest in dry weather DC vs. AC Example (EPRI)

100 Hz

~ (1-10) kHz
[HVDC Transmission Line Reference Book]

A-weighting g g Frequency
U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 6

4. Tower Geometries, Calculation Methods


Geometries Literature DC ions do not affect the AC corona significantly AC and DC corona may be affected by superimposed fields, but: Emission may be calculated by combining the formulas for pure pu e ACC a and d DC-lines C es Tonal emission is not commented Calculation of audible noise Formulas from EPRI DC noise: HVDC Transmission Line Reference Book AC: Transmission Line Reference Book

Cable diameters Ground wire: AC-conductor: DC DC-conductor: d t


U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

22.4 mm 27.0 mm 35 1 mm 35.1

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 7

5. Calculation Results
Original (2 x AC 400 kV) noise level L eq [ [dB(A)] 45 40 35 30 circuit 1 circuit 2 total Hybrid noise le evel L eq [dB(A)] 45 40 35 30 25 -100 -50 0 50 100 lateral distance from line axis [m]
DC AC

fair (DC) fair, rev. (DC) foul weather (AC)

25 -100 100 -50 50 0 50 100 lateral distance from line axis [m]
AC AC

U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 8

Conclusion
1) Increase of transmission capacity by the investigated conversion is quite considerable 2) Even though a larger coupling between the AC and DC circuits may be disadvantageous g in some technical respects, p , intermixing g the AC phases and DC poles on both sides of the tower reduces the surface gradients and the AN levels in the investigated examples. 3) Polarity reversal may be accompanied by a remarkable change of DC AN levels.

Outlook
Quantification of space charges (ion flow fields): determining electric fields evoking the DC-current in the AC-phases
U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 9

U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 10

2. Origin of the Audible Noises


B Broadband db d Component C t (AC, (AC DC)
Corona-discharge conductor p protrusion (water drop) ionization PD-pattern C d t Conductor: ESurface: Rain: 20 Ampli itude [nC C] ACSR 257/60 20.9 kVpeak/cm 8 mm/h

Strong pulsative discharges occur at the positively stressed electrode Consequences AC: Only positive half-wave DC: Only positive pole is relevant for broadband AN
U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

10

180 Phase []

360

Cigr-Symposium, Bologna, September 13-15, 2011

Slide 11

4. Tower geometries, calculation methods


Geometries Literature DC ions do not affect the AC corona significantly AC and DC corona is affected by the superimposed fields Emission may be calculated by combining the formulas for pure pu e ACC a and d DC-lines C es Tonal emission is not commented Calculation of audible noise Formulas from EPRI DC noise: HVDC Transmission Line Reference Book AC: Transmission Line Reference Book

Cable diameters Ground wire: AC-conductor: DC DC-conductor: d t


U. Straumann and C.M. Franck

22.4 mm 27.0 mm 35 1 mm 35.1

Fault Current Limiting Power Cables for Mitigation of Fault g y Interconnected Systems y Levels in Tightly
Kyle Howells Doug Folts Jack McCall Jim Maguire American Superconductor Corporation USA

CIGRE Symposium Electric Power System of the Future Bologna, 13-15 September 2011 Paper 244
1

Fault Current Basics

The maximum
magnitude of fault current is a function of V/Z for both AC and DC components
X/R Ratio Typical Systems High, 14 Transmission Systems Industrial Feeders Medium, 8 14 Low 8 Low,
2

Higher Z reduces
faults at the expense of f higher losses

Sub transmission Sub-transmission Large Distribution S/S Long Feeders Distribution Systems

The Role of X/R

The maximum
magnitude is randomly affected by the fault closing angle

The X/R ratio affects


the duration of the DC offset

Higher X/R will have


slower decay

X/R neither helps nor


hurts in these terms
3

Adding R damps offset

System y Impedance p and Faults

Adding X to system impedance


Lowers overall fault magnitude Increases losses Increases DC offset decay time Negative impact to system stability Lowers overall fault magnitude Increases losses Decreases DC offset decay time Positive impact to system stability
Adding resistance during faults is preferable
4

Adding only R to system impedance

Superconductor p Fault Current Limiters


Superconductor FCLs fall into two categories:

Inductive
- These often take the form of a saturable core reactor using superconductor material to provide the saturating field

Resistive
- Uses superconductors highly non-linear resistive impedance during quench ht to resistively i ti l li limit it current t and d - To bypass the current into a parallel bypass p yp element

Inductive or Resistive Bypass Element

Non-linear superconductor element


5

Key HTS Cable ELECTRICAL Characteristics


Very e y high g po power e transfer t a s e capab capability ty co compared pa ed to
conventional cables solves many siting problems

Very V l low impedance i d reduces d l loading di on parallel ll l li lines


and equipment

Minimal magnetic field and elimination of heat


simplifies placement concerns, minimizes right-of-way, and di is easy on th the environment i t

Optional HTS cables with fault current management


capabilities eliminate need to upgrade existing equipment
HTS Cables offer unique capabilities

Power Transfer Equivalency of Superconductor p Cables


345kV 230kV 138kV 69kV 34.5kV 13 8kV 13.8kV 0
XLPE HTS XLPE XLPE HTS XLPE HTS XLPE HTS XLPE

Same Voltage Voltage, More Power


- Greatly increased power transfer capacity p p y at any voltage level

Same Power, Lower Voltage


- New MV versus HV Siting Opportunity MV Transmission Ideal Id l for f NIMBY & ROW sparse environments

200

400

600

800

1000

Power Transfer Capability p y - 3-phase p MVA


* No XLPE cable de-rating factors applied. Superconductor rating based on conventional 4000A breaker rating

Superconductor cables provide transmission-level power transfer at medium voltage

Superconductor Example: 138 kV, 575MW Capacity

200 ft ROW
Self contained thermal envelope No thermal de-rating g Minimal magnetic field No parallel line derating Lower Impedance Longer practical distance

4 ft ROW Superconductor Cables Simplify Placement and Offer New Options to Siting Lines

Fault Current Limiting Cable Operation


high resistance layer

Load Current

zero resistance superconductor layer Superconductor wire has zero resistance up to h critical i i l current the high resistance layer

Fault F lt Current
switched high resistance superconductor layer
Simplified View of Supercond uctor wire

Superconductor wire instantly introduces high resistance above the critical current Immediate limitation of fault current magnitudes Insertion of resistance decreases X/R and fault asymmetry

The switching of conductive state is a function of the superconductor material itself and requires no external control

Current Division in Superconductor FCL Cable During g Quench

10

FCL Cable Operational p Characteristics


Fast Response p
- Millisecond operation time

First Peak
Limiting

RMS Limiting

Photo: Courtesy U.S. Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

- Resistance b builds ilds as fa fault lt progresses

Resistive Limiting
- Lowers X/R ratio, reducing DC offset

A Complex p System y Example p


Paralleling 3 substations
- Increases reliability - Improves load serving capacity

Results R lt in i high hi h fault f lt current t


contributions

FCL method required q


Superconductor Cables Equivalent X/R Cables
17% additional fault current reduction d ti due d to phase shift effect of superconductor cable
12

Paralleling Urban Buses Serving g Additional Load

HTS Interconnected Substation Loading Increase C Capability; n-1 1C Criteria


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2 3 4 5

HTS Interconnected Substation Loading Increase C Capability; bilit n-2 2 Criteria C it i


180% 160%

% Increased Lo oad Capability

% In ncreased Loa ad Capability

140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 2 3 4 5


3 XFRMR 4 XFRMR 5 XFRMR

2 3 4 5

XFRMR XFRMR XFRMR XFRMR

Number of Interconnected Substations

Number of Interconnected Substations

Interconnecting Substations significantly increases load serving capability* Significantly reduces need to expand or build new substations
* Theoretical limits

Summary y
Adding resistance to limit faults is preferable to
inductance

Superconductor cables are unique:


- 3-10x the normal MVA capacity of XLPE cables - Simplified right-of-way and placement requirements - No external EMF

Resistive fault current limiting g can be added to


superconductor cables
Provides first cycle current limiting Lowers X/R, reducing DC offset Provides system damping Enhanced current limiting effect due to phase shift
14