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ofdma matlab

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- Basic Cellular Radio Engineering Document
- 3GPP LTE
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Rajendra R. Bhat

Electrical & Computer Engineering

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Abstract3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is next generation

technology which will provide high-speed data, high capacity

voice and media transport. It includes high speed data with

multimedia unicast and multimedia broadcast services. In this

paper we focus on physical layer aspect of LTE and especially

downlink (OFDMA) implementation and latter we do some

comparative study with uplink (SC-FDMA) in terms of PAPR

analysis.

Keywords-component;OFDMA,SC-FDMA,Fading,LTE,PAPR

1.1 OFDM

In wireless communication when information is transferred

in the space between transmitter, receiver and vice-versa, there

are various factors which play as against wired communication.

Chief among them is multipath fading which result in

intersymbol interference and this is caused when receiver not

only receives direct line of sight but delayed multiple reflected

radio waves from the same transmitter. For instance when data

rate is several megabits per second, the delay time of the delay

wave exceeds one symbol time which result interfering with

other next symbol causing interference. This result in poor

reception of the signal. However OFDM mitigate this by

breaking high speed data rate into number of parallel slow data

stream modulated by multi-carrier. This is the reason it is

called multi-carrier modulation scheme. Following is the

diagram of transmitter and receiver block for OFDM.

Fig. 1: Block diagram of OFDM system

As seen from the above diagram input data is mapped to

suitable constellation like QPSK, QAM and converted to

parallel data stream using serial-to-parallel converter. Then it is

converted to time domain using IFFT and after that the signal is

appended with CP, which is simply appending the last part of

the signal to the beginning of the signal to avoid ISI and to

convert linear convolution to circular convolution. Once we do

that then we convert from parallel to serial data stream and pass

through channel. Here channel is free space and introduce

Gaussian noise and frequency selective fading onto it. Finally

when receiver receives the signal it does exactly opposite of the

transmitter circuit to recover the original signal. OFDM using

DFT operation produces orthogonal signal and insertion of

guard interval eliminates ISI. This ensures orthogonality of

sub-channels in OFDM and individual sub-channels can be

separated by using FFT in the receiver side where there wont

be ISI (Inter-signal interference) and ICI (Inter-carrier

interference) introduced by transmission channel distortion.

Following is the figure for orthogonal subcarriers in OFDM.

Fig. 2: Orthogonal Subcarriers in OFDM

1.1.1 Capacity

As shown in [6], the instantaneous capacity for k

th

sub-

carrier in the i

th

block is defined as follows:

,

_

+

2

2

,

2 ,

1 log

P H

C

k i

k i

and hence the total instantaneous capacity of the i

th

block is

given by following expression:

,

_

+

1

0

2

2

,

2

1

0

,

1 log

N

k

k i

N

k

k i i

P H

C C

1.1.2 Outage Probability

Outage probability,

, of OFDM is defined as the

probability that the average capacity of the L symbols is below

a rate R when L OFDM symbols are transmitted at the same

time. It is defined as:

,

_

<

+

1 1 L i

i l

i

R C

L

P

1

1.1.3 PAPR

Peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) is a performance

measurement of power efficiency of the transmitter. So, in

ideal linear power amplifier when it goes to saturation point,

we reach maximum power efficiency. Hence, positive PAPR in

dB means we need a power back off to operate in the linear

region of the power amplifier. This theoretical relationship can

be expressed as follows

20

max

10 .

PAPR

Where

max

is maximum

power efficiency. For instance for class A power amplifier

max

So, for OFDM multi-carrier signal, we could express CCDF

(Cumulative distributive function) of the PAPR for N

subcarriers with Nyquist rate sampling as follows:

P(PAPR

N P

e P ) 1 ( 1 )

0

0

Where

2 2

0 0

/ P and

2

is the variance in time

domain and N is number of points in IFFT.

1.2 OFDMA

OFDMA is the modified version of OFDM. The main

difference is the allocation of orthogonal subcarriers distributed

across the system bandwidth. So, base station allocates

exclusive subset of subcarriers to individual user. Block

diagram of Transmitter and Receiver is as follows:

Fig. 3: Block diagram of OFDMA system

As can be seen the block diagram of OFDM and

OFDMA system the difference is only between subcarrier-

mapping. Rest, all blocks are same.

1.2.1 Capacity

Capacity of OFDMA is given by following expression

+

+

K

j

j

j i

fP

P

C

1 2 2

) 1 ( log

(signal) and noise power

2

and bandwidth fraction j

users js spectrum. For KN available subcarriers when

there is no frequency offset between carriers, capacity is

given by

+

NK

j

j i

NK

j

j i i

P H C C

1

2 2

, 2

1

,

) / | | 1 ( log

And finally incorporating frequency offset and using same

factor f, we have final capacity equation.

+

+

+

+

NK

j

j i

NK

j j i

j i

NK

j

j i i

P H

f

P H f

P H

C C

1

2

,

2 2

1

2 2

,

2

,

2

1

,

)

| |

1

1 ( log

)

| |

| |

1 ( log

1.2.2 PAPR

PAPR is same as that of OFDM. Its simulation is done

In section 1.4.2.

1.3 SC-FDMA

SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency division multiple

access) is used in uplink transmission in LTE (Long Term

Evolution). As in OFDMA it uses different orthogonal

frequencies (subcarriers) to transmit information symbols. The

transmission of subcarriers is sequentially rather than parallel.

Thats why the envelope fluctuation in the transmitted

waveform is reduced considerably and similarly PAPR too.

These are some reason for it to be used in LTE uplink.

Following is the block diagram for transmitter and receiver.

Fig. 4: Block diagram of SC-FDMA system

As comparing the block diagram between the OFDMA and

SC-FDMA it is seen that there is extra N-point FFT and N-

Point before sub-carrier mapping. Rest all the block diagram is

same for OFDMA and SC-FDMA.

1.3.1 Capacity

Capacity expression for SC-FDMA is given by following

expression:

+

+

K

j

L

j

j i

FDMA SC

fP

P

C

1

10 / 2 2

)

10

1

* 1 ( log

LSC-FDMA is the link loss relative to OFDMA in dB. For QPSK it

assumes value is 0dB and for 16-QAM and 64-QAM is 1dB.

1.3.2 PAPR

2

According to subcarrier mapping there are 3 types of SC-

FDMA i.e. LFDMA (Localized FDMA), IFDMA (Interleaved

FDMA) and DFDMA (Distributed FDMA). So, for passband

transmit signal of SC-FDMA

x(t)=e

jwct

1

0

) (

N

n

n

nT t p x

Where wc is carrier frequency, p(t) is baseband pulse and T

symbol duration. So, for pulse we consider raised-cosine (RC)

and squared-raised cosine (RRC). Now, we calculate PAPR for

transmit signal x(t) as

Whereas, in discrete case it is given by following expression.

We have analyzed PAPR for various type of sc-fdma and

compare with OFDMA under our simulation shown in section

1.4.2.

1.3.3 Sub- Carrier Mapping

There are two types of assignment of M frequency domain

modulation symbols to subcarriers i.e. distributed subcarrier

mapping and localized subcarrier mapping. In localized,

symbols are assigned to M adjacent subcarriers while in

distributed mode; symbols are equally spaced across the entire

channel bandwidth that means there will be (N-M) zeros

assigned by transmitter for un-occupied subcarriers. Where N

represents number of subcarriers, M is symbols per block and

Q=N/M terminals or called spreading factors. For instance for

M=4 symbols per block, N= 12 subcarriers and Q=N/M = 3

terminals the 3 version of sc-fdma i.e. IFDMA(Interleaved

FDMA), DFDMA(Distributed FDMA) and LFDMA(Localized

FDMA) are shown in following figure.

Fig. 5: Subcarrier Mapping

1.4 SIMULATION

1.4.1 Simulation for OFDMA

In this part we will go through the details of OFDMA

simulation. Since we are simulating the downlink part of LTE,

we will mostly concentrate on OFDMA part rather than SC-

FDMA in this report. As per the block diagram [fig. 3], before

data are mapped it is necessary to do Forward Error correcting

code (FEC) as per the technical specification (IEEE 802.16e-

2005). Specification includes randomization, convolutional

coding with interleaving, OFDM with various modulation

scheme like BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM.

Convolutional code with code-rate was simulated and

various simulations were carried for different constraint length.

Also we calculate the bit error rate and packet error

performance of the system. First of all we initialize all the

parameter in the main program [see in the Main Program].

%**********************Initialization variables********************************

no_parallel_channel = 52; %Number of parallel channel to transmit

fft_length = 64; %FFT Length

no_carrier=53; %Number of carrier

nd = 6; %Number of information OFDM symbol . Input Block Size.

modulation_level=2; %Modulation level: QPSK

symbol_rate=250000; %Symbol rate

bit_rate=symbol_rate*modulation_level; %Bit rate per carrier

gaurd_length=16; %Length of guard interval (points)

EbN0=[0:30]; % Eb/N0(dB)

no_error=0; %Number of error data

no_data = 0; %Number of transmitted data

sub_band=0; %Location of subband for subcarrier mapping.

So, there are 53 carriers with symbol time of 4

s

(1/symbol_rate) and guard interval of 16. Next, we generate

data and call it serial_data

serial_data = rand(1, no_parallel_channel*nd*modulation_level)>0.5;

Now, serial_data was converted into parallel data using reshape

function which was fed into QPSK modulation scheme.

parallel_data =reshape(serial_data, no_parallel_channel, nd*modulation_level);

Following is the input data plot at transmitter.

0 50 100 150

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

n

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

lit

u

d

e

s

)

Input in Transmitter(binary)

Fig. 6: Input data at transmitter

Next we encode the data using convolutional coding and

following it we interleave the coded data.

%************Encoding(Convolutional)****************

constlen=7; %constraint length

codegen=[171 133];%Polynomial generator matrix

3

trellis=poly2trellis(constlen,codegen); %trellis ; code rate

data_encoded = convenc(parallel_data,trellis); %encoding

data_matrix=reshape(data_encoded, length(data_encoded)/4,4); %48by4 = 192

data_interleaved = matintrlv(data_matrix',2,2)';%Interleave data_matrix

data_interleaved=data_interleaved'; %4 by 48

%Binary to decimal conversion

parallel_data =bi2de(data_interleaved','left-msb');% 48 by 1

Following this we modulate the data using psk modulation

scheme.

%*********************QPSK Modulation************************

%QPSK, custom function for qpsk modulation

[ich,qch]=qpskmod(parallel_data,no_parallel_channel,nd,modulation_level);

kmod=1/sqrt(2); %Normalizing constant

ich=ich.*kmod;

qch=qch.*kmod;

Following is the plot for 1

st

channel, inphase and quadrature qpsk modulated

data.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

QPSK modulated data.Inphase

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

QPSK modulated data.Quadrature

Fig. 7: Inphase & Quadrature QPSK modulated data

Now sub-carrier mapping is done as per the block diagram and

this is done by our custom function.

%****************** sub-carrier mapping ******************

%Interleaved(distributed) mapping.

%ich1(1+sub_band:Q:numSymbols) = ich;

%qch1(1+sub_band:Q:numSymbols) = qch;

%Localized mapping.

ich1([1:nd]+nd*sub_band) = ich;

qch1([1:nd]+nd*sub_band) = qch;

Basically both interleaved and localized mapping are

implemented as shown above for subcarrier mapping [see

section 1.3.3]. Also in de-mapping both localized and

interleaved de-mapping are implemented.

So, here we use 16 symbols per block and there are 512

subcarriers allocated in the system for 32 users. The allocation

of subcarrier to user is done using various algorithms. Basically

data block which consists of M complex modulation symbols

which are generated at Rsource symbols/second. Now, again M-

point DFT produces M freq. domain symbols[fig.8] that

modulates M out of N orthogonal subcarriers spread over a

bandwidth (Wchannel)

Wchannel = N*f0 Hz ; f0 is subcarrier spacing.

Channel transmission rate is as follows:

Rchannel = N/M * Rsource symbols/sec

Hence spreading factor(Q) is calculated as

Q= Rchannel /Rsource = N/M

So, hence FDMA can handle up to Q orthogonal source signals

with each source occupying a different set of M orthogonal

subcarriers. So, according to our system initialization.[3]

M = 16 symbols per block & N=512 subcarrier, Hence

Q = N/M= 32 users in a system or terminals

Pictorially, relationship between subcarrier and fft/ifft block is

shown by following figure. Here subcarrier mapping block

assigns frequency domain modulated signal Xk symbols to

(N=512) subcarriers using various scheduling algorithm. The

simplest one is greedy algorithm while in paper there are

various algorithms discussed in literature.

Fig. 8: In N subcarriers M are occupied(M<N).

This is then converted into time domain signal using ifft.

%********************IFFT********************************

x=ich1+qch1.*i;

y=ifft(x);

ich2=real(y);

qch2=imag(y);

Time domain signal after ifft for 1

st

channel for both inphase

and quadrature are plotted below.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-0.05

0

0.05

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

IFFT modulated data.Inphase

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-0.05

0

0.05

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

IFFT modulated data.Quadrature

Fig. 9: Time domain signal(Inphase & Quad)

Once we are done with ifft then we insert guard interval to

eliminated ISI caused by multipath fading using this custom

built function.

%******************Guard interval insertion******************

4

fft_length2=fft_length + gaurd_length;

[ich4,qch4]=guard_interval_insert (ich2, qch2, fft_length, gaurd_length, nd);

Basically guard interval insertion is just appending the last part

of the data to the beginning of the data. Following is the frame

structure we use for ofdma transmission.

G

I

C

E

G

I

Dat

a

G

I

Dat

a

G

I

Dat

a

G

I

Dat

a

G

I

Fig. 10: 1 Frame format

So, frame is divided into channel estimation symbol and data

symbols. So, for CE symbols, the amplitude and phase

deviation from the pilot data are measured by using pilot

signal.

As can be seen now due to guard signal, our fft length

changes accounting for guard length to the original fft length.

These signal are then transmitted into channel. There are 2

types of distortion to the signal. We have modeled AWGN

(white Gaussian noise) and frequency selective fading (both

amplitude & phase varies, ISI).

%%%%%%%%%%%%% fading initialization %%%%%%%%%%%

tstp=1/symbol_rate/(fft_length+gaurd_length); % Time resolution

itau=[0]; % Arrival time for each multipath normalized by tstp

dlvl1=[0]; % Mean power for each multipath normalized by direct wave.

n0=[6] % Number of waves to generate fading

th1=[0.0]; % Initial Phase of delayed wave

itnd1=[1000]; % set fading counter

now1=1; % Number of directwave + Number of delayed wave

fd=150; % Maximum Doppler frequency(Hz)

flat=0; % Flat or not (1->flat (only amplitude is fluctuated),

% 0->nomal (phase and amplitude are fluctuated).

itnd0=nd*(fft_length+gaurd_length)*20; % Number of fading counter to skip

%**********************fading channel ************************

[ifade,qfade,ramp,rcos,rsin]=freq_sel_fade(ich4,qch4,itau,dlvl1,th1,n0,itnd1,no

w1,length(ich4),tstp,fd,flat);

itnd1 = itnd1+itnd0;

ich4=ifade;

qch4=qfade;

%******************AWGN addition(Channel)*********************

[ich5,qch5]=awgnAdd (ich4,qch4,attn); %awgnAdd;custom function

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-10

-5

0

5

x 10

-3

n

M

a

g

n

it

u

d

e

Fading signal (Inphase)

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-5

0

5

10

x 10

-3

n

M

a

g

n

it

u

d

e

Fading signal (Quadrature)

Fig. 10: Fading (freq. sel. fade) contaminated signal

(Inphase & Quadrature part) at channel.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

0.1

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

Transmitted signal(awgn+freq. fading).Inphase

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

-0.1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

Transmitted signal(awgn+freq. fading).Quadrature

Fig. 11: (Noise+fading) contaminated signal at channel

For fading we have put 150 Hz as maximum Doppler

frequency (

/ cos v fd

) (can be changed in main

program) and for generating Rayleigh fading we have

implemented Clarkes Model. Changing parameter, flat = 0 &

1 in the main program, will generate flat and frequency

selective fading accordingly.

So, now in receiver side we do opposite of transmitter side [as

shown in fig. 3] to recover original signal.

First of all guard interval is removed followed by converting

signal to frequency domain using fft.

%******************Guard interval removal***********************

[ich6,qch6]=guard_interval_remove(ich5,qch5,fft_length2,gaurd_length,nd);

%***************************FFT******************************

rx = ich6+qch6*i;

ry=fft(rx);

ich7=real(ry);

qch7=imag(ry);

5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-2

-1

0

1

2

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

FFT modulated data.Inphase

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-2

-1

0

1

2

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

FFT modulated data.Quadrature

Fig. 12: Frequency domain modulated signal(Rx)

This is followed by subcarrier de-mapping:

%**********************Subcarrier de-mapping*********************

%Interleaved(distributed) de-mapping.

%ich8=ich7(1+sub_band:Q:numSymbols);

%qch8=qch7(1+sub_band:Q:numSymbols);

%Localized de-mapping.

ich8=ich7([1:nd]+nd*sub_band);

qch8=qch7([1:nd]+nd*sub_band);

ich9=ich8./kmod; %De-Normalize

qch9=qch8./kmod; %De-Normalize

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

QPSK de-modulated data.Inphase

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Frequency(f)

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

l)

QPSK de-modulated data.Quadrature

Fig. 13: Frequency domain de-modulated signal(Rx)

Which is again followed by parallel to serial and qpsk

demodulation.

%***************************De-modulation***********************

[demodata]= qpskdemod (ich9,qch9,no_parallel_channel,nd,modulation_level);

%*****************************Parallel to serial*******************

demodata1=reshape (demodata,1,no_parallel_channel*nd*modulation_level);

0 50 100 150

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

n

D

a

t

a

p

o

in

t

s

(

A

m

p

lit

u

d

e

s

)

Received demodulated data(Rx)

Fig. 14: Received Signal at Rx

Finally, we calculate bit error rate and packet error rate in our

simulation. Bit error rate is calculated as number of error in bit

received from sent whereas packet error is calculated as

number of error packet received. We have simulated this for

number of iteration and average to get average error bit and

packet.

%Instantaneous number of error and data

no_error=sum(abs(demodata1-serial_data));

no_data=length(serial_data);

% calculating bit error rate

no_err_data=no_err_data+no_error;

no_Tx_data=no_Tx_data+no_data;

% calculating packet error rate

if no_error ~= 0

no_err_packet = no_err_packet+1;

else

no_err_packet = no_err_packet;

end

no_Tx_packet = no_Tx_packet+1;

ber_rate(jjj,iii) = no_error/no_data;

per_rate(jjj,iii) = no_err_packet/no_Tx_packet;

%Mean bit and packet error rate.

ber_rate = mean(ber_rate);

per_rate = mean(per_rate);

We have plotted simulated bit error rate with theoretical bit

error rate for both QPSK-AWGN and QPSK-Fading

(Rayleigh). Following are the expression for theoretical bit

error rate for QPSK.

( )

0

/

2

1

N E erfc BER

b AWGN QPSK

1

1

1

1

1

]

1

0

/

1

1

1

1

2

1

N E

BER

b

FADING QPSK

For channel with AWGN only, we put Eb/N0 values as [0:30]

and simulation for 500 iteration we got following simulated

result.

6

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No, dB

B

it

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Bit error probability rate curve for QPSK modulation in ofdma

theory awgn

theory rayleigh fading

simulation

Fig. 15: Bit error rate in AWGN channel

Also for Rayleigh fading case, following is the simulation

result which matches with theoretical Rayleigh curve. We have

increased our iteration to 5000 in this case to have better

averaging of data.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No, dB

B

it

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Bit error probability rate curve for QPSK modulation in ofdma

theory awgn

theory rayleigh fading

simulation

Fig. 16: Bit error rate in Frequency selective fading channel

(OFDMA) Un-coded.

As shown in [fig. 3], we require FEC (Forward error

correction) and this was done using Convolutional coding with

bit error rate of with code generator [171 133] and this was

followed by interleaver and decoding using hard decision.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

Bit error probability curve in AWGN

B

it

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Eb/No, dB

coded ofdma

rayleigh theory

un-coded ofdma

Fig. 17: Bit error rate (coded-OFDMA vs. uncoded-OFDMA)

As can be seen from the graph beyond 22 db SNR there is SNR

gain for same bit error probability using error correcting code.

For instance for 10^-4 bit error rate there is 10 dB SNR gain. I

think if we use more concatenated code for instance Reed-

Solomon code followed by convolutional code we gain more

dB as this can be left as extension of this current project.

Finally, following is the packet error performance (Rayleigh

fading) simulation result.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No, dB

P

a

c

k

e

t

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Packet error probability rate curve for QPSK modulation in ofdma

theory awgn

theory rayleigh fading

simulation

Fig. 18: Packet error rate in Freq. Sel. Fading channel

Whereas, for AWGN, we got following simulation result.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No, dB

P

a

c

k

e

t

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Packet error probability rate curve for QPSK modulation in ofdma

theory awgn

simulation

Fig. 19: Packet error rate in AWGN channel

Which shows that packet error rate decreases with increase of

SNR after 7dB.

Also for adaptive bit loading and power allocation we have

used Chows algorithm and following is the Chows algorithm

flowchart [9] for power and bit allocation to subcarriers (fig.

20). Generally sub-carrier which has low gain will be allocated

less number of bits and power whereas subcarrier with high

gains will have access to high number of bits and power.

Following is the flowchart of Chows algorithm again.

7

Fig. 20: Chows Algorithm for adaptive bit loading & power

allocation.

First of all simulation was run for existing 512 subcarriers.

Since the graph was bit cluttered, I have chosen to plot first 70

samples for readability. As seen from the figure carriers having

highest gain have larger number of bits allocated whereas

channel with lesser gain gets lesser number of bits and power. I

have chosen 512 bits for bits allocation purpose.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

2

4

subcarriers

s

u

b

c

a

r

r

i

e

r

s

g

a

i

n

s

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

2

4

Subcarriers

B

i

t

s

a

l

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

Bits Allocation

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

1

2

3

P

o

w

e

r

a

l

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

Subcarriers

Fig. 21: Resource Allocation (subcarriers=512)

In second plot I have chosen 64 subcarriers with 128 bits

allocation and following is the plot (fig. 21). So, here each sub-

carrier get more number of bits than earlier fig. 20 as shown in

figure but still bits allocation is done using the algorithm(chow)

with highest number of bits allocated for higher subcarriers

gains.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

2

4

subcarriers

s

u

b

c

a

r

r

i

e

r

s

g

a

i

n

s

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

5

Subcarriers

B

i

t

s

a

l

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

Bits Allocation

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0

1

2

3

P

o

w

e

r

a

l

l

o

c

a

t

i

o

n

Subcarriers

Fig. 22: Resource Allocation (subcarriers=64)

We have successfully shown the simulation result for

OFDMA transmission and receiver side. Also, we implemented

the same with sc-fdma except now the change will be the fft

and ifft circuit position only in the block diagram [see fig. 3 &

fig. 4].

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

Eb/No, dB

B

it

E

r

r

o

r

R

a

t

e

Bit error probability rate curve for QPSK modulation in sc-fdma

theory awgn

theory rayleigh fading

simulation

Fig. 23: Bit error rate in Frequency selective fading channel

(SC-FDMA) Un-coded.

As comparing graph between fig. 14 and fig. 17, both seem to

agree much with the theoretical bit error rate. Both were

computed using 5000 iteration. Also comparative PAPR was

calculated between OFDMA and SC-FDMA [fig. 19].

1.4.2 PAPR Analysis

In this section we will try to analysis and comparatively

study the PAPR for both system ofdma and sc-ofdma system.

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

PAPR0[dB]

P

r

(

P

A

P

R

>

P

A

P

R

0

)

PAPR of ofdma

8

Fig. 24: PAPR of OFDMA

Following is the papr for sc-fdma & ofdma. Here for sc-fdma

we use pulse shaping with raised cosine filter with rolloff factor

0.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

PAPR0[dB]

P

r

(

P

A

P

R

>

P

A

P

R

0

)

PAPR of ofdma

OFDMA

SCFDMA

Fig. 25: PAPR for SCFDMA & OFDMA

As can be seen from the graph, it is seen that papr for sc-fdma

is less than ofdma. For instance for 6 dB, there is a difference

of 0.5052. This is also the reason behind of using sc-fdma in

uplink rather than ofdma.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

10

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

PAPR0[dB]

P

r

(

P

A

P

R

>

P

A

P

R

0

)

PAPR of ofdma

IFDMA

LFDMA

OFDMA

Fig. 26: PAPR for SCFDMA(IFDMA,LFDMA) & OFDMA

CONCLUSION

We have successfully shown the simulation of ofdma in

this paper which is widely used in downlink for LTE

technology. Sc-fdma is used in uplink and simulation of it was

done by simply changing fft/ifft circuit positions. Also we have

shown the papr analysis and seen that papr of sc-fdma is lower

than its counterparts ofdma. This is one of the reason of it

being used in uplink of LTE.

FUTURE WORKS

Comparative study of capacity and outage probability of the

system could be simulated in the future code. Also higher

concatenated FEC could be used for encoder/decoder like

Reed-Solomon followed by convolutional coding. There are

also some papers which discuss on adaptive modulation which

could be implemented in future code.

REFERENCES

[1] Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communication

[2] Richard Van. Nee & Ramjee Prasad OFDM for wireless multimedia

communication.

[3] Hyung G. Myung & David J. Goodman Single Carrier FDMA A new

air interface for long term evolution.

[4] Hiroshi Harada & Ramjee Prasad Simulation and software radio for

mobile communications.

[5] Tingting Shi, Shidong Zhou, Yan Yao Capacity of single carrier

systems with frequency-domain equalization ieee.

[6] Nima Soltani Comparison of Single-Carrier FDMA vs. OFDMA as

3GPP Long-Term Evolution Uplink.

[7] Stefania sesia,Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker, LTE The UMTS Long

Term Evolution from theory to practice.

[8] Resource Allocation Algorithms for OFDMA Downlink by Eric Lai

[9] A Practical Discrete Multitone Transceiver Loading Algorithm for Data

Transmission over Spectrally Shaped Channel by Peter S. Chow,John

M. Cioffi,and John A.C. Bingha

9

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