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Abebe Kebede TheContact: African Journal of Physics (AJP) email:gutaye@ncat.

edu publishes both volumes of regular articles as well as peer African reviewed Copyright2004 proceedings of physics events held in Scientificork Africa. It is catalogued in the US as follows: ISSN: PRINT: 1948-0229; URL:http://www.physics.ncat.edu/mich CD ael/ajp ROM:1948-0245 and ONLINE: 1948-0237

committed to publishing papers from the remotest parts of Africa to the most developed parts of the world. Since the birth of the first volume as a special issue to publish the proceedings of the First International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and National Development (ISOTPAND2008) held in Abuja, Nigeria, from August 25 - 29, 2008, the Journal has continued to improve both in quality and speed of publication of submitted articles. This is because of the commitment of our reviewers and members of the editorial board. Our esteemed contributors will be pleased to know that AJP has been on-line since its first volume. This means that there is an online version of the journal while manuscripts submission is done electronically by word format. Thus the guidelines for authors are available online and the review process which include article tracking are done electronically. In addition, all subscribers will be able to access the Journal on-line and receive Instructions automatically when their subscription is processed. We assure all our contributor that there will be regular publication of the regular articles of the journal henceforth. The Editorial Board of the AJP is grateful to our referees for their effort in reviewing the papers in this volume. Enquiries and submission Submission of regular articles for the journal or enquiry to publish pair reviewed proceedings should be made to: Kebede Abebe E-mail: gutaye@ncat.edu Or to the Godfrey E. Akpojotor E-mail: akpogea@niss-edu.net

Editorial Board Editors: Prof A.O. E. Animalu Dr Kebede Abebe Prof B.O. Oyelami Dr G. E. Akpojotor Members Prof Diola Bagayoko (USA) Prof M. L. Kulic (Germany) Prof Amagh Nduka (Nigeria) Prof T. L. Gill (USA) Prof. A. P. Maclin (USA) Dr Abebe Kebede (USA) Prof J.O. Idiodi (Nigeria) Dr Paul Gueye (USA) Prof David Ernst (USA) Dr. Alain M. Dikande (Cameron) Prof Otete Okobiah (Nigeria) Dr Nithaya Chetty (South Africa) Dr Anatole Kenfack (Germany) Editoral Comment The world is now regarded as a Global village with the internet as the Town square. Therefore any information in such media as books, magazines, journals, data, etc that are available on the internet can be accessed from any part of the world that is connected to the World Wide Web. The implication is that the potential to abridge the information gap between parts of our Globe is now available. The African Journal of Physics is

Paper Submission Guide Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication. Copyrights for articles are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author. The authors authorize the publisher to archive the article into databases and indexes (such as Index Copernicus, , DOAJ, JournalTOCS (UK), Google Scholar, PKP Knowledge, SCI-Edge(US), BASE(Bielefeld Academic), OCLC WorldCat (US)), Ulrichs and permit the publisher apply DOI name to the article. All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word format and submitted online. If you have any questions, please contact the Editorial team of the journal. TYPES OF CONTRIBUTIONS Original research papers; review article; technical notes; book review; reports of conferences and meetings; short communications; letters to the Editor. SUBMISSION, REVIEW AND PUBLICATION PROCESS 1. You must read the paper submission guide and use the AJP standard paper template (Request or download the online version). Drafting your

paper based on the PaperTemplate will help you to go through the review process quickly and publish your work faster. Submission with wrong format will be delayed or rejected 2. Email your paper to the Editors (see e-mail addresses below) with a claim that your content is original. You cannot submit your article to multiple journals at the same time. 3. You will get a notification from the Editors that your email has been received within 24 hours. 4. Review comment and result will be returned. Authors may receive, Publish Unaltered: the paper is ready for publication and no change is needed. Acceptance after Minor Changes: you need to make minor changes according to the instruction of the Editors. Acceptance after Major Changes: you need to make major changes according to the instruction of the Editors. Rejection: Manuscript is flawed or not sufficiently novel 5. Submit your final article (if required) before the deadline mentioned in the acceptance letter. The final publication of both the online and printed version of your article. The CD version is also available upon request.

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General Language Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of both); decimal points (not commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above). We only accept manuscripts in English language. Length of paper 3000-8000 words are preferred.

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Title page should include: Title Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. Authors names and affiliations Please indicate the given name and family name clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address, and telephone number (with country and area code) of each author. Corresponding author Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and also post-publication. Full contact information is required. Acknlowledgment/Sponsoring information (optional) Acknowledgement (optional) and sponsorship information should come before the reference list. General Rules for Text Please use the following rules for whole text, including abstract, keywords, heading and references. Front: Times New Roman; Size: 10 Paragraph Spacing: Above paragraph 0 pt; Below paragraph 4 pt Line Spacing: fixed 12 pt Heading 1: Times New Roman; Size-10; Bold; for example, 1. Introduction Heading 2: Times New Roman; Size-10; Italic; for example, 1.1 Research Methods Heading 3: Times New Roman; Size-10; for example, 1.1.1 Analysis Result

Preparation of text Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length of 150 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Keywords/Pacs Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords or pacs, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. Subdivision of the article Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1., 2., (then 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal crossreferencing: do not just refer to 'the text.' Any subsection, ideally, should not be more than 600 words. Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the expense of clarity. Figure legends, figures, schemes Present these, in this order, at the end of the article. They are described in more detail below. High-resolution graphics files must always be provided separate from the main text file. Tables Present tables, at the end of the article. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place description to tables below the table body. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

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Formula The text size of formula should be similar with normal text size. Illustrations Line drawings should be provided in microsoft word. Dragrams and graphs should generally be of such size that, after linear reduction to one-half or one-third, they should be legible. Photographs must be good quality and should be sharp black and white prints. References Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. Citations in the text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Avoid citation in the abstract. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Citing and listing of web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Text Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You can refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, ISBN 1-55798-790-4, copies of which may be ordered from http://www.apa.org/books/4200061.html or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK. Details concerning this referencing style can also be found at http://humanities.byu.edu/linguistics/Henr ichsen/APA/APA01.html

List References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication. Examples Reference to a journal publication: Mikel K., Indomie P. and Inesta H. (2008) An exact solution to the extended Hubbard model in 2D for finite size system. Phys. Scr. 78, 025701 (4pp) doi:10.1088/0031-8949/78/02/025701 Reference to a book: Animalu A.O.E.(1977) Intermediate quantum theory of crystalline solids, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Chapter 11. Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Oghenerurho G. E. (2000) Frontiers of superconducting iron pnictides In Ekuma P. K and Pigho C. (Eds) Some intriguing phenomena in condensed matter physics pp. 160 - 213) Acada Progress Publishing Ltd, Lagos. Enquiries and submission Submission of regular articles for the journal or enquiry to publish pair reviewed proceedings should be made to: Kebede Abebe E-mail: gutaye@ncat.edu Or to Godfrey E. Akpojotor E-mail: akpogea@niss-edu.net: Isotpand.series@gmail.com Nigeria Office International Centre for Basic Research, 20, Limpopo Street, FHA, Maitama Abuja email: ibr32@aol.com

Editorial Comment on this Volume This special volume contains papers presented at the fourth International Seminar on Theoretical Physics and

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National Development (ISOTPAND2011) held from July 10 22, 2010 at the National Mathematical Centre (NMC) Abuja In further pursuance of the ISOTPAND mission of having an annual forum for bringing senior and eager beginners together in the field of Theoretical Physics as well as its role in national development. Like in ISOTPAND2010, there was a foundation postgraduate course (FPGC) on Genomathematics

for Hadronic Mechanics and Advanced Computational Physics using Python from July 10 16, 2011
while the seminar was held from July 17 22, 2011. There were a total of 43 participants at the FPGC and this included young postdocs, postgraduate students and a few undergraduate students. The resource persons of the Genomathematics were Professor Alexander Animalu of the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, (Nigeria) and the International Centre for Basic Research (ICBR), Abuja (Nigeria) and Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli of the Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, (U.S.A). The resource persons for the Introduction to Computational Science for Science and Engineering using Python were Dr Godfrey Ejiroghene Akpojotor of the Physics Department of the Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria) and the International Centre for Basic Research (ICBR), Abuja (Nigeria), Professor Benjamen Oyelami of the National Mathematical Centre, Abuja (Nigeria) and Dr Ikata Eghuanoye of the Physics Department of the University of Science Education, PortHarcourt (Nigeria).They were assisted at the Work-on-Assignment sections by several demonstrators which

included Myron Echenim of Kusmus Communications, Warri (Nigeria) and who was Dr Akpojotor s former student and some of the participants in 2010 who are now good with the Python. The schedule of the FPGC was such that the lectures were held every day (Monday, July 11 Friday, July 15, 2011) from 9.00 11.00 a.m. for the Geno-mathematics; followed by one hour tea break; then the Introduction to Computational Science for Science and Engineering using Python from 12.00 2.00 p.m; lunch break from 2.00 4.00 p.m. and finally the workon-Assignment from 4.00 6.30 p.m. Again, as in 2010, both topics were effectively covered by the resource persons and the enthusiasm of the participants was overwhelming. On Saturday July 16, the organizers arranged an excursion for the participants who remained at the NMC hotel so as to participate at the seminar the following week. The participants were taken to visit some important sites in Abuja in two buses provided by NMC. The seminar week began with a Registration/welcome dinner on Sunday, July 17 at the NMC restaurant. The seminar presentation began at 9.00 a.m. and ended at 6.30 p.m. everyday from Monday, July 18 Wednesday, July 20, 2011) with tea breaks and lunch breaks in between. There were a total of 51 participants and a total of 6 invited papers and 34 contributed papers were presented. The social aspect of the seminar was an excursion to some important sites in Abuja in the morning and early afternoon of Thursday, July 21, 2011. However, due to threat of a warning strike by the workers union over the non-implementation of the minimum wage, the end of seminar dinner/

biography presentation of Professor Iya Abubakar planned to be held at the Merit House, Abuja, was cancelled. The main sponsors of ISOTPAND2011 are the International Centre for Basic Research, the National Mathematical Centre and the National Universities Commission

while the following bodies gave financial supports: Nigerian Energy Commission, Raw Material and Research Development Council, National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP), Board of National Merit Award, University of Nigeria, Delta State University as well as individual donors. Editors

Group Photograph of Participants at ISOTPAND2011

At the 80th birthday celebration and biography presentation of the Emeritus Professor J. O. C. Ezeilo at Sheraton Hotels and Towers fully sponsored by the National University Commission, Abuja.

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African Journal of Physics Vol.4 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 100 YEARS OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND CHALLENGES OF RESEARCHERS IN NIGERIA ................................... 1 O. Abah1, A.O.E. Animalu1, G.C. Asomba1, O.A. Ogbuu2, C.M.I. Okoye1, O. Umeh3. ................................................................................................ 1 2. GENO-BRAGGS LAW, GENO-HIGGS FUNCTION AND 10*X10 REPRESENTATION OF SU(3) SYMMETRY FOR QUASICRYSTAL STRUCTURES ....................................................................................... 14 Alexander O.E. Animalu ........................................................................ 14 3. GENO-VIRIALTHEOREM & DARK MATTER/ENERGY REVISITED:........ 43
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Francis E. Onah, and 2A.O.E. Animalu

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4. A THEORETICAL DESIGN OF QUANTUM WELL WITH EQUISPACED ENERGY LEVELS IN THE CONDUCTION BAND OF ALXGA1-XSB AND ALX IN1-XSB............................................................................................ 62 Arthur Imooah Ejere1 and Godfrey E.Akpojotor2 .................................... 62 5. ELECTRONIC BAND STRUCTURE OF BAS AND ALAS ...................... 73 MADU C. A.. ........................................................................................ 73 6. SEASONAL TRENDS IN NOON ATMOSPHERIC NO+ CONCENTRATION ............................................................................... 81 Onwuneme, S.E .and Abbey, T.M. ......................................................... 81 7. LINEARIZED ISOTHERM MODEL COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE ADSORPTION OF ANTHOCLEISTA DJALONENSIS LEAF EXTRACT ON ALUMINIUM IN HCL SOLUTION .................................................. 88
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Nnaji, N.J., 1Okoye, C.O.and 2Obiegbedi, N.O...................................... 88

8. 3D INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA FROM A FIELD IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION, NIGERIA ......................................... 98 T. N. Obiekezie ...................................................................................... 98 9. UTILITY INTERRACTIVE SOLAR PV ENERGY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA .................. 104
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Onuk, O. E., 2Akuru, U. B., 3Animalu, A.O.E. 4Unachukwu, G. O., and Oparaku, O. U..................................................................................... 104 vii

African Journal of Physics Vol.4 2011

10. LOW TIME-SCALE VARIATION OF COSMIC RAY INTENSITY.............. 112 Hanson E.A., Okoro E.C.and Okeke F.N. ............................................. 112 11. EFFECTS OF TRANSESTERIFICATION VARIABLES ON YIELDS AND PROPERTIES OF BIODIESELS PRODUCED FROM FOUR VIRGIN TROPICAL SEEDS OILS ..................................................................... 120
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Igbum, O.G., 2Eloka-Eboka, A.C. and3 Ejila, A.A. .............................. 120

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MODELLING OF GROUNDWATER AND CONTAMINANT FLOW IN PARTS OF THE WESTERN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA .................... 133
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Edmund Atakpo and 2Elijah.A.Ayolabi ............................................... 133

13. WAVE GENERATION IN THE BASE OF THE BRAIN THROUGH BLOOD FLOW IN THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY .................................. 144 Tivde, T ............................................................................................... 144 14. THE REVERBERATION TIME AND CONGREGATIONAL RESPONSE TO THE ACOUSTICS OF SOME LARGE CHURCHES IN THE JOS METROPOLIS ..................................................................................... 163 Lewis Obagboye1 and Bulus Gyang2 .................................................... 163 15. ON MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY IN COSMOLOGY: ................. 175 A.O.E. Animalu(1) and Engr. Onyemaechi Nwogu(2)............................. 175 16. A TRADITIONAL AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE ON THE BIG BANG AND THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING........................................................ 195 Professor Catherine Acholonu ............................................................. 195 17. PHYSICS IN THE TRADITIONAL PRACTICES OF THE IGBO: PARADIGMS FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN TODAYS AFRICA :AFRICAN WORLDVIEW AND POLITICS ............................................................................................ 201 J. E. Unaegbu ....................................................................................... 201

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