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Arabic Pronouns

Learning the Arabic Pronouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Pronouns is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). The pronouns in Arabic are the most elaborated, since they have a masculine and feminine variant for the second person singular and plural, Also they have a dual variant denoting two persons. Here are some examples:

English Pronouns

Arabic Pronouns

Pronouns

- althamaa'er

- aanaa

you

- aant

he

- how

she

- heee

we

- nahn

they

- hom

English Pronouns

Arabic Pronouns

me

- aanaa

you

- aant

him

- lah

her

- lahaa

us

- lanaa

them

- menhom

my

- leee

your

- lakom

his

- lah

her

- lahaa

our

- lanaa

English Pronouns

Arabic Pronouns

their

- men

mine

- manjam

yours

- lak

his

- lah

hers

- khaasatahaa

ours

- lanaa

theirs

- lahom

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Pronouns in Arabic has a logical pattern. Locate the Pronouns above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic. In Arabic the possessive is written attached and behind the noun possessed. It is used both for the possessive and accusative only the first person differs yi for a noun and ni for a verb (accusative) Huwa yaddrabuni bi kitabi, he hits me with my book.

List of Pronouns in Arabic


Below is a list of the Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary.

English Pronouns

Arabic Pronouns

I speak

- aanaa aatakalam

you speak

- ant tatakalam

he speaks

- how eeatakalam

she speaks

- hea tatakalam

we speak

- nahn natakalam

they speak

- hom eeatakalamown

give me

- aa'teneee

give you

- ao'teeeak

give him

- a'teeeah

give her

- a'teeeahaa

give us

- a'taeenaa

give them

- a'teeehom

English Pronouns

Arabic Pronouns

my book

- ketaabeee

your book

- ketaabek

his book

- ketaabah

her book

- ketaabehaa

our book

- ketaabonaa

their book

- ketaabahom

Arabic Articles
Learning the Arabic Articles is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Articles is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic articles are words that combine with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Generally articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun. Examples are "the, a, and an". Here are some examples:

English Articles

Arabic Articles

English Articles

Arabic Articles

articles

- maqaalaat

the

- al

no equivalent in arabic - no equivalent in arabic

one

- waahed

some

- ba'th

few

- qaleeel

the book

- alketaab

the books

- alkotob

a book

- ketaab

one book

- ketaab waahed

some books

- ba'th alkotob

few books

- alqaleel men alkotob

In Arabic the definite article is al. As for the indefinite article, there is none. An indefinite noun in Arabic is indicated by a declension, or rather nunation of the noun. Each definite noun in Arabic has the definite article attached to it and ends on u, a or I, depending if it is a subject, object ore possessive. When the noun is indefinite, the nouns end on respectively un, an or in, hence the name nunation, th n in Arabic is pronounced nun . For example Ar-rajalu yaqrau al-djaridata, The man reads the newspaper, jaakulu gubzan - Muhamad eats a bread. A very important rule in Arabic is Al-mudhaf wa-al-mudhaf ilaihu. This is kitaab Muhammed

used to denote the passive like in the book of the man is translated as

ar-radjuli. According to the Arabic grammarians, book is made definite by the man so it doesnt need a definite article! Also the man is declined with I the sign of the possessive. If one wants to say the book of this man, then this must be put at the end of the construction, since nothing may break it. Book (of) the man this.

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Articles in Arabic has a logical pattern. Locate the Articles above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic.

List of Articles in Arabic


Below is a list of vocabulary where you can use the Definite and Indefinite Articles in Arabic. Try to practice but also memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary.

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

Food

- ghethaa'

almonds

- lowz

bread

- khobz

breakfast

- eeftaar

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

butter

- zobdah

candy

- halwaa

cheese

- jabon

chicken

- dajaaj

cumin

- komown

dessert

- halwaa

dinner

- 'eshaa'

fish

- samak

fruit

- faakehah

ice cream

- alaaees kreeem

lamb

- kharowf

lemon

- laeemown

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

lunch

- ghadaa'

meal

- wajbah

meat

- lahm

oven

- forn

pepper

- folfol

plants

- nabaataat

pork

- lahm khenzeeer

salad

- salatah

salt

- melh

sandwich

- shateeerah

sausage

- sojoq

soup

- hasaa'

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

sugar

- sokar

supper

- 'eshaa'

turkey

- deeeak rowmea

apple

- tofaahah

banana

- mawz

oranges

- bortoqaal

peaches

- khawkh

peanut

- alfowol alsowdaaneee

pears

- komathraa

pineapple

- aananas

grapes

- 'enab

strawberries

- faraawelah

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

vegetables

- khothrawaat

carrot

- jozor

corn

- tharah

cucumber

- kheeeaar

garlic

- thowm

lettuce

- khas

olives

- zaeetown

onions

- basal

peppers

- alfolfol

potatoes

- albataates

pumpkin

- aleeaqteeen

beans

- faasowleeeaa

English Vocabulary

Arabic Vocabulary

tomatoes

- tamaatem

Like English, Arabic has one definite article "the", but it has no indefinite article a. Instead the Arabs use a declension to indicate that a noun is indefinite. For example the book is

, having al- in front (note the indefinite article is written attached to the noun it describes, so is wa meaning and) and ending on the vowel u indicates
translated as Al-Kitabu that the noun is indefinite. A book however is written as Kitabun

where a n is added at the end of the vowel to

indicate the noun is indefinite, Arab grammarians cal this nunnation. Sun Moon letters The lof the definite article al assimilates with the letter following it. If the pronouncation of the letter following the l is pronounced in the same region of the l, i.e. in front, the l changes to the consonant following the l, making this consonant effectively spoken twice, when the consonant following the l is pronounced in the back then the pronunciation of the l is maintained. The Arabs call this sun and moon letters

HHarf(u)-asj-sjamsi and

. The l in case of sun letters is written but in pronnounsiation replace by the sound
following it.

Arabic Verbs
Learning the Arabic Verbs is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Verbs is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic.

Arabic verbs are words that convey action (bring, read, walk, run), or a state of being (exist, stand). In most languages a verb may agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. Arabic to has only 2 times, the perfect and the imperfect, but there is a difference, in the west we look at the points in time in where a action takes place, the Arabs however look at the aspect of a verb meaning they ask is the action finished or not (They dont ask themselves when did it finish or not). Of course a finished action corresponds with the past as does a unfinished action with the present, but not necessarily so. Here are some examples:

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

Verbs

- alaaf'aal

Past

- almaatheee

I spoke

- tahadatht

I wrote

- kotebat

I drove

- qodat

I loved

- kont aoheb

I gave

- aa'taeet

I smiled

- abtasamat

I took

- aakhathat

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

he spoke

- tohadeth

he wrote

- koteb

he drove

- qaad

he loved

- aheb

he gave

- qadem

he smiled

- abtasem

he took

- akhath

we spoke

- takalamnaa

we wrote

- katabnaa

we drove

- qodnaa

we loved

- aahbabnaa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

we gave

- ao'teeeanaa

we smiled

- abtasamnaa

we took

- akhathnaa

Future

- mostaqbel

I will speak

- sawf aatakalam

I will write

- sawf aaktob

I will drive

- sawf aaqowd

I will love

- sawf aoheb

I will give

- sawf ao'teee

I will smile

- sawf aabatasem

I will take

- sawf aakheth

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

he will speak

- sawf eeatahdoth

he will write

- sawf eeaktob

he will drive

- sawf eeaqowd

he will love

- sawf eeoheb

he will give

- sawf eeo'teee

he will smile

- sawf eeabtasem

he will take

- sawf eeaakhoth

we will speak

- sawf natakalam

we will write

- sawf naktob

we will drive

- sawf noqowd

we will love

- sawf noheb

we will give

- sawf no'taa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

we will smile

- sawf nabatasem

we will take

- sawf naakhoth

Present

- alhaaleee

I speak

- aanaa aatakalam

I write

- aanaa aaktob

I drive

- aanaa aaqowd

I love

- anaa aahab

I give

- aana a'taa

I smile

- anaa aabtesem

I take

- anaa aakheth

he speaks

- eeatakalam

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

he writes

- eeoktab

he drives

- eeaqowd

he loves

- eeoheb

he gives

- eeo'teee

he smiles

- eeabtasem

he takes

- eeaakhoth

we speak

- nahn natakalam

we write

- thahn naktob

we drive

- nahn noqowd

we love

- nahn noheb

we give

- nahn no'teee

we smile

- nahn nabtasem

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

we take

- nahn naakhoth

Arabic verb conjugation is a bit complex, although very regular the so called semivowels alif, waw and ya and the glottal stop hamza cause irregularity in Arabic verb conjugation. The simplest Arabic verb excist out of three consonants like KaTaBa meaning he wrote or he

has written. The past tense is conjugated by suffixes, the present tense by prefixes. The Arabs use the verb fa3ala (to do) to represent all possible forms a verb may have. The problem lies in the fact that any of those root consonants might be an hamza, the glottal stop or an alif, a waw or a ya, the so called semi-consonants. They might be retained or disappear according to certain rules. Arabic verbs have ten (even more) forms. To give you an example,third rule know, The second form allama means to

allama with the second consonant doubled means to let know ta3allama means to let your self know meaning to study!

meaning to teach, the fifth form

The tenth form istaf3ala means in general to think to act out an action described by the verb, so istahhasana to think to be beatifull from hhasana to be beautiful. I once made a joke during my Arabic studies. In Holland we call a street car (an electric street car) a tram. This exactly fits the Arabic verb paradigm. Back in those days I sometimes sat in the tram without a ticket which we Dutch call zwart rijden (driving black). So I said if tram would be an Arabic verb TRM the zwart rijde would be translated as IstTarama ticket). As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Verbs in Arabic has a logical pattern. Locate the Verbs above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic. thinking to ride on a tram (with a

List of Verbs in Arabic


Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary.

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

I can accept that

/iomkin an aqbalah

she added it

/waadaafat anah

we admit it

/nahn na'tarif bithalik

they advised him

/waashaarowa 'alaih

I can agree with that

/waiomkinonii an atafiq ma'ah

she allows it

/anahaa tasmah lahaa

we announce it

/no'lin thalik

I can apologize

/waiomkinonii an a'tathir

she appears today

/iabdow anahaa aliawm

they arranged that

/lakinahaa warotibat

I can arrive tomorrow

/waiomkinonii an iasil ghada

she can ask him

/tastatii' an asalah

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

she attaches that

/anahaa to'aliq 'alaih

we attack them

/nahn nhaajamihom

they avoid her

/iatajanabown lahaa

I can bake it

/waiomkinonii an khabaz

she is like him

/fahii mithlih

we beat it

/faaz nahn 'alaih

they became happy

/asbahowa sa'iid

I can begin that

/iomkinonii tashghiilah

we borrowed money

/nahn aqtaradat almaal

they breathe air

/tatanafas alhawaau

I can bring it

/laa astatii' ja'alah

I can build that

/waiomkinonii an nabnii 'alaih

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

she buys food

/anahaa tashtarii almawaad alghithaaiiiah

we calculate it

/nahsob anah

they carry it

/anahaa tahmiloh

they don't cheat

/anahom laa khidaa'

she chooses him

/akhtaarat lah

we close it

/nahn iighlaaqah

he comes here

/iaatii honaa

I can compare that

/iomkinonii moqaaranatohaa

she competes with me

/anahaa tatanaafas ma' lii

we complain about it

/nahn nashkow minhaa

they continued reading

/anahaa waasalat alqiraauah

he cried about that

/sarakh 'an thalik

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

I can decide now

/waiomkinonii an toqarir alaan

she described it to me

/wawosifat lii

we disagree about it

/nakhtalif hawl hathaa almawdow'

they disappeared quickly

/akhtifaaiihaa bisor'ah

I discovered that

/aktoshifat anahaa

she dislikes that

/anahaa laa tohib an

we do it

/nahn naf'al thalik

they dream about it

/iahlomown 'an thalik

I earned

/hasal lii thalik

he eats a lot

/anah iaakol alkathiir

we enjoyed that

/astamta'naa thalik

they entered here

/dakhalowa honaa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

he escaped that

/harab how

I can explain that

/laa astatii' sharh thalik

she feels that too

/tash'or anahaa aida

we fled from there

/harabnaa min honaak

they will fly tomorrow

/sawf iatiir ghada

I can follow you

/waiomkinonii an totbi' lakom

she forgot me

/nasiit minii

we forgive him

/nahn iaghfir lah

I can give her that

/iomkin an ao'tiiahaa lahaa

she goes there

/tathhab honaak

we greeted them

/astaqbal wanahn minhom

I hate that

/akrahoh

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

I can hear it

/waiomkinonii an tasma'ah

she imagine that

/iotasawar anahaa kaanat

we invited them

/da'awnaa lahom

I know him

/anaa a'rifoh

she learned it

/ta'alamt anah

we leave now

/natrok alaan

they lied about him

/kathab 'anh

I can listen to that

/laa astatii' aliastimaa' iilaihaa

she lost that

/anahaa khasirat

we made it yesterday

/alatii qata'naahaa 'alaa anfosinaa ams

they met him

/ajtama'owa lah

I misspell that

/anaa kitaabatihaa anahaa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

I always pray

/aosalii daaiimaa

she prefers that

/anahaa tofadil thalik

we protected them

/mahmiiah nahn minhom

they will punish her

/sawf mo'aaqabatahaa

I can put it there

/laa astatii' wada'ah honaak

she will read it

/anahaa sawf iaqraaohaa

we received that

/talqiinaa thalik

they refuse to talk

/rafadowa altahadoth

I remember that

/atathakarohaa

she repeats that

/anahaa tokarir thalik

we see it

/naraah

they sell it

/tabii'ohaa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

I sent that yesterday

/aorsilt bialams

he shaved his beard

/anah hilaq lihiatih

it shrunk quickly

/anahaa taqalasat bisor'ah

we will sing it

/sanaqowm ghinaaiihaa

they sat there

/jalasowa honaak

I can speak it

/laa astatii' altahadoth bihaa

she spends money

/iinahaa tonfiq almaal

we suffered from that

/'aanainaa minh

they suggest that

/fahii towhii anahaa

I surprised him

/fowojiit bih

she took that

/waqaalat iinahaa

we teach it

/nahn na'lam anah

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

they told us

/qaalowa lanaa

she thanked him

/shakart lah

I can think about it

/laa astatii' altafkiir fii alamr

she threw it

/alqaa qaalat iinahaa

we understand that

/nafham

they want that

/kaanowa ioriidown thalik

I can wear it

/laa astatii' artidaau alhijaab

she writes that

/waqaalat anahaa taktob 'alaih

we talk about it

/natahadath 'an thalik

they have it

/ladaihim 'alaih

I watched it

/shaahadt thalik

I will talk about it

/waanaa arqos ma'ak

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

he bought that yesterday

/ashtaraa ams anahaa

we finished it

/antahainaa thalik