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Chapter 1 Internal Combustion Engines

1.1 Introduction
Internal combustion engines produce mechanical power from the chemical energy contained in the fuel. The energy is released by oxidizing the fuel, which is basically the burning of fuel inside the combustion chamber in the engine. Burning of high-temperature and pressure gases and work transfer between the gases and mechanical components of the engine provide the desired output. There are two types of Internal Combustion Engines: 1. Spark Ignited Engines (Otto or Petrol Engines)

2. Compressed Ignited Engines ( Diesel Engines) Engines can also be classified by the Working Cycle: 1. Two-Stroke Engines steps or strokes The cycle of operation is completed in two

2. Four-Stroke Engines The cycle of operation is completed in four steps or strokes Internal Combustion engines have found wide application in transportation (land, sea and air) and power generation because of their simple design, ruggedness and high power/weight ratio. These engines are used in automobiles, trucks, boats, motorcycles etc.

1.2 Engine Operating Cycles of Four Stroke Engines


In reciprocating engines, the power is produced by combustion of air-fuel mixture which moves the piston back and forth and this power is transmitted to crankshaft through a connecting rod. The volume swept out by the piston is called the swept volume. The minimum cylinder volume at the Top Dead Centre is the Clearance Volume. Ratio of cylinder volume to swept volume i.e. maximum volume to minimum volume is called the Compression Ratio. For a spark ignited (SI) engines, the compression ratio lie between 8 and 12 and for a diesel engine varies from 12 to 24.

For four stroke engines, the cycle of operation is completed in four strokes of piston or two revolutions of crankshaft and one power stroke is produced during the cycle. Both SI and CI engines use this cycle which basically consists of following four steps 1. Intake Stroke Fresh Charge (air-fuel mixture in case of SI engines and air alone in CI engines) is drawn in the combustion chamber during this stroke. This strokes when the piston at the top i.e. Top Dead Centre (TDC) and ends when piston reaches the bottom i.e. Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). Inlet valve (present on cylinder head) opens during intake stroke from where the charge is inducted into the cylinder. 2. Compression Stroke During compression stroke, both the valves, inlet and exhaust are closed. The charge drawn in the intake stroke is compressed to small volume in this stroke. At the end of this stroke, combustion is initiated which results in increase of pressure, temperature and density of the fuel.

3. Power Stroke This stroke is also called expansion stroke and is the only stroke in which work is produced. Combustion of high pressure and high temperature gases push the piston downwards which forces the crank to rotate. The piston moves from TDC to BDC. Around 5 times as much work is done on the piston as it does during the compression.

4. Exhaust Stroke During this stroke, the piston moves from BDC to TDC removing the products of combustion from the cylinder. The Exhaust valve opens during this stroke and at the end of this stroke; inlet valve opens again starting the cycle again. The above four stroke results in two crankshaft revolutions and one power stroke.

Fig. 1 Four Stroke Cycle

Fig. 2 P-V diagram for an Otto engine

1.3 Diesel Engines


Diesel Engines are compressed ignited engines where air alone is introduced in the cylinder and use this heat of compression of air to ignite the fuel and burn it. Before the combustion process is about to start, a fuel injector is used to inject the fuel in the combustion chamber. By changing the amount of fuel injected in every cycle, load control can be achieved. If more power output is required, more fuel is injected and lesser fuel for low power. At a particular engine speed, the air flow is basically the same. Diesel engines today are used in wide variety of industries such as automotive, submarines, trucks, power generation etc.

Fig. 3 P-V diagram for a diesel engine

Chapter 2 Combustion in Diesel Engines


2.1 General Features of Combustion Process in Diesel Engines
The compression ratio used for diesel engines lie in the range of 12 to 24, much higher than that of Spark-Ignited engines. The compression ratio employed also depends on whether the engine is turbocharged, supercharged or naturally aspirated. Air at around atmospheric pressure is induced in the cylinder and is then compressed in compression stroke to reach a pressure of 4 MPa and temperature of around 800K. At about 15-20 degrees before the Top Dead Centre (TDC), the fuel injection begins. When the liquid fuel comes in contact with hot compressed air, the fuel evaporates and mixes with air. The air inside the combustion chamber is well above the ignition temperature of the fuel which atomizes the fuel in small drops. The ignition of air-fuel mixture begins after a small delay period and thus the combustion process starts. The flame spreads rapidly through the mixture and the evaporation proceeds. After the expansion stroke, the exhaust process takes place where most of the burnt gases are driven out of the combustion chamber. The cycle starts again after the exhaust stroke.

2.2 Important Consequences of the Combustion Process in Diesel Engines

There is no knocking in diesel engines as compared to spark ignited engines because the injection starts just before the combustion and therefore, a higher compression ratio can be used improving its efficiency to that of Spark Ignited engines

The air flow is essentially unchanged in a diesel engine and the torque and power output can be changed by varying the amount of fuel injected. Thus, the engine can be operated unthrottled and therefore pumping work requirements are low.

Since diesel engine operates with lean fuel/air ratios, the effective value of (= CP/CV) over the expansion process is higher as compared to that of a Spark Ignited engines

However, since the fuel is injected just before the combustion, there is insufficient mixing of injected fuel and air in the cylinder

2.3 Types of Diesel Combustion Systems:


There are two types of diesel engines based on the design of combustion chamber viz. Direct Ignition (DI) Systems and Indirect-Injection (IDI) Systems I. Direct Injection Systems

In these types of engines, the fuel is injected directly into a single open combustion chamber. The momentum and energy of the fuel are used to mix the fuel with the air and distribute the fuel in the chamber. The shape of the piston is crown, that of combustion chamber is a shallow bowl and central multi-hole injector is used.

II.

Indirect Fuel Injection Systems

Here, the combustion chamber is divided into two parts, pre-chamber and the main chamber. The main chamber, situated above the piston 5

crown, is connected to the pre-chamber via nozzle, one or more orifices. Fuel is injected into the pre-chamber and then subsequently flows into the main chamber. Only small diesel engines are equipped with Indirect-Fuel injection systems. During compression stroke, vigorous charge motion is produced which is then used in the fuel injection. Air is fired through a nozzle or orifices from the main chamber into the auxiliary chamber during the compression stroke. Therefore, a vigorous flow of air-fuel mixture is set up in the auxiliary chamber at the end of the compression.

2.4 Combustion Process in Direct Injection Diesel Engine


The combustion process can be divided into following four stages: I. Ignition Delay:

Its the time period between the start of injection of fuel in the cylinder and the start of combustion. The start of combustion takes place when there is significant increase in the slope of Pressure Theta graph.

II.

Premixed or Rapid Combustion Phase:

In this phase, combustion of fuel which mixes with air and reaches inflammability limits during the ignition delay takes place over a few crank angle degrees. It is the basically the combustion of fuel which was added in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay.

III.

Mixing Controlled Combustion Phase:

This phase occurs after the fuel burning and air which was mixed during the ignition delay period. In this phase, several processes are involved like liquid fuel atomization, vaporization, mixing of fuel

vapours with air and burning air-fuel mixture. The rate of burning is controlled by the mixing of the air and fuel vapours and the rate at which mixture is available for burning. The heat release is not as high as in the previous phase and it decreases as the phase progresses. IV. Late Combustion Phase:

The expansion stroke is well in its final stages and the heat release is at a very lower rate. The reason for a low heat release is that fraction of fuel may not have burned.

2.5 Fuel Spray Behaviour


2.5.1Fuel Injection The fuel is inducted into the combustion chamber of the diesel engine through a nozzle with very large pressure difference across the orifice of the nozzle. Fuel is injected depending on the size of the engine. The pressure at which fuel is injected lies in the range of 200 to 1700 atm. And the cylinder pressure in the range of 50 to 100 atm. The reason why such large pressure is used that the liquid fuel jet will enter the cylinder at a high velocity and 1) atomize into small fuel droplets and evaporate as they come in contact with hot compressed air and 2) fully utilize the air charge and span the entire combustion chamber. The task of the fuel injection system is to ensure that optimal amount of fuel enters the combustion chamber for a given speed and load. Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by a fuel pump, passed through fuel filter into the injection pump. From the injection pump, the fuel is carried under pressure in nozzle pipes to the injector nozzles located in the cylinder head. Excess fuel returns back to the fuel tank. In-Line Fuel Injection These are used in the engines with power range of 40-100 kW per cylinder. Each engine cylinder contains a plunger and barrel assembly. The cams raise each of the plunger and the plungers are forced back by plunger return spring. The stroke of the plunger is fixed. By varying the plunger stroke, the amount of fuel delivered is varied. Control rod or rack is used to vary the plunger stroke, which moves in pump housing and rotates the plunger via a ring gear. The chamber above and below the plunger are connected by a vertical groove or bore in the plunger. When the plunger helix exposes the intake port (port opening), fuel delivery stops and connects the plunger

chamber with the suction gallery. When this takes place depends on the rotational position of the plunger. Distributor type Fuel Injection Distributor type fuel injection pumps are used in multi-cylinder engines with power range less than 30kW per cylinder and injection pressure up to 750 atm. These types of pumps have only one plunger and barrel. By rotating the cam plate, a combined rotary and stroke movement is made. The plunger acts as distributor too and fuel is accurately metered to each nozzle be plunger. These injection pumps are combined with governor and supply pump to form a single unit and cannot achieve high pressures. Electronic Fuel Injection In electronic fuel injection, the injection timing and metering functions are performed by solenoid operated control valve analogous to ports and helices of the mechanical version. The opening of solenoid valve causes the loss of pressure and end of injection, whereas, solenoid valve closure causes pressurization and injection of fuel. 2.5.2Overall Spray Structure The fuel is inducted in the cylinder of diesel engine through one or more nozzles with a very large pressure difference between the fuel jet and the cylinder. Depending on the combustion system, different types of nozzles (e.g. single orifice, multi orifice, throttle etc.) are used. The pressure of air in the combustion chamber at the time of combustion is around 50 to 100 atm., temperature around 1000 K and density varying between 15-25 kg/m 3. The fuel injection pressure lies between 200 to 1700 atm. The diameter of the nozzle lie between 0.2 to 1 mm and the length-diameter ratio lies between 2 to 8. The liquid jet of fuel becomes turbulent and spreads out as it leaves the fuel injector and mixes with surrounding filtered, compressed atmospheric air. The droplet size is of the order of 10m diameter of the outer surface of the jet, close to the nozzle exit. The initial jet velocity of the fuel is around 100m/s. As we move away from the nozzle, the spray width increases, mass of air within the spray increases, the spray diverges and the velocity of the spray decreases. As the injection proceeds, the tip of the spray penetrates further into the combustion chamber but at decreasing rate. Multiple Sprays Different types of spray configurations are used for the different type of diesel combustion systems. The simplest of them is the multiple sprays injected into quiescent air in large cylinders. The droplets on the outer edge of the spray evaporate first and the spray spreads out and slows down as the mass flow increases. The equivalence ratio (fuel in the air-fuel mixture) is highest at the centre line and almost zero at the boundary of the spray. The highest velocity 8

is on the jet axis. The spray interacts with cylinder walls and flows tangentially along the wall once it has penetrated to the outer region of the combustion chamber. Sprays from multi-hole nozzles interact with each other and also the cylinder walls. Use of air swirl to mix fuel and air Here, air swirl motion is used to increase the fuel air mixing rates. Fuel jet is injected radially outward into the swirling flow of air. Now, there is relative motion in both radial direction of the initial fuel jet and tangential direction of the air flow. As the spray penetrates the air, it slows down and bents in the air swirl direction. Fuel injection with swirl will penetrate less than without swirl for the same injection conditions. Fuel injection with air swirl results in large vapour containing region downstream of liquid-containing core. 2.5.3 Atomization The fuel jet usually forms a cone shaped structure at the exit of the nozzle in diesel engines. Fuel droplets of different sizes are produced with diameter less than that of the nozzle exit diameter. The formation of cone-shaped structure of liquid fuel jet is classified as atomization breakup regime. When the fuel is injected at low velocities, the breakdown of fuel particles is caused by the unstable growth of surface waves caused by the surface tension which results in fuel drops larger than that of jet diameter. This is known as Rayleigh regime. Now, if the fuel jet velocity is increased further, relative motion of jet and surrounding air sets up forces, which increases the surface tension forces leading to fuel drop sizes of the order of jet diameter. This is known as first wind-induced breakup regime. If the fuel jet velocity is increased more, we get an undisturbed length downstream of nozzle followed by breakup which is characterized by the divergence of the fuel jet spray. This is the second wind breakup regime where the average size of the droplets is less than the jet diameter. If the jet velocity is increased further, breakup of outer surface of the jet occurs at or before the nozzle exit; leading to breakup in atomization regime and resulting in droplet size whose average diameter is much less than that of the nozzle diameter. The major reason of atomization in this regime is the aerodynamic interactions at liquid/gas interface. With an increase in gas density, the initial jet divergence angle increases and continues till it reaches the nozzle exit. The jet divergence angle also depends on the fuel being used; it increases as the fuel viscosity decreases. The design of the nozzle also affects the onset of the atomization regime of the jet; increasing nozzle lengths results in decrease of jet angle divergence. Sharp edged inlet nozzles produce more divergent jets than rounded inlet nozzles for the same length of nozzle. 2.5.4Spray Penetration Air utilization and air-fuel mixing rates are significantly influenced by the speed and extent the spray penetrates across the combustion chamber. Fuel impingement on the walls is preferred in some diesel engines where air 9

swirling is present and the walls are hot. Over-penetration causes fuel impingement on the cool surfaces lowering mixing rates and increasing the emission of unburned and partially burned species in a multi spray direct Injection combustion System. And in under-penetration, there is not sufficient contact of the fuel and the peripheral air resulting in poor air utilization. Therefore, optimal penetration of fuel spray under different conditions found in the combustion chamber of diesel engine is required. 2.5.6 Droplet Size Distribution Whilst spray penetration in the combustion chamber, distribution and trajectory of fuel droplets are important, atomization of fuel into a large number of small particles is very significant as this provides a large surface area for evaporation. The drop size distribution depends mainly on air and fuel properties as well as fuel injection parameters. The study of droplet size distribution or characteristics is very difficult in a running diesel engine. The injection conditions viz. nozzle surface area, injection pressure and injection rate are some of the factors which can have an effect on the drop size distribution at a particular location. Also, the droplet size distribution may also change with time during injection period. The distribution of the droplet size varies with the position within the spray and depends on several factors such as initial velocity of the spray, location of drops within the spray, trajectories of individual drops in the spray and also the atomization process. The study of the droplet distribution is exceedingly difficult and none of the above variables have been quantified yet 2.5.7Spray Evaporation The liquid fuel which is injected in the combustion chamber with a fuel injector must atomize into small droplets to form a spray and then evaporate so that it can mix with the compressed, hot air and burn. Compared to the total combustion period, the time taken for the process of droplet evaporation is relatively very small. The fuel vapour pressure increases with an increase in temperature of droplet (due to heat transfer), thereby increasing the rate of evaporation in the combustion chamber. As the liquid fuel vaporizes, there is a reduction in the local air temperature and increment in fuel-vapour pressure. Decrease in drop velocity would mean less convective heat transfer between the air and the drop and hence a decrease in the evaporation rate. The evaporation process of the spray depends on factors such as temperature, drop velocity, vaporization rate, mass of the drop, and heat transfer from the air. The interaction of the drops takes place by collisions. The process of evaporation usually lasts less than 1 ms. Studies suggest us that 70to 95 percent of the fuel is evaporated at the start of the combustion process. More than 90 percent of the fuel evaporation is complete after 1 ms. However, in a typical Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine, only 10 to 35 percent of the vaporized fuel mixes to within flammability limits 10

which show that combustion in diesel engine is mixing limited instead of evaporation limit. Fuel evaporation becomes the major constraint in starting a diesel engine in cold conditions.

2.6 Ignition Delay


Ignition delay is the time period between the start of the fuel injection and start of the combustion process. When the needle of the injector lifts off its seat, it marks the start of fuel injection. Start of combustion, however, is difficult to determine. It is usually assumed to start when the slope of cylinder pressure crank angle graph changes considerably. Certain physical and chemical processes are pre-requisite for the release of chemical energy from the injected fuel. The physical processes are atomization of the liquid fuel jet into small particles, evaporation of the atomized fuel droplets and then the mixing of compressed air with vaporized fuel whereas pre-combustion reactions of the fuel, air and residual gas mixture leading to auto-ignition are the chemical processes. These physical and chemical processes are affected by the engine design, fuel characteristics and running conditions. High fuel-injection pressure, high cylinder pressure at the time of injection, optimal fuel viscosity, small injector hole diameter are some of the conditions for a good fuel atomization. Velocity, size and distribution of droplets in the spray control the rate of vaporization of fuel. Vaporization also depends on the temperature and pressure inside the combustion chamber and volatility of the fuel. The mixing of fuel and air largely depends on the shape of combustion chamber and on injector. Some engine designs causes air swirl and create turbulence in the air charge during the compression stroke whereas some engines have a pre-chamber to create vigorous motion of air required for mixing of fuel and air. The design of injector plays an important role in fuel spray pattern. The injection pressure, fuel droplets size, air density, etc. determine the extent of penetration of spray. Arrangement of sprays, extent of penetration, air-flow pattern, spray cone angle affect the rate of air entrainment into the spray. The chemical component of the ignition delay depends mainly on the precombustion of fuel in the chamber. The ignition process of the diesel engine is very complex since it is heterogeneous in nature. Oxidation reactions takes place between the oxygen dissolved in fuel and the fuel molecules. Oxidation can also take place when the fuel is in liquid state even though ignition occurs in vapour phase. Breakdown of big hydrocarbon molecules into simple, smaller molecules is also taking place. Cylinder pressure and temperature, chemical composition of the fuel and the physical properties control the chemical processes.

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Furthermore, ignition delay depends on the ignition characteristics of the fuel. It determines engine operating features like misfire, engine knock, smoothness, noise etc. Cetane number, which is determined by comparing ignition delay of the fuel with a primary reference fuel mixture, determines the ignition quality of fuel. Fuels with low cetane numbers have long ignition delay, and most of the fuel is injected before the start of ignition resulting in rapid burning at the start of the combustion causing high pressures. Engine knocks (audible knocking sound) occurs when auto-ignition of the injected fuel takes place. Fuels with very less cetane number have exceptionally long ignition delays and ignition takes place considerably late in the expansion stroke leading to incomplete combustion, reduced efficiency and power output. Fuels with higher cetane number have shorter ignition delays and before most of the fuel is injected, ignition occurs. In such cases, injection rate and air-fuel mixing control the heat release and pressure rise rate. Fuels with higher cetane number results in smoother engine operations. 2.6.1Physical Factors Affecting Delay Injection Timing The injection timing is one of the major factors affecting the ignition delay. The optimum timing for fuel injection is 15 20 degrees before TDC. This injection timing gives the least injection delay and best heat released for a diesel engine. If the fuel is injected well before the TDC, low air temperature and pressure will increase the delay and if the fuel is injected just before the TDC, the air temperature and pressure are slightly higher but they decrease as the ignition delay proceeds. Injection Quantity or Load With increasing load on a diesel engine, the ignition delay decreases and this decrease is almost linear. When the load is increased, the higher temperature and pressure of residual gases from the previous cycle increase the temperature of charge of fresh cycle at the time of injection and thus reducing the ignition delay. The quantity of fuel injected doesnt have much effect on the ignition delay. Drop Size, Injection Velocity, and Rate The quantities mentioned above are determined by the nozzle type, size of hole of fuel injector, injection pressure and geometry and experiments have shown none of these factors have pronounced effect on ignition delay period. To study the factors, various experiments were conducted. Increasing the size of hole of fuel injector at constant pressure of injection lead to the increase of flow rate and drop size of fuel but it had no substantial effect on the delay. There was only a small decrease in ignition delay when the pressure of injection was increased. Neither nozzle geometry (length to diameter ratio) nor nozzle type (multi-hole, pintaux) had any significant effects on the ignition delay.

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Intake Air Temperature and Pressure By their effects on charge temperature and pressure, the intake temperature and pressure have considerable effects on the delay period. For temperature below 1000 K, the charge temperature affects the ignition delay significantly. However, temperature above 1000 K doesnt have any pronounced effect on the delay. Pressure also plays an important part in determining the delay; higher the pressure, lower is the ignition delay and when the charge temperature increases the delay decreases further. Since intake air temperature and pressure are intake properties, other intake properties like compression ratio will play an important part. Ignition Delay will decrease with increasing compression ratio because of change of temperature and pressure of the charge at the time of injection. Engine Speed At a constant load, an increase in engine speed will lead to a small decrease in ignition delay when measured in milliseconds. The decrease is almost linear when the decrease is measured in crank angles. The major cause for this decrease in ignition delay is the increase in injection pressure (because of increase in engine speed). Combustion Chamber Wall Effects Evaporation of the fuel and mixing of air and fuel depends on the impingement of fuel spray on the cylinder walls. Experiments were carried where jet impingement angle was varied from 0 degrees (parallel to the wall) to 90 degrees (perpendicular to the wall) to study the ignition delay trends. With a decreasing impingement angle, the delay period became longer. Swirl Rate Fuel evaporation and fuel air mixing processes depend on the swirl rate of air. When the engine is operated at normal speed, there is only a slight dependence of swirl rate on the delay period. However, at lower engine speed (i.e. starting conditions when compression temperature is low), higher swirl causes higher evaporation and thus swirl rate becomes an important factor in determining the ignition delay period. Oxygen Concentration The concentration of oxygen in the charge which mixes with the fuel later also has effects on the delay period. The concentration of oxygen changes inside the cylinder mostly from the residual gases from the previous cycle. With the increase in relative oxygen density, the ignition delay decreases. Therefore, higher concentration of oxygen is desirable for diesel engines.

Chapter 3

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Experiments with Diesel


For the experiments, Diesel engine Test Rig available in the Prime Movers and Fluid Machinery (PMFM) lab was used. The setup used is a two cylinder, four stroke, water cooled Diesel engine. The engine is connected to the Brake Rope Type Dynamometer and a load sensor. A Pressure sensor is mounted on the top of cylinder to detect the pressure. Output shaft of the engine is coupled to crank angle sensor which is used for determining the RPM of the output shaft and used for detecting crank angles at different points. Using both Pressure Sensor and Crank Angle Sensor, Pressure values can be determined at different crank angles to get the Pressure-Theta graph. A volume sensor is also present, which helps in plotting in Pressure-Volume graph. The Rope Brake Dynamometer along with the Brake Drum, which is coupled to the engine shaft are used to vary the load in the experiment. By varying the rope tension on the brake drum, the load can be increased or decreased. Cooling water is arrangement is used to cool the arrangement. A real time data acquisition can be done by interfacing the setup with computer using software. The software is capable to tabulate the sample readings according to the requirement of the software under study and results obtained can be compared. The software is capable of storing data, printing data and preparing spread sheet in Excel. The Specifications of the engine are as follows: Engine water Cooled. H.P Bore diameter Stroke length Brand : : : : 14 HP 87.5 mm 110 mm Kirloskar : Two cylinder, 4 stroke, vertical,

For the experiment engine was made to run at 1500 RPM and made to stabilize. Then, the load was set to 0 kg and Pressure-Theta and Pressure Volume graph of the engine were taken in the Excel sheet. Then, the load was changed to different values of 10, 20 and 30 kg. The pressure-theta and pressure-volume graph were observed for other loads too.

3.1 Calculation of Heat Released


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The heat released during the operation was calculated using the following formula:

Where, dQn/dt is the heat released dV/dt is the change in volume per unit time dp/dt is the change in pressure per unit time is the ratio of specific heats The change in pressure and volume is calculated for every one degree change. Then, pressure and volume values are substituted for time when fuel starts burning (i.e. 30 degrees before TDC) till the peak pressure is attained (i.e. 3 degrees after TDC) and summated. The summated value is then multiplied by the no. of cycles per second (i.e. no. of times fuel is injected per second in the combustion chamber) which gives the heat released. The pressure and theta values are taken from the pressure theta graph. Once the pressure and theta values are known, the volume at particular theta can be calculated. Pressure and crank angle sensors are present in the diesel engine setup. The sensors provide pressure values for every degree rotation of crankshaft. Volume sensors are also present and together with pressure values, they provide the Pressure volume graph. Pressure Vs Theta
80 60 Pressure 40 20 0 66 31 34 132 163 100 166 Theta 129 63 0 97

Graph 1: Pressure-Theta graph for 10 kgs. Load

Theta (degrees)

Pressure (bars)

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35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

14.52 15.298 16.032 16.792 17.714 18.608 19.386 20.388 21.194 22.115 23.211 24.128 25.032 26.297 27.264 28.61 29.545 30.739 31.956 32.949 34.434 35.53 36.59 37.677 38.379 39.1 39.507 39.981 40.567 41.681 44.186 48.721 54.295 57.162 60.101 57.145 57.145 56.612 56.536 58.164 57.019 55.789

Table 1: Model values for pressure-theta graph for 10 kg load


Theta Volume Pressure |dv/dt| |dp/dt| /-1 1/-1 1st term 2nd term Total 30 93.555 18.608 3.43584 0.778 3.5 2.5 223.7694 181.9645 405.7339

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29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

90.1192 86.7845 83.5525 80.4246 77.4024 74.4871 71.6803 68.983 66.3967 63.9225 61.5615 59.3149 57.1836 55.1688 53.2713 51.492 49.8318 48.2914 46.8716 45.573 44.3962 43.3418 42.4102 41.602 40.9175 40.357 39.9208 39.6091 39.422 39.3596 39.422 39.6091 39.9208 40.357 40.9175 41.602

19.386 20.388 21.194 22.115 23.211 24.128 25.032 26.297 27.264 28.61 29.545 30.739 31.956 32.949 34.434 35.53 36.59 37.677 38.379 39.1 39.507 39.981 40.567 41.681 44.186 48.721 54.295 57.162 60.101 57.145 56.612 56.536 58.164 57.019 55.789 54.045

3.334691 1.002 3.23201 0.806 3.127844 0.921 3.022236 1.096 2.915233 0.917 2.806882 0.904 2.697232 1.265 2.586331 0.967 2.47423 1.346 2.360977 0.935 2.246626 1.194 2.131227 1.217 2.014834 0.993 1.897499 1.485 1.779278 1.096 1.660224 1.06 1.540392 1.087 1.419838 0.702 1.298618 0.721 1.176788 0.407 1.054406 0.474 0.931528 0.586 0.808213 1.114 0.684517 2.505 0.560499 4.535 0.436218 5.574 0.311731 2.867 0.187097 2.939 0.062376 2.956 0.062376 0.533 0.187097 0.076 0.311731 1.628 0.436218 1.145 0.560499 1.23 0.684517 1.744 41.60202 54.045

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

226.2621 230.6298 232.0203 233.9286 236.8292 237.0356 236.3099 238.0446 236.1009 236.4164 232.3179 229.2912 225.3511 218.8225 214.4368 206.4571 197.2703 187.2333 174.4388 161.0435 145.7975 130.352 114.7537 99.85975 86.68178 74.38539 59.23901 37.43199 13.12092 12.47558 37.07183 61.68407 88.8026 111.8569 133.6598 7869.333

225.7485 174.8707 192.3795 220.3634 177.4449 168.3409 226.6888 166.7665 223.4249 149.4188 183.761 180.4655 141.9584 204.8142 145.9634 136.4539 135.4179 84.75142 84.486 46.37048 52.60945 63.49567 118.1125 260.5326 463.9021 562.3748 286.1322 291.0275 291.3282 52.44664 7.490171 161.2088 114.2732 124.0978 178.4003 5620.952

452.0106 405.5005 424.3998 454.292 414.2741 405.3765 462.9987 404.8111 459.5257 385.8352 416.079 409.7567 367.3095 423.6366 360.4001 342.911 332.6882 271.9847 258.9248 207.414 198.4069 193.8477 232.8662 360.3924 550.5839 636.7602 345.3712 328.4595 304.4492 64.92222 44.562 222.8929 203.0758 235.9547 312.0601 13490.29

Table 2: Model Calculation of Heat Released for 10kgs.

The graph of rate of heat release v/s the crank angle is expected to be as shown in the fig below. The graphs for different loads are obtained and compared with the theoretical graph. The experimental and theoretical and experimental graphs are almost similar.

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Graph 2: Rate of heat release v/s crank angle (Theoretical)

Graph 3: Rate of heat release v/s crank angle for 10 kg. load (Experimental)

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Graph 4: Rate of heat release v/s crank angle for 20 kg. load (Experimental)

Graph 5: Rate of heat release v/s crank angle for 30 kg. load (Experimental)

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3.2 Calculation of Work Done


The work done is calculated by calculating the area under P-V (PressureVolume) graph. The P-V values were obtained experimentally. The work done is positive for suction and expansion stroke whereas negative for compression and expansion stroke. The values were then summated. The work done is calculated using the formula:

P is the pressure dV is the change in the volume Vi is the initial volume Vf is the final volume Volume (cc) 0 0.062 0.249 0.561 0.996 1.556 2.24 3.048 3.978 5.031 6.207 7.504 8.923 10.462 12.12 13.898 15.793 17.806 19.935 22.18 24.539 27.01 29.594 32.289 35.093 38.006 Pressure (bar) 0.447 0.456 0.497 0.295 0.322 0.313 0.353 0.353 0.407 0.286 0.358 0.268 0.259 0.246 0.295 0.228 0.215 0.304 0.17 0.259 0.264 0.228 0.286 0.219 0.286 0.313

Table 3: Model P-V values for 10 kg. Load

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Pressure Volume graph is obtained experimentally. Pressure and volume sensors are present in the engine setup to measure the pressure and volume values at small differences.
Pressure Vs Volume 70 60 50
Pressure

40 30 20 10 0 0 218 559 657 453 98.1 29.6 347 627 620 330
Volume

Graph 6: Pressure-Volume graph for 10 kg. load Volume (cc) 0 0.062 0.249 0.561 0.996 1.556 2.24 3.048 3.978 5.031 6.207 7.504 8.923 10.462 . . . Pressure (bar) 0.447 0.456 0.497 0.295 0.322 0.313 0.353 0.353 0.407 0.286 0.358 0.268 0.259 0.246 . . . dv 0.062 0.187 0.312 0.435 0.56 0.684 0.808 0.93 1.053 1.176 1.297 1.419 1.539 1.658 . . . Total Pdv 0.027714 0.085272 0.155064 0.128325 0.18032 0.214092 0.285224 0.32829 0.428571 0.336336 0.464326 0.380292 0.398601 0.407868 . . . 1225.46

Table 4: Calculation of work done for 10 kg. Load

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22.2

Total = 1225.46 in terms of bar cc = 0.122546 kJ

Load
0 kgs. 10 kgs. 20 kgs. 30 kgs.

Work Done
0.1023 KJ 0.1225 kJ 0.1394 kJ 0.2061 kJ

Table 5: Work done for different loads

3.3 Ignition Delay


As discussed in the previous chapter, Ignition delay is the time difference between the start of fuel injection into the cylinder and when the fuel actually starts to burn. Ignition delay is calculated using the following formula

Where, P is the pressure at the end of compression stroke at TDC (bars) T is the temperature of the charge at TDC (Kelvin) Sp is the mean piston speed of the engine (meter per second) R is the universal gas constant (8.314 J/mol.K) EA is the apparent activation energy (joules per mole) and is given by

CN is the Cetane number of the fuel. The above formula gives the ignition delay in degrees rotation of the crankshaft and can be converted into milliseconds using the RPM speed of the engine.

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Load 0 kg. 10 kg. 20 kg. 30 kg.

Ignition Delay (degrees of Crank Rotation) 14.30 13.309 12.725 12.32 Table 6: Ignition delay at different loads

Ignition Delay (milliseconds) 1.588 1.4787 1.413 1.3688

The values are calculated assuming that engine is running at uniform RPM speed since there is only a small drop in the speed on increasing the load.

Graph 7: Ignition delay v/s load (Theoretical)

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The graph obtained from the experimental values and the expected graph (theoretical) is almost similar.

Graph 8: Ignition delay v/s load (Experimental)

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Chapter 4 Experiment with Acetone


For the experiment with acetone, around 25 ml. of Acetone (CH 3-CO-CH3) was mixed with 3 liters of Diesel and the engine was run at four different loads viz. 0, 10, 20 and 30 Kgs. However, from Pressure-Crank angle graph it was observed that the peak pressure attained in this case was around 40-45 degrees after what was attained in the case of the Diesel.

4.1 Heat Release Graph at Different Loads


The heat release graph is obtained the way as it was done for the Diesel. Pressure-Theta graph, obtained from the experiment, is used to find out the heat released at every value of theta. The calculated heat released values are then plotted again crank angle to get the Heat Released v/s Crank Angle.

Pressure Vs Theta
70 60 50 40 Pressure 30 20 10 0 0 66 132 163 34 166 129 97 31 100 Theta
Graph 9: Pressure v/s Theta graph for 20 kgs. Load

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Theta Pressure Volume |dv/dt| |dp/dt| /-1 1/-1 1st term 2nd term Total 35 38.12 112.19 4.008 0.658 3.5 2.5 534.78 184.56 719 36 38.778 116.2 4.098 0.554 3.5 2.5 556.13 160.94 717 37 39.332 120.3 4.185 0.626 3.5 2.5 576.11 188.27 764 38 39.958 124.49 4.271 0.591 3.5 2.5 597.24 183.93 781 39 40.549 128.76 4.354 1.382 3.5 2.5 617.95 444.85 1063 40 41.931 133.11 4.436 3.172 3.5 2.5 651 1055.6 1707 41 45.103 137.55 4.516 5.886 3.5 2.5 712.83 2024 2737 42 50.989 142.06 4.593 5.623 3.5 2.5 819.73 1997 2817 43 56.612 146.66 4.669 3.199 3.5 2.5 925.12 1172.9 2098 44 59.811 151.32 4.743 0.612 3.5 2.5 992.81 231.53 1224 45 60.423 156.07 4.814 1.579 3.5 2.5 1018.1 616.07 1634 46 58.844 160.88 4.884 0.027 3.5 2.5 1005.8 10.859 1017 47 58.871 165.76 4.951 1.168 3.5 2.5 1020.1 484.03 1504 48 60.039 170.72 5.016 0.621 3.5 2.5 1054.1 265.04 1319 49 60.66 175.73 5.079 1.189 3.5 2.5 1078.3 522.36 1601 50 59.471 180.81 5.14 1.28 3.5 2.5 1069.9 578.59 1648 51 58.191 185.95 5.198 0.733 3.5 2.5 1058.8 340.75 1400 52 57.458 191.15 5.255 0.376 3.5 2.5 1056.8 179.68 1236 53 57.082 196.4 5.309 1.467 3.5 2.5 1060.7 720.31 1781 54 55.615 201.71 5.361 1.499 3.5 2.5 1043.5 755.92 1799 55 54.116 207.07 5.411 1.776 3.5 2.5 1024.8 919.41 1944 56 52.34 212.48 5.458 1.024 3.5 2.5 999.86 543.96 1544 57 51.316 217.94 5.503 1.387 3.5 2.5 988.4 755.72 1744 58 49.929 223.45 5.546 2.004 3.5 2.5 969.18 1119.5 2089 59 47.925 228.99 5.587 1.749 3.5 2.5 937.09 1001.3 1938 60 46.176 234.58 5.625 1.583 3.5 2.5 909.08 928.34 1837 61 44.593 240.2 5.661 1.79 3.5 2.5 883.54 1074.9 1958 62 42.803 245.86 5.695 1.507 3.5 2.5 853.13 926.29 1779 63 41.296 251.56 5.726 1.821 3.5 2.5 827.64 1145.2 1973 64 39.475 257.29 5.755 1.601 3.5 2.5 795.17 1029.8 1825 65 37.874 263.04 5.782 1.512 3.5 2.5 766.49 994.29 1761 66 36.362 268.82 5.807 1.575 3.5 2.5 739.03 1058.5 1798 67 34.787 274.63 5.829 1.31 3.5 2.5 709.74 899.41 1609 68 33.477 280.46 5.849 1.606 3.5 2.5 685.37 1126 1811 69 31.871 286.31 5.867 1.252 3.5 2.5 654.49 896.14 1551 70 30.619 292.18 5.883 1.347 3.5 2.5 630.46 983.9 1614 71 29.272 298.06 5.896 1.382 3.5 2.5 604.1 1029.8 1634 72 27.89 303.95 5.908 1.163 3.5 2.5 576.67 883.75 1460 73 26.727 309.86 5.917 1.154 3.5 2.5 553.47 893.95 1447
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 7: Model Heat Release Data for 20 kgs. Load 26

The obtained heat released values were then plotted against crank angle to obtain the graph as shown below and the graphs are almost conforming to the theoretical graph.

Graph 10: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 10 kgs. Load

Graph 11: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 20 kgs. Load

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Graph 12: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 30 kgs. Load From the above graphs, it can be observed that the combustion of fuel starts taking place quite a few degrees (around 50 degrees) after the fuel is injected (i.e. 27 degrees before Top Dead Center)

4.2 Work Done


The work done by the engine per cycle is calculated from the PressureVolume graph. The change of volume is calculated for every crank angle and then multiplied by the pressure at that volume. Then all the values are summated to get the work done by the engine per cycle.
Pressure Vs Volum e

70 60 50 Pressure 40 30 20 10 0 3.05 657 0 189 517 661 547 229 146 479 577 276
Volume

Graph 13: Pressure-Volume for 20 kgs. Load

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13.9

Volume (cc) 0 0.062 0.249 0.561 0.996 1.556 2.24 3.048 3.978 5.031 6.207 7.504 8.923 . .

Pressure (bar) dv Pdv 0.497 0.062 0.030814 0.438 0.187 0.081906 0.47 0.312 0.14664 0.443 0.435 0.192705 0.403 0.56 0.22568 0.438 0.684 0.299592 0.47 0.808 0.37976 0.398 0.93 0.37014 0.443 1.053 0.466479 0.403 1.176 0.473928 0.447 1.297 0.579759 0.344 1.419 0.488136 0.385 1.539 0.592515 . . . . . . Total 13658.32

Table 8: Work done calculations for 20 kgs. Load Work Done = 13658.32 bar-cc / cycle = 1.3658 kJ / cycle

Load 0 Kgs. 10 Kgs. 20 Kgs. 30 Kgs.

Work done/Cycle 1.162 kJ 1.294 kJ 1.365 kJ 1.417 kJ

Table 9: Work done for different Loads

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4.3 Ignition Delay


The Ignition Delay is calculated by the difference in timing of fuel injection and when fuel starts to burn. The fuel is injected 27 degrees before the TDC and timing of fuel burning can determined from the Heat Release graph. Load 0 Kgs. 10 Kgs. 20 Kgs. 30 Kgs. Ignition Delay In Crank Angles In milli-seconds 66.2 7.35 65.1 7.21 64.0 7.1 63.0 6.993

Table 10: Ignition Delay at different loads The experimental values of the Ignition Delay for Acetone are tabulated above and the graph is plotted and the curve takes the following shape as shown below. Cetane Number of Acetone is around 55 and with higher cetane number, ignition delay/lag tends to decrease. But, in the experiment, Acetone, though having a higher cetane number shows a opposite trend and its ignition delay increases when compared to 100% Diesel. Therefore, the result has discrepancy in the ignition delay timings.

Graph 14: Ignition Delay v/s load

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Chapter 5 Experiment with Naphthalene Balls


Naphthalene, with chemical formula C10H8, is the second additive that was used for the experiment. Naphthalene consists of fused pair of Benzene rings and is white crystalline solid. For the experiment, 1 mothball was mixed in 3 litres of Diesel and then engine was operated at four different loads 0, 10 , 20, and 30 kgs. as in previous case. The Pressure-Theta graph showed the same trend here as in the case of Acetone. The peak pressure was attained 40-45 degrees after the Top Dead Center.

5.1 Heat Release Graph


Same procedure was used to obtain the heat release graph as in case of 100% Diesel and Diesel mixed with Acetone. And then the heat release values were plotted against the respective Crank Angle values to get the desired Heat Release graph.

Pressure Vs Theta
70 60 50 40 Pressure 30 20 10 0 62 87 106 159 149 115 168 Theta 140 34 0 53 96 43 9

Graph 15: Pressure-Theta graph for 30 kgs. Load

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Theta Pressure Volume 35 38.111 112.195 36 38.778 116.203 37 39.265 120.301 38 39.721 124.486 39 40.222 128.756 40 41.743 133.11 41 44.883 137.546 42 51.146 142.062 43 56.567 146.655 44 60.253 151.324 45 60.316 156.067 46 59.52 160.881 47 58.943 165.764 48 60.446 170.715 49 60.49 175.731 50 59.775 180.81 51 58.218 185.95 52 57.748 191.149 53 57.149 196.404 54 55.892 201.713 55 53.803 207.074 56 52.644 212.484 57 51.396 217.942 58 49.938 223.446 59 48.288 228.992 60 46.427 234.578 61 44.879 240.203 62 43.349 245.864 63 41.47 251.559 64 39.914 257.285 65 38.339 263.04 66 36.666 268.823 67 35.297 274.63 68 33.848 280.459 69 32.247 286.308 70 30.972 292.176 . . . . . .

|dv/dt| |dp/dt| /-1 1/-1 4.0082 0.667 3.5 2.5 4.0975 0.487 3.5 2.5 4.185 0.456 3.5 2.5 4.2705 0.501 3.5 2.5 4.3542 1.521 3.5 2.5 4.4359 3.14 3.5 2.5 4.5156 6.263 3.5 2.5 4.5933 5.421 3.5 2.5 4.669 3.686 3.5 2.5 4.7426 0.063 3.5 2.5 4.8142 0.796 3.5 2.5 4.8836 0.577 3.5 2.5 4.9509 1.503 3.5 2.5 5.0161 0.044 3.5 2.5 5.0791 0.715 3.5 2.5 5.1399 1.557 3.5 2.5 5.1985 0.47 3.5 2.5 5.2549 0.599 3.5 2.5 5.309 1.257 3.5 2.5 5.361 2.089 3.5 2.5 5.4106 1.159 3.5 2.5 5.458 1.248 3.5 2.5 5.5032 1.458 3.5 2.5 5.546 1.65 3.5 2.5 5.5866 1.861 3.5 2.5 5.6249 1.548 3.5 2.5 5.661 1.53 3.5 2.5 5.6947 1.879 3.5 2.5 5.7262 1.556 3.5 2.5 5.7554 1.575 3.5 2.5 5.7823 1.673 3.5 2.5 5.8069 1.369 3.5 2.5 5.8293 1.449 3.5 2.5 5.8494 1.601 3.5 2.5 5.8673 1.275 3.5 2.5 5.883 1.239 3.5 2.5 . . . . . . . .

1st term 2nd term 534.653 187.085 556.128 141.477 575.129 137.143 593.702 155.918 612.965 489.595 648.081 1044.92 709.355 2153.63 822.251 1925.29 924.387 1351.43 1000.15 23.8335 1016.3 310.573 1017.35 232.071 1021.38 622.86 1061.21 18.7787 1075.32 314.12 1075.33 703.805 1059.26 218.492 1062.11 286.245 1061.92 617.199 1048.72 1053.44 1018.88 599.996 1005.67 662.951 989.945 794.4 969.355 921.713 944.186 1065.38 914.022 907.818 889.205 918.777 864.01 1154.95 831.125 978.564 804.017 1013.06 775.902 1100.17 745.206 920.045 720.147 994.846 692.969 1122.54 662.21 912.608 637.725 905.014 . . . .

Total 721.738 697.606 712.271 749.62 1102.56 1693 2862.98 2747.54 2275.81 1023.98 1326.87 1249.42 1644.24 1079.98 1389.44 1779.13 1277.75 1348.35 1679.12 2102.17 1618.88 1668.62 1784.35 1891.07 2009.57 1821.84 1807.98 2018.96 1809.69 1817.08 1876.07 1665.25 1714.99 1815.51 1574.82 1542.74 . .

Table 11: Heat Release Calculations for 30 kgs. Load As in the previous cases, the plots of the Heat Release graph resemble the theoretical plots. 32

Graph 16: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 10 kgs. Load

Graph 17: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 20 kgs. Load

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Graph 18: Heat Release v/s Crank Angle for 30 kgs. Load As observed in the case of Acetone, the start of combustion, here also, takes place around 60 degrees after the fuel has been injected into the cylinder and this point can identified from the graph when the slope of the heat release graph increases instantaneously.

5.2 Work Done Calculations


The work done is calculated for all the four loads in kJ / cycle. The work done increases with the increase in load as with the increasing loads, engine has to perform extra work. The Pressure-Volume graph was used for the same purpose. Shown below are the work performed by the engine at different loads. Load 0 Kgs. 10 Kgs. 20 Kgs. 30 Kgs. Work done/Cycle 1.179 kJ 1.286 kJ 1.3318 kJ 1.388 kJ

Table 12: Work done at different loads

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5.3 Ignition Delay


The ignition delay is determined experimentally. The Fuel is injected 27 degrees before the Top Dead Center and is determined experimentally. And then Ignition Delay is determined by the difference in injection timing and when the fuel starts to burn. The tabulated values are shown below: Load 0 10 20 30 Ignition Delay In Crank Angels In milli-seconds 66.9 7.43 65.6 7.28 64.2 7.12 63 6.993

Table 13: Ignition Delay at different loads Naphthalene Balls, having a Cetane Number, 10, shows the best trend in the Ignition Delay timings. With a very low cetane number, it is expected to have the highest ignition delay and it shows the very same result. It also, follows the other expected trend of decreasing Ignition Delay timings with the increasing load.

Graph 19: Ignition Delay v/s Load for Naphthalene

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Chapter 6 Comparison of variables for the Fuels


6.1 Heat Release Graph
The first quantity that will be compared is the Heat Released Graph for 100% Diesel, Acetone added in Diesel and Naphthalene balls added in Diesel for the loads 10 kg, 20 kg and 30kg. The 0 kg load will not be analyzed since the engine has no load and the Heat Release graph doesnt conform to the expected graph. The Horizontal axis (X-axis) represents the Crank Angle in Degrees and the vertical axis is the Heat Released which is in a relative unit (bar-cc / theta) for all the three cases. The plot assumes the following shape.

Graph 20: Heat Release Comparison for 10 kgs. Load

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Graph 21: Heat Release Comparison for 20 kgs. Load

Graph 22: Heat Release Comparison for 20 kgs. Load From the above three graphs, it is evident that the combustion of fuel starts earliest in 100% Diesel and in case of Diesel mixed with Acetone and Naphthalene, the combustion of fuels take place quite late after the fuel is injected. The peak heat released is highest in the case of Naphthalene, followed closely by Acetone and then in 100% Diesel, where the peak is quite low, when compared to the additives.

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6.2 Comparison of Work Done


The work done per cycle in kJ is compared at all the four loads in tabular form. As expected, the work done by the engine increases as the load increases. Load 0 Kgs. 10 Kgs. 20 Kgs. 30 Kgs. 100% Diesel 0.1023 KJ 0.1225 kJ 0.1394 kJ 0.2061 kJ Work Done Acetone in Diesel Naphthalene in Diesel 1.162 kJ 1.179 kJ 1.294 kJ 1.286 kJ 1.365 kJ 1.3318 kJ 1.417 kJ 1.388 kJ

Table 14: Comparison of Work Done From the table, it is evident that work performed by the engine increases when the engine runs with additives as compared to 100% Diesel run. The expected trend of increasing work with increasing load is also seen.

6.3 Comparison of Ignition Delay


The Ignition delay is compared for all the four values similar to the work done. As discussed earlier, the ignition delay is the time lag/delay between the time when the fuel is injected into the cylinder and when the actual combustion of fuel starts taking place. Load 0 Kgs. 10 Kgs. 20 Kgs. 30 Kgs. Ignition Delay (milli-seconds) 100% Diesel Acetone in Diesel Naphthalene in Diesel 1.588 7.35 7.43 1.4787 7.21 7.28 1.413 7.1 7.12 1.3688 6.993 6.993 Table 15: Comparison of Ignition Delay From the values it can be observed, 100% Diesel has the least Ignition Delay values when compared to other two. It is owing to the high Cetane Number (approximately 45) of Diesel. Naphthalene, owing to its very low Cetane Number (around 10) has high ignition lag period as expected. However, in case of Acetone, which has very high Cetane Number (around 55), the calculations show a totally opposite trend. The ignition delay was

38

expected to be lower than Diesel but the obtained values are very high and almost close to Naphthalene values. So, the Diesel with Acetone shows some discrepancy in the Ignition Delay values.

39

Chapter 7 Results, Conclusions & Suggestions


To start with, internal combustion and their working principle were studied. Then, the diesel engines and their combustion were analyzed. Different phases of combustion, types of diesel combustion systems, fuel spray behavior were studied in detail. Ignition delay, its causes and factors influencing it were also considered. Firstly, a number of experiments were conducted in the laboratory with 100% Diesel to determine the ignition delay, performance, heat balance chart, heat released, work done and efficiencies. Ignition delay was calculated for Diesel from the experimental data. It is basically a variable of pressure and temperature at the end of the compression stroke. Ignition delay was found at four loads and the result was plotted. From the graph it can be concluded that with increasing loads the delay period tends to decrease at same engine speed. The theoretical and experimental graphs were almost similar. Pressure-theta and pressure-volume graphs were obtained from the experiments. These were possible only because of the pressure, crank angle and volume sensors present in the engine setup. Because of these sensors we were able to get values at small intervals and hence do the required calculations. Heat released graph at all the loads and work done was calculated both experimentally and theoretically. Heat released was calculated with the help of pressure-theta graph and work done by pressure-volume graph. The plot of rate of heat release v/s crank angle (from the experiment) resembled the theoretical graph to quite an extent. Next, after the Diesel experiment, additives like Acetone and Naphthalene Balls were added to the Diesel and the experiments were conducted. From the data obtained from the experiments, it was found out that the peak pressure obtained was attained quite a few degrees after the Top Dead Center or the end of the Compression Stroke both in the case of the Acetone and the Naphthalene Balls. For Acetone experiment around 25 ml. of Acetone was added in 3 litres of Diesel and for Naphthalene Balls, 1 mothball was immersed in 3 liters of Diesel. The Heat Release graph, Work Done and Ignition Delay was calculated for all the three fuels and compared. From the Comparison of Heat Release Graph, it was found out that the peak pressure obtained in the case of Acetone and Naphthalene Balls is much 40

higher than 100% Diesel. Therefore, by advancing the ignition delay of the fuel, and using these additives, high heat release can be obtained in the engine. Also, the work performed by the engines in case of additives per cycle is much higher when compared to 100% Diesel. So, these additives can actually increase the work performed by the engine per cycle and heat release and thus the efficiency by employing certain Ignition advancing techniques. Next, the ignition delay values of all the three fuels were evaluated and compared. 100% Diesel and naphthalene balls showed the regular trend whereas Acetone showed the completely opposite trend. The Ignition Delay values of Acetone showed discrepancy. There were some other discrepancies noticed in some other places also. These might be due to the assumptions that were made during the experiments and calculations. Some of the assumptions that were made are The value of was assumed to be 1.4 Also, values of dp/dt required for calculation of heat released was taken from the pressure-theta graph The exact value of length of connecting rod was unknown

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References
1. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, John B. Heywood, McGrawHill International Editions 2. Bits Pilani Manual for Prime Movers Laboratory 3. www.google.com 4. en.wikipedia.org

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