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The process by which certain components of food are obtained & used by the body



Evaluation of food & drink requirements for normal body function Process: digestion absorption transportation cell metabolism

Are the chemicals taken into body that are used to produce energy, provide building blocks for new molecules, or functions in other chemical reactions 6 major classes
CHO Protein Lipids Vitamins Minerals Water

The energy stored within the chemical bonds of certain nutrients is used by the body A calorie
the amount of energy (heat) necessary to raise the temperature of 1g of 1C

A kilocalories (kcal)
1000 calories & is used to express larger amounts of energy supplied by foods & released through metabolism

Macronutrients (Fuel Nutrients)

CHO, Fat & Protein

CHO Protein Fat

kcal / energy

They are the only substances that can provide the energy necessary for bodily functions Under normal conditions:

CHO & Protein Fat

4 kcal/g 9 kcal/g

CHO & Fat Protein

primary fuels serve as the building blocks to repair tissues used as fuel when CHO depleted or the body under stress

(i) Monosaccharides
The basic unit of CHO Glucose: a.k.a. dextrose @ blood sugar
The basic unit of energy within the body & the major source of energy for the bodys cell Consist of 6-carbon compound that forms naturally in food @ in the body through digestion of more complex CHO


Fructose (fruit sugar @ levulose)

Found in fruits & honey The sweetest sugar Some fructose moves directly from the digestive tract into the blood, but all eventually converts to glucose in the liver

Found in milk

(ii) Disaccharides
a.k.a. Double sugars
Combination of 2 monosaccharide molecules

All contains glucose

Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Lactose (glucose + galactose) Maltose (glucose + glucose)

(iii) Polysaccharides
- Describes the linkage of 3 to thousands of sugar molecules - Both plant & animal sources provide these large chain of linked monosaccharides (A) Plant Pollysaccharides Starch
The storage form of CHO in plant

(iii) Polysaccharides
(B) Human/Animal Pollysaccharides Glycogen
is the storage of CHO in mammalian muscle & liver Glucogenesis Gluconeogenesis a process to form glycogen from glucose Synthesizes glucose (primarily in liver), from other compounds (generally amino acids, fatty acids/glycerol, pyruvate & lactate) the breakdown of glycogen to glucose an anaerobic enzymatic breakdown / conversion of glucose to the simpler compounds lactate or pyruvate, resulting in energy stored in the form of ATP


The most abundant organic molecule, includes cellulose


A Classifications of CHO & the Sources of Each Major Subclasses

Fructose Galactose Glucose

Food Sources
Fruits & honey Breast milk All sugars Milk sugar Malt sugar Cane / brown sugar Potatoes, rice bread Fruits, vegetables, bread

Simple CHO

Lactose Maltose Sucrose Starches

Complex CHO


The main roles:
To serve as the structural unit to build and repair body tissues Functioning for numerous other bodily functions
Synthesis of enzymes, hormones & antibodies


These compounds regulate body metabolism & provide protection from disease Not usually a major fuel source, BUT. why proteins are important to the body during starvation & prolonged exercise?

Protein (contd)
Basic structural unit Nonessential amino acids
The body can make the amino acids (11 amino acids); because they are not needed in the diet

Protein (contd)
.is needed the most during adolescent years, when growth is rapid
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein is 1g of protein per kg of body weight

amino acids

Essential amino acids

Cannot be manufactured by the body 9 amino acids they must be obtained in the diet

is an efficient storage form for energy


Excess fat is stored in fat cells (adipose tissue) Derived from dietary sources & excess CHO & protein

Major Class of Lipids

Why fat should not be totally eliminated from our dietary intake?