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Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

Matter is the physical material of the universe. It is defined as any thing that occupies space and has mass. Matter can exist in the following physical states. 1. Gaseous (or vaporous) state. 2. Liquid state. 3. Solid state. These states differ in some of their observation properties. A gas has no fixed volume or shape but acquire the shape of its container. A gas can be compressed or expand. A liquid keeps its volume but has no fixed shape. It assumes the shape of container. A solid has a definite shape and a fixed volume neither liquid nor solid can be compressed to any appreciable extent.

Gaseous state According to the kinetic gas model, the molecule of the a substance is the gaseous state are executing random motion in the available vacant space. The particles in a gas enjoys a great a great degree of freedom of translational movement from one point to other and change their direction on collision with another particle. Since an individual particle in a gas is constantly receiving kicks from innumerable particles surrounding it, the particle is executing an irregular zig-zag motion which is called Brownian Movement. (After the name of discoverer Robert Brown 1827). The gas particles are undergoing ceaseless (without stop) motion with very high velocities which as often more than 1000 miles per hour. The molecules naturally collide frequently. Such type of collisions may bring about a change in the direction of movement and redistribution of energy between the colliding molecules. When a molecules strikes the wall of the container the direction of movement is changed but magnitude of velocity remain same. In other words, on collision molecules do not lose energy as they are Perfectly Elastic collisions. Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory The theory was put forward by Baltzam, Maxwell, Kelvin and other. The Modern Kinetic Molecular Model Theory of gases may be summarized in the following postulates. A gas is made of extremely small particles called molecules which are assumed to be point of masses dispersed a lot of vacant space. The molecules of a gas are in a state of constant random motion in all possible directions with high velocities, ceaselessly colliding with one another and the walls of the container. A molecule would travel in straight line with uniform velocity till it collide with another molecule or with the wall of the container. The molecules being regarded as point masses have no force of attraction between them. The force of gravity on them also negligible. The pressure of the gas is due to the hits recorded by the moving molecules on the walls of the container. The larger the number of impact the greater will be the pressure, and vice versa. By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

The molecular collision is perfectly elastic. The average kinetic energy (1/2mv2) of the molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of gaseous system. With increase of temperature, the kinetic energy and, therefore, the velocity of gas molecules increases.

Atomic and Molecular structure/shape of molecule of Matter .


For the most part, the chemist is interested in the properties of molecules or ions that contain two or more atoms. This interest include information on the arrangement of the atoms when they are bonded together, that is, the (MOLECULAR STRUCTURE). By molecular structure we mean the geometrical arrangement of the atoms of a molecular or ion in three dimension. The molecular structure is normally described in terms of bond distances and bond angles. A bond distance is the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms along a straight line joining the nuclei. Bond distance are often expressed in nanometers (1mm=10 -9) or in angstrom unit(1A0=10-10). A bond angle is the angle between two lines, defining the bond distances, which meet at a given atom. More or less theories was out forward to know the shape of molecules in those theories the one is VSEPR(valence shell electron pair repulsion). This theory was put forward by Sidwick and Powell in 1940 and modified by Nyholn and Gillespie in 1957. This theory is based on the repulsion of electron in the valence shell.

Method of predicting the molecular structure. If there are two electron pairs in valence shell of an atom the structure will be linear. If there are three electron pairs in valence shell of an atom the structure will be triangular or trigonal. If there are four pairs, shape is tetrahedral. If there are five pairs, the shape is trigonal bi pyramidal. If there is six pairs, the shape is octahedral.

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

Molecular Weight
The weight of a molecule is the sum of the weights of the atoms of which it is made. The unit of weight is the Dalton, one-twelfth the weight of an atom of 12C. Thus the molecular weight (MW) of water is 18 Daltons.

Molecular mass is sometimes called molecular weight. However, this is incorrect because mass and weight are different. Another possible source of confusion is that some older textbooks use the term "molecular weight" to mean the molar mass This terminology is not used in modern literature. Mass versus weight.
In scientific contexts, mass refers loosely to the amount of "matter" in an object (though "matter" may be difficult to define), whereas weight refers to the force experienced by an object due to gravity. In other words, an object with a mass of 1.0 kilograms will weigh 9.8 newtons (newton is the unit of force, while kilogram is the unit of mass) on Earth (its mass multiplied by the gravitational field strength). Its weight will be less on Mars (where gravity is weaker), more on Saturn, and negligible in space when far from any significant source of gravity, but it will always have the same mass. Molecular Mass The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic mass of all the atoms present in its molecule or molecular formula. Molecular mass C12H22O11 = 12(12.01) + 22(1.008) + 11(16.00) = 342.30.

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112) Mole Fraction

chapter 2 The Matter

The concentration of a solution refers to the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. There are many ways to express, quantatively, the concentration of a solution. Some solution properties depend on the relative amounts of all the solution components in terms of moles. The mole fraction of a solution component Xi is the fraction of moles of component i of the total number of moles of all components in solution. moles of component i -----------------------total moles of solution

Xi

Lets work through an example problem that will illustrate this concept. Example problem What is the mole fraction of each component in a solution in which 3.57 g of sodium chloride, NaCl, is dissolved in 25.0 g of water? Solution First, convert from mass of NaCl to moles of NaCl. 1 mole NaCl x --------------------- = 58.44 g NaCl

3.57 g NaCl

0.0611 mole NaCl

Next, convert from mass of water to moles of water. 1 mole H2O x --------------------- = 18.02 g H2O

25.0 g H2O

1.39 mole H2O

Substitute these two quantities into the defining equation for mole fraction.

XNaCl

0.0611 mol NaCl -------------------(0.0611 + 1.39) mol solution 1.39 mole H2O -------------------(0.0611 + 1.39) mol solution

0.0421

Xwater

0.958

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

HYDROCARBON
In 1808 Berzelius use the word ORGANIC which mean that the element or compound extract from organisms. Now the study of hydrocarbon and their derivatives is called organic chemistry and their compound is known as organic compound. (Organic compound) Hydrocarbons are classified on the base of saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon, there are more or less 5 million carbon compound in chemistry. Alkane Alkanes are the simplest organic compounds made of carbon and hydrogen only. They have general formula CnH2n+2. where n=1234. The first three member of this classes can be represented as; Methane Ethane Propane The carbon atoms in their molecules are bonded to each other by single covalent bonds. Each carbon is again bonded to enough hydrogen atoms to give maximum covalence of 4. Since the carbon skeleton of alkanes is fully saturated with hydrogens, they are also called Saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes contain strong C-C and C-H single covalent bond. Therefore they are less reactive. Hence they are sometimes referred as PARRAFIN latin, parum= affinis= (little affinity). They are saturated hydrocarbon. Series of alkane Hydrocarbon

Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112) Alkenes

chapter 2 The Matter

Alkenes are the hydrocarbon that contain carbon and carbon double bond in their molecule. They have general formula CnH2n. They are unsaturated hydrocarbon. As a class alkenes commonly known as OLEFINS( latin= oleum, oil and ficanes = to make) because their lower alkene members form oily products and treatment with chlorine and bromine. Ethene is the first member of alkene series and propene is second one.

Alkene seldom occur free in nature. They are, however produced in large amounts cracking of petroleum. Series of Alkenes

Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Octene Nonene Decene Alkynes

C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20

Alkynes constitute another class of unsaturated hydrocarbon. They have general formula CnH2n-2. In the contract to alkene, alkynes rarely occur in nature. They are relatively difficult to prepare ad hence one of lesser importance in comparison with the alkenes. Series of Alkynes Ethyne Propyne Butyne Pentyne Hexyne Heptyne Octyne Nonyne Decyne C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C9H16 C10H18

Cycloalkanes Many organic compounds found in nature or created in a laboratory contain rings of carbon atoms with distinguishing chemical properties, also known as cycloalkanes. Cycloalkanes are cyclic hydrocarbons, meaning that the carbons of the molecule are arranged in the form of a ring, and are also saturated, By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

meaning that all the carbons atoms that makes up the ring are single bonded to other atoms (no double or triple bonds). There are also polycyclic alkanes which are molecules that contain two or more cycloalkanes which are joined together, forming multiple rings. Aromatic compound The term aromatic compound was first used by Kekule to classify benzene and its derivatives, many of which possessed fragrant or aroma the term aromatic compounds stands for the whole series of compounds which contain one or more benzene rings in their molecule. With the introduction of the new names of Arens for all aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, Naphthalene, Athracene etc) a precise definition of aromatic compounds may be given as Arenes and their Derivatives. Structure of Alkanes,Alkene and Alkyne

Structure of Cyclo Alkanes

Structure of Arenes

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

Composition of Hydrocarbon
When the mixture of hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbon is passed over finely divided platinum or nickal catalyst at 2500-3000 c temperature to form alkane hydrocarbon. H2C==CH2 + H2 CH3CH3

HC == CH + 2H2

CH3---CH3

By Grignard reagent
RMgX + HOH Where R= radical group X= halogen group(Cl,f,I,Br) CH3MgCl + H2O CH3H + MgClOH RH + MgXH

By the Elimination of Atom

Dehydration of alcohol
When alcohol is heated in presence of sulphuric acid(H2SO4) a molecule of water is eliminated and alkene hydrocarbon is formed.

RCHCH2 H OH

H2SO4

RCH==CH2 + H2O

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

H2SO4

CH3CHCH2 H OH

CH3CH==CH2 + H2O

By the action of water on calcium carbide


When water reacts with calcium carbides, acetylene or ethyne is obtained. CaC2 + 2H2O Molarity(M) Ca(OH)2 + HC== HC

Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 litre or cubic decimeter of a solution.

Example #1 - Suppose we had 1.00 mole of sucrose (it's about 342.3 grams) and proceeded to mix it into some water. It would dissolve and make sugar water. We keep adding water, dissolving and stirring until all the solid was gone. We then made sure that when everything was well-mixed, there was exactly 1.00 liter of solution. What would be the molarity of this solution?

The answer is 1.00 mol/L. Notice that both the units of mol and L remain. Neither cancels. A replacement for mol/L is often used. It is a capital M. So if you write 1.00 M for the answer, then that is correct. Molality(m) Molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1kg(1000g) of solvent.

Example #1 - Suppose we had 1.00 mole of sucrose (it's about 342.3 grams) and proceeded to mix it into exactly 1.00 liter water. It would dissolve and make sugar water. We keep adding water, dissolving and stirring until all the solid was gone. We then made sure everything was well-mixed. What would be the molality of this solution? Notice that my one liter of water weighs 1000 grams (density of water = 1.00 g / mL and 1000 mL of water in a liter). 1000 g is 1.00 kg, so:

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

Basic Petroleum Engineering Science 1st year DAE student Manual (PET-112)

chapter 2 The Matter

The answer is 1.00 mol/kg. Notice that both the units of mol and kg remain. Neither cancels. A replacement for mol/kg is often used. It is a lower-case m and is often in italics, m. Some textbooks also put in a dash, like this: 1.00-m. However, if you write 1.00 m for the answer, without the italics, then that usually is correct because the context calls for a molality.

By; M.SHAKAIB QURESHI AWAIS RAZA QURESHI

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