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WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

(A) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1193-91 Standard specification for Reagent Grade Water Type 1 * Electrical Conductivity Max. (S/cm @ 25C) Electrical Resistivity Min. (M-cm @ 25C) pH @ 25C TOC max. g/l Sodium max. g/l Silica max. g/l Chloride max. g/l 0.056 18.0 100 1 3 1 Type 2 ** 1.0 1.0 50 5 3 5 Type 3 *** 0.25 4.0 200 10 500 10 Type 4 5.0 0.2 5.0-8.0 no limit 50 no limit 50

* ** ***

Requires the use of a 0.2m membrane filter. Prepared by distillation. Requires the use of a 0.45m membrane filter.

When bacterial levels need to be controlled, reagent grade types should be further classified as follows:

Type A Total Bacteria Count max. CFU/100ml Endotoxin max. EU/ml 1 0.03

Type B 10 0.25

Type C 1000 -

7.
(B)

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS


National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) - 1988

Type l Bacteria (CFU/ml) pH Resistivity (M -cm @ 25C) SiO2 (mg/l) Total Solids (mg/l) Total Oxidisable Organic Carbon (mg/l) < 10 N/A > 10 * < 0.05 0.1 < 0.05

Type ll > 1000 N/A >1 < 0.1 1 < 0.2

Type lll N/A 5.0-8.0 > 0.1 <1 5 <1

Type l water must be free of particulate matter larger than 0.2 m. * Resistivity of Type l must be measured in-line. N/A = not applicable. Type l Test methods requiring minimal interference and maximum precision and accuracy, i.e. atomic absorption and flame emission spectometry, enzymatic procedures sensitive to trace metals, electro-phoretic procedures, high sensitivity chromatographic procedures, buffer solutions, preparation of standard solutions. Type ll General laboratory testing other than above and glasswashing. Type lll Glassware washing, preliminary rinsing of glassware and feedwater for producing higher grade water.

7.
(C)

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS


College of American Pathologists (CAP) - 1988

Suggested minimum specifications Type l Resistivity (M .cm @ 25C) a. In-line b. Effluent (as used) Silicate (mg/l at SiO2) pH Microbiological Content 10.0 0.05 N/A 10 2.0 0.1 N/A 1000 0.1 1.0 5.0-8.0 N/A Type ll Type lll

Particulate matter - Type l water should be free of particles (< 500 particles/litre) greater than 0.2m. Suggested water quality uses: Type l: Tissue or cell culture, ultra-micro analysis, critical analytical procedures, standard preparations. Most routine laboratory methods, immunology, haematology and other areas.

Type ll:

7.
(D)

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS


Water Quality Standards for Haemodialysis Substance Symbol AAMI max. level From EC ** (Also recommended Pharmacopoeia by the RA) * 0.01 ppm 0.01 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.2 ppm 0.2 ppm 2 ppm 2 ppm 100 ppm 50 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.5 ppm 0.1 ppm 2 ppm 4 ppm 8 ppm 70 ppm 0.005 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.01 ppm 0.005 ppm 0.002 ppm 0.01 ppm 0.005 ppm 2 ppm 2 ppm 2 ppm 50 ppm 50 ppm

Category

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Aluminium Copper Fluoride Nitrates Sulphate Zinc Chloramines Free Chlorine Total Available Chlorine Calcium Magnesium Potassium Sodium Chlorides Arsenic Barium Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury Selenium Silver pH Oxidisable Substances Ammonium Heavy Metals Microbial Contamination Endotoxins

Al Cu F NO3 SO4 Zn CL2

Ca Mg K Na Cl As Ba Cd Cr Pb Hg Se Ag

0.001 ppm

6-8 pH nil 0.2 ppm 0.1 ppm TVC < 100 per ml < 0.25 EU/ml

TVC < 200 per ml 10.0 EU/ml

Categories

1 Toxic substances described in Dialysis literature. 2 Non-toxic substances included in dialysis fluid. 3 Substances described as toxic in Drinking Water literature. * From a draft document by the Standards Subcommittee of the Renal Association. ** From Water for diluting concentrated haemodialysis solutions Annex to the European Pharmacopoeia Fascicul 16. (Adopted by the Council of Europe). Included in the global limit for Heavy Metals AAMI The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (USA) 1981

RA The Renal Association EC European Community 1992 01.01.95

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