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2. Now the this exercise base don the tape. a. what are the three men studying?

What is Fred asking for? What job do you think Fred does? b. Choose the right expression: Tie them it with recovery means (i) join them to recovery (ii) relate them to recovery (iii) Point to the diagrams about recovery c. Which two types of trees does Dave mention? Where is each type used? d. What expression is used instead of solution gas drive? e. Why does Steve hestate over the third diagram? SECTION C STRUCTURE PRACTICE 1. Adjetives from the passive. Example: Sand grains which have been rounded are a common propping agent. Rounded sand grains are a common propping agent.

Do the following in the same way. a. Barite which has been ground is commonly used to weight drilling muds. b. Pore spaces that are blocket can be cleaned up by acidizacion. c. Gas which is dissolved in reservoir crude can be an important production mechanism. d. tems of equipment that have been lost in the hole must be fished out e. Reservoirs which are fractured have the highest permeabilities. 2. Nouns from verbs Stimulate ------ stimulation Recover -------- recovery Displace--------- displacement Now putt he verbs in brackets into their noun forms a. (Produce) rates can be increased by (stimulate) b. Gases can be converted to liquid by (pressurize) c. The (expand) of free gas displaces the oil downwards d. Some trees are a (combine) of valves bolted together and ones le tinto a solid block of steel e. (Acidize) is used to enlarge the fissures in the rock around the barehole. f. The diagram shows the (distribute) of wter and hydrocarbons in a typical trap. g. The (magnify) of the simple in this picture is x20 h. Viscosity describes the (resist) of a fluid to flow i. On page 39 there is a (describe) of hidraulic fracturing. j. Hydrocarbon (accumulate) are found only in porous or fractured (form) 3. Phrasal verbs Stand back Blow out

Make up of Stands are stood back on the rig floor(Unit 2). The well blew out an that night back in august.(Unit 6) The string is made up of a number of singles. (Unit 1) Choose from these phrasal verbs to complete the sentences below: latch on to, go over, find out, wear out, clean up, run back in. a. The bottom hole assembly can be used..the well b. The bit . So it was changed. c. After they had changed the bit, they again d. Quick those collars e. If you want ..what goes where, ask the superintendent f. Lets just .the three diagrams once more. 4. By + gerund Notice that this structure can be used to describe how or by what method somethig can be done. By dissolving the formation,the acid opens up and enlarges fissures in the rock around the barehole.(section A1) Example:How can a liquid be tested to find out whether its an acido r a base? By wetting a piece of litmus paper in it.

Answer these questions using the structure by + gerund a. b. c. d. e. f. g. How can a dolomite reservoir be stimulated? (pump) By what method would you try to recover a lost roller cone? (latch on to) How do walnut shells help to stimulate flow? (prop up) By what method are barehole surveys made? (log) How is solution gas first treated? (separate) How can the specific gravity of a drilling fluid be increased? (weight) In the case of gas-well blowout, how can an explosin be prevented? (divert/and set ablaze) h. How is square measurement calculated? (multiply) i. By what method are cores taken? (run) j. How do the drawworks rtate the bit? (turn) 5. Adverbs of degree At that depth, pressures are extremely high .. (unit 6) The section .. has been greatly magnifield (unit 4) Look back at exercise 3, page 24; then do the exercise below. a. Reservoir permeabilities differ. (considerably or skighly?) b. Hydraulic-fracturing pressures are high. (not very or extremely?)

c. Some natural gases are dry; that is, they consist only of methane. (relatively or absolutely?) d. The rams must be closed to prevent the well from blowing out. (too quickly or quickly enough?) e. In disolved-gas drive, recovery is slow. (extremely or fairly?) 6. Choose the right words a. (In case of/In the case of) solution gas drive. Gas which is disolved in the oil (contracts / expands) and so (brushes / sweeps) the oil towards the well b. Trees which have all (there / their / theyre) valves let (in / to / into) a single block of steel are called (block solid trees / solid block trees / trees solid block) c. Potential energy is the energy that a (body / mass) has because of (its / its) (place / position) or the arrengement of (its / its) (parts / pieces / items). d. A fracturing fluid is a (glue / gel ) which is squeezed to a formation (under / with / by ) a pressure ( low enough / high enough / too high) to break the formation (down / up / out) e. When a well (came / has come) on (stream / flow / production), the production rate (will not be / may not be / cannot be) high enough, and it will (so / therefore) (must be / have to be) stimulated by fracturing or acidization. SECTION D LISTENING COMPREHENSION II 1. Listen to the discusisn between Mr. Armstrong and his students ARMNSTRONG: And that, gentlemen, isa ll I have tos ay today on hydraulic fracturing. Any questions? Yes? VOICE 1: What is the hydrofraccing pressure in relation to overburden pressure? ARMNSTRONG: it varies from field to field, of course, has Ive indicated. But its usually, oh, between 65 and 85 per cent of the overburden pressure. VOICE 1: thank you, Mr. Armstrong. ARMNSTRONG: Any other question? One over there? VOICE 2: Yes. Youve, um, mentioned proping agents such as sand, glass beads and walnut shells. I was just wondering which are used where. ARMNSTRONG: That depends entirely on the nature of the formation. Ill be discussing that in a later lectura. Okay? VOICE 2: Sure, fine. Thanks. ARMNSTRONG: Now, then. Anything else? VOICE 3: Yes, Next weeks lecture?

ARMNSTRONG: I was just comuing that. Acidization, gentlemen. And on that exciting thought, thank you for your attention. 2. Now do this exercise base don the tape. a. Where is this discussion taking place? How can you tell? b. What answer does Mr. Armstrong give to the question Which are used where?? c. Which other Word is used for hydraulic fracturing? How do you think the Word is written? d. What is meant by overburden pressure? What is the relation of fracturing pressure to overburden pressure? e. To what degree does the choice of propping agent dependo n the nature of the formation? f. When does Armstrong intend to discuss acidization? g. When will he be discussing propping agents?

SECTION E WRITING PRACTICE Study this description of the fireboat Forties Kiwi; then write similar paragraphs for the other fireboat in the table. The fireboat Forties Kiwi, operated by BP, has been assigned to the Forties field. The boat will be working routinely on maintenance, storage, and accommodation. In case of fire, the Forties Kiwi will be capable of delivering fifteen thounsand gallons of wter per minute.

UNIT 8 DIRECTIONAL WELLS


SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION Read the following passage. It is often undersirable or imposible to drill all of a hole vertivally to Td. For anvironmental reason, for example, it may be necessary to spud in a well some distance away from the target, as in the diagram above. A barehole such as this is drolled straight down to a certain depth and is then deviated away from the vertical in the direction of the target. A well may also