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Pancreatic Juice

pancreatic amylase splits glycogen into disaccharides pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase digest proteins nucleases digest nucleic acids bicarbonate ions make pancreatic juice alkaline


Regulation of Pancreatic Secretions

acidic chyme stimulates release of secretin secretin stimulate release of pancreatic juice




Hepatic Lobule


The Paths of Blood and Bile in Hepatic Lobule


Liver Functions
builds glycogen from smaller units of glucose as energy storage breaks down glycogen into glucose for use by the bodys cells converts non-carbohydrates to glucose (gluconeogenesis) oxidizes fatty acids (ketoacidosis is the over oxidation of fat, seen in DM) synthesizes lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol converts carbohydrates and proteins into fats removes functional groups off amino acids to use for new proteins forms urea ( a metabolic waste of protein metabolism) synthesizes plasma proteins converts some amino acids to other amino acids (transamination) stores glycogen, vitamins A,D, B12, iron, and blood phagocytizes worn out RBCs and foreign substances removes toxins from blood produces and secretes important enzymes for digestion these are just several of the 1,000s of jobs that the liver performs

Production &Composition of Bile

secreted by the hepatocytes of the liver Made of bile salts, which are responsible for

1. emulsification (breakdown) of fats 2. aids the absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins in the jejunum and ileum
bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) bicarbonate ions cholesterol electrolytes (Na, K and Ca) water




Regulation of Bile Release

fatty chyme entering duodenum stimulate gallbladder to release bile


Gall Stones

Gall Stones

Three Parts of Small Intestine


suspends portions of the small intestine from the posterior abdominal wall composed of loose areolar C.T. supports vessels, nerve and lymphatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall Greater Omentum: a double fold of mesentery that covers the stomach thru the L.I.= protection of viscera will be very prominent in the cat


Structure of the Small Intestinal Wall

Velvety appearance internally Due to the many tiny projections of mucosa called villi i) most numerous in the duodenum ii) greatly increase the surface area of the lumen for absorption of nutrients Each villus contains: i) thin layer of simple columnar epi. ii) core of C.T. containing blood capillaries and a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal and nerve fibers iii) at free surface are numerous microvilli that form a brush border on the inside of the S.I. further increasing surface area for maximum absorption Between adjacent villi are deep intestinal glands called the crypts of Lieberkuhn which many enzymes are secreted from the mucosa S.I. lining has numerous folds called the plica circulares which further increase the surface area of the lumen

Intestinal Villus


Intestinal Epithelium


Wall of Small Intestine


Secretions of Small Intestine

peptidase breaks down peptides into amino acids sucrase, maltase, lactase break down disaccharides into monosaccharides lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol enterokinase converts trypsinogen to trypsin somatostatin hormone that inhibits acid secretion by stomach cholecystokinin hormone that inhibits gastric glands, stimulates pancreas to release enzymes in pancreatic juice, stimulates gallbladder to release bile secretin stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice


Regulation of Small Intestinal Secretions

Goblet cell secretion of mucus is stimulated by presence of chyme in small intestine distension of intestinal wall activates nerve plexuses in wall of small intestine to increase peristalsis and parasympathetics trigger release of intestinal enzymes


Absorption in the Small Intestine

monosaccharides and amino acids through facilitated diffusion and active transport absorbed into blood electrolytes and water through diffusion, osmosis, and active transport absorbed into blood


Movements of the Small Intestine

mixing movements peristalsis pushing movements segmentation ring-like contractions over-distended wall triggers peristaltic rush resulting in diarrhea


Large Intestine


Large Intestinal Wall


Functions of Large Intestine

little or no digestive function absorbs water and electrolytes secretes mucus (lots of it!!!) houses intestinal flora (E. coli) i) some bacteria in the gut synthesize Vitamin K for clotting mechanism forms feces carries out defecation


Movements of Large Intestine

slower and less frequent than those of small intestine mixing movements peristalsis mass movements usually follow meals (Bowel Movement, B.M.) Appendicitis: rupture of the vermiform appendix. Can lead to peritonitis, which is an infection of the peritoneum and can lead to death


Composition of Poop

water electrolytes mucus bacteria bile pigments altered by bacteria provide color smell produced by bacterial compounds (methanogens)


Life-Span Changes

teeth become sensitive gums recede teeth may loosen or fall out heartburn more frequent constipation more frequent nutrient absorption decreases accessory organs age but the effects are less noticeable


Clinical Application

inflammation of the liver most commonly caused by viral infection can be caused by reactions to drug, alcoholism or autoimmunity

Signs and Symptoms headache low fever fatigue vomiting rash foamy urine pale feces jaundice pain

Hepatitis A not washing hands or eating raw shellfish Hepatitis B chronic; serum Hepatitis C serum Hepatitis D very severe; only produces symptoms if infected with B; serum Hepatitis E, F, G more rare