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AN2864 Application note

Stand by performance optimized wide range input 5 V/1 A output VIPER17L demonstration board
Introduction
In consumer applications like LCD TV, DVD player, Set-top box and others, we usually want to be able to switch on or switch off the application directly from the remote control. From this come the need to supply the remote control receiver even when the equipment is not used (stand by Mode). In stand by mode a minimum load is then present at the output of the power supply and it is in the range of few tenth of mW. Often we have some mA of load present at the 5 V or 3.3 V output of the power supply. Even if no load is applied to the power converter some power is anyway sunk by the main in order to keep alive the power converter. The load for the main is constant 24h a day giving a good contribution to the total consumption of the equipment.

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From this consideration arises the need to reduce as low as possible the consumption of the power supply when light loaded or even when it is not loaded. Consumer equipment manufacturer often gives different criteria for measuring the stand by performance of a power supply depending both on the characteristics of the equipment and on their own considerations. Anyway in order to evaluate the stand by power supply performance a good starting point is the power consumption when the unit is no loaded. A demonstration board will be here presented with no load power consumption lower than 30 mW. Figure 1. Demonstration board

March 2009

Rev 1

1/29
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Contents

AN2864

Contents
1 Tips for reducing stand by consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Secondary side control loop circuitry consumption reduction . . . . . . . . . . 5 Burst mode operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 VIPER17 consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.1 2.2 2.3

Electrical specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Schematic and bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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Testing the board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Typical board waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Precision of the regulation and output voltage ripple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Light load performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Overload protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Secondary winding short circuit protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Output overvoltage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EMI measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4 5 6

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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Board descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

AN2864

List of figures

List of figures
Figure 1. Demonstration board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Figure 2. Secondary side control loop circuitry consumption reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 3. Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 4. Transformer size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 5. Transformer pin diagram and transformer electrical schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 6. Drain current and voltage at full load 115 VAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 7. Drain current and voltage at full load 230 VAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 8. Drain current and voltage at full load 90 VAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 9. Drain current and voltage at full load 265 VAC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 10. Output voltage and VDD line-load regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Figure 11. High frequency output voltage ripple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Figure 12. Output voltage ripple 115 VINAC full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 13. Output voltagw ripple 230 VINAC full load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 14. Output voltagw ripple 115 VINAC no load (burst mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 15. Output voltage ripple 230 VINAC no load (burst mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 16. Efficiency vs VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 17. Efficiency vs load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 18. Active mode efficiency vs VIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 19. Vin average vs load efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Figure 20. Energy star efficiency criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 21. Output short circuit (VIN = 115 VAC, full load before the short) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 22. Operation with output shorted (VIN = 115 VAC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 23. 2nd OCP protection tripping (VIN =115 VAC, full load before the short) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 24. Operating with secondary winding shorted restart mode (VIN =115 VAC, full load before the short) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 25. OVP circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figure 26. OVP protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 27. OVP protection (detail) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 28. 115 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Figure 29. 230 VAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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List of tables

AN2864

List of tables
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10. Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14. Electrical specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Transformer characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Burst mode related output voltage ripple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Active mode efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Line voltage averaged efficiency vs load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Energy efficiency criteria for standard models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Energy efficiency criteria for low voltage models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 No load input power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Energy consumption criteria for no load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Low load performance 25 mW of load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Low load performance 50 mW of load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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AN2864

Tips for reducing stand by consumption

Tips for reducing stand by consumption


Lets start to analyze, in a flyback isolated converter, what we can do in order to minimize the stand by power consumption and how new VIPER17 device can help on this purpose. When light loaded or in no Load condition the most of the losses are switching losses that are almost proportional to the switching frequency. We have to consider that even if no external load is connected to the power supply some power needs to be processed to sustain operation of the VIPER17 itself and of the circuitry at the secondary side that sense the output voltage and close the control loop (see Figure 2). Burst mode operation of VIPER17 allows to strongly reduce the average switching frequency of the converter when light loaded or completely no loaded. Practically when the converter enters in burst mode operation lower is the load lower is the average switching frequency. So, to reduce as low as possible the average switching frequency we can take care in designing the control loop minimizing the needed power to sustain operation of the circuitry that close the control loop at secondary side.

1.1

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Secondary side control loop circuitry consumption reduction


Figure 2. Secondary side control loop circuitry consumption reduction
VOUT R13 VIPER17LN FB PIN

OPTO

R15 R8

C11

C8

TS431

R10

R9

Usually in an isolated flyback converter where the output is directly sensed for control loop input a TL431, a device that has inside an error amplifier and a voltage reference, is used. For a TL431 the minimum bias current is 1 mA. Usually in order to guarantee this bias current in every operating condition 1 k resistor is connected in parallel with the photodiode of the opto-coupler (R15, see Figure 2). If instead of the TL431 a device with a lower

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Tips for reducing stand by consumption

AN2864

minimum bias current is used the resistance R15 value can be increased reducing the equivalent load. In the presented board a TS431 instead of the TL431 is used. The minimum bias current of this device is 60 A so R15 value can be increased up to 15 k significantly lowering the load due to voltage reference and the error amplifier. Always with the purpose in mind to minimize the load at secondary side, the values of the resistances that are used to sense the output voltage (R8 and R9 in the schematic of Figure 2), has to be quite high. Of course the needs of the regulation loop have to be taken into account and also have to be considered that, increasing over a certain value the resistance do not improve much more the stand by performance. A rule of thumb can be that the current through these resistances should be in the range of the TS431 device bias current. In our case the output voltage of the converter is 5 V and the R8 and R9 selected values are respectively of 120 k (R8) and 39 k (R9) that gives a total value of 159 k (R8 + R9) with a current of 31 A.
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1.2

Burst mode operation


When the load decrease, as consequence, the voltage on FB pin of the VIPER17 decreases and as it falls below the Burst mode threshold (Typ. 450 mV) the converter stops switching. No more switching, means no more power processed and then no power is delivered to the converter outputs. The auxiliary winding does not deliver energy to supply VIPER17 logic that is now supplied by the energy stored in the capacitor connected Between VDD PIN and GND. In order to reduce the discharge of this capacitor during burst mode operation, when the device is not switching, the device control logic reduces its consumption turning off all the unused or not necessary internal blocks. Also the circuitry connected to the output of the converter is supplied by the energy stored in the output capacitors that are then discharged leading to output voltage drops that cause the feedback loop reaction. The voltage on feedback pin starts to rise again. When feedback pin voltage exceeds the burst mode threshold plus a certain hysteresis (450 mV + 50 mV, Typ. values) switching operation restarts and the output capacitor and capacitor connected on VDD pin are recharged. The resulting behavior is an intermittent operation where the average power delivered to the load is exactly the necessary, and the average switching frequency is strongly reduced, when the device is operating in burst mode the Drain peak current is lower clamped, so it cannot be lower then about 90 mA. Burst mode operation is not new, but the converter design can be optimized in order to takes as many advantage it is possible from this. When device is operating in burst mode the average switching frequency is related to the total load that the converter has to supply, where in the total load we are including also the bias currents of the components at the secondary side that are used for closing the feedback loop. If we consider that during burst mode operation the drain peak current is almost constant, it means that the average switching frequency, during burst mode operation, is proportional (see Equation 1) to the power delivered to the secondary and to the auxiliary winding. From this consideration arises the need to reduce as much it is possible the power consumption of VIPER17 control logic and the power consumption of the additional circuitry needed to closing the feedback Loop or to perform other functions. Doing so, the total load of the converter is reduced, giving itself a contribution to converter power consumption, but also the average switching frequency will be reduced and so the switching losses. Equation 1

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Pout =

1 2 L p IDRAIN _ PK fsw _ avg 2

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Tips for reducing stand by consumption

1.3

VIPER17 consumption
The VIPER17 current consumption is at maximum 1.8 mA for L version when it is switching but it is reduced to 900 A when the FB pin voltage goes below the Burst mode thresholds and the device is not switching. Lowering the device consumption, of course helps to reduce the total power consumption, but it leads to other advantages. The control Loop sense the output voltage and modulate the power processed, according to the load on the output, so to keep the output voltage constant, at the target value. The voltage that supply the VIPER17 is not regulated but should follows the output voltage according to the auxiliary to secondary windings turn ratio. Unfortunately the windings coupling is never perfect in a real transformer even if the output voltage is well regulated, the auxiliary voltage changes according to the load ratio between output and auxiliary. The Cross regulation problem of flyback converters is well known in power electronic literature [1], even if here it will be not discussed, it is important to remind that, considering the output voltage well regulated, the auxiliary voltage used for VIPER17 device supply, increase as the ratio between output current and auxiliary current increase and decrease as this ratio decrease. Even if an external load is not present the circuitry for sensing the output voltage and closing the control loop sink some current. In an optimized converter for very low stand by consumption this current is very low. In this condition it is possible that the auxiliary voltage (Voltage on VDD pin) drops below the VDD_OFF threshold of VIPER17 (8.5 V max [2]) leading to the device shut-down. If we are in this case the devices starts to operate in hiccup mode (continuously shut-down and start up) and no more guaranteeing the output voltage regulation. Keeping low the current consumption of VIPER17, at least when operating in burst mode, means increasing the before said ratio between output current and auxiliary current that helps to keep the auxiliary voltage above the device VDD_OFF threshold.

1.4

Transformer
With the purpose in mind of reducing the switching losses some consideration about Transformer can be done. The primary parasitic capacitance, that is the capacitance we measure at the primary side with the other transformer windings open (Using an LCR meter we need to set the frequency as high as 1 MHz in order to measure this capacitance) contribute to switch-on losses being this capacitance fast charged each time we turn on the MOSFET and the charging current dissipates energy inside the MOSFET itself. Reducing as low as possible this capacitance this kind of losses will be minimized. Looking at equation 1 it is clear that a further reduction of switching frequency can be obtained increasing as much as possible, according also to other design considerations, the primary inductance of the transformer (LP). In fact, assuming constant the power the converter has to process to sustain a certain load, with a higher primary inductance the energy processed each switching cycle increases (for the same Darin peak current) and the number of switching cycles for unit of time, that means the average switching frequency, decrease.

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Board descriptions

AN2864

2
2.1

Board descriptions
Electrical specification
The electrical specifications of the presented demonstration board are listed in the Table 1.
Table 1.
Symbol VIN VOUT IOUT VOUT_LF VOUT_HF Input voltage range Output voltage Max output current Precision of output regulation High frequency output voltage ripple

Electrical specification
Parameter Value [90 VRMS; 265 VRMS] 5V 1A 5 % 50 mV Information classified Confidential - Do not copy (See last page for obligations)

These electrical specifications often meet the requirements of an auxiliary power supply for a LCD TV, or PDP TV and for external adapter.

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2.2

Schematic and bill of material


The schematic of the board is reported in Figure 3. In Table 2 is reported the bill of material.
Figure 3. Schematic
5 3 4 C2 4 BR1 1 + BRIDGE 2 10uF 400V 1 2 T2 4.7uF 400V C3 T1 D4

P6KE220
D5

3 4

STTH1L06
D3 1 6 7

STPS5L40

L1

4.7uH

5V 1A
J2 2 1 CON2

BU9 -103R25BL

C9

C10 YK 47uF 25V

MCZ 1000uF 10V 9 10 2 TRANSFORMER

C1

100nF X2

D2

D1

1N4148

BAT46
C8 Y1 1nF R17 3.3 R13 2.2k

F1 1A FUSE

R14 130k

VIPER17LN
2 7 8 U1 OPTO1 PC817 D R15 15k R8 120k 1%

5 NTC1 15 Ohm NTC

BR

VDD
CONTROL

DRAIN

t
2 C4 22uF 25V 1 2 R3 J1 CON2 33k

CONT FB
4

C11

SOURCE
1 VR1

15nF R10 220k

TS431
C7 C6 1.8nF R12 33k 22nF

R9 39k 1%

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Board descriptions

Table 2.
Reference BR1 C1 C2 C3 C4 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10

Bill of material
Part DF06M 100 nF 10 F 400 V 4.7 F 400 V 22 F 35 V 1.8 nF 22 nF 2.2 nF 1000 F 10 V 47 F 25 V 15 nF BAT46 1N4148 STTH1L06 STPS5L40 P6KE220 1A FUSE 4.7uH 16 NTC PC817D 33 k 1% 120 k 1% 39 k 1% 220 k 2.2 k 130 k 15 k 3.3 k Transformer BU9 -103R25BL VIPER17LN TS431 Technology Miniature glass passivated single-phase bridge rectifier EMI suppressor capacitor MKP X2 type Aluminium electrolityc capacitor Aluminium electrolityc capacitor Aluminium electrolityc capacitor Ceramic capacitor Ceramic capacitor Y1 ceramic capacitor Aluminium electrolityc capacitor MCZ series Aluminium electrolityc capacitor YK series Ceramic capacitor Small signal schottky diode High speed diode Turbo 2 ultra fast high voltage rectifier Power schottky rectifier TRANSIL FUSE INDUCTOR NTC OPTO-COUPLER Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance Resistance High frequency transformer Common mode choke VIPER DEVICE Voltage reference PULSE COIL-CRAFT STMicroelectronics STMicroelectronics PH0132NL BU9 -103R25BL VIPER17LN TS431AIZ-AP Manufacturer General semiconductor EPCOS PANASONIC PANASONIC PANASONIC KEMET KEMET CERAMITE RUBYCON RUBYCON KEMET STMicroelectronics Philips STMicroelectronics STMicroelectronics STMicroelectronics SHURTER PANASONIC EPCOS SHARP C0805F103K5RAC BAT46 1N4148 STTH1L06 STPS5L40 P6KE220 0034.6615 ELC08D4R7E B57236S160M PC817D Manufacturer code DF06M B32922 ECA2GHG100 ECA2GHG4R7 ECEA1VKS220 C0805F182K5RAC C0805F223K5RAC 440LD22 10PCM Information classified Confidential - Do not copy (See last page for obligations)

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C11 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 F1 L1 NTC1 OPTO1 R3 ,R12 R8 R9 R10 R13 R14 R15 R17 T1 T2 U1 VR1

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Board descriptions

AN2864

2.3

Transformer
Transformer characteristic are listed in the table below
Table 3. Transformer characteristic
Manufacturer Part number Primary inductance (4-5) Leakage primary inductance (4-5) Primary to secondary turn ratio (4-5)/(6,7-9,19) Primary to auxiliary turn ratio (4-5)/(1-2) Insulation Pulse PH0132NL 3.3 mH +/- 10% Fr = 10 kHz, TA = 25 C 100 H max 14.82 3 % 6.27 3 % 4 kV (6,7,9,10) shorted Fr = 100 kHz, VRMS = 0.1 V, TA = 25 C Fr = 10 kHz, VRMS = 0.1 V, TA = 25 C Fr = 10 kHz, VRMS = 0.1 V, TA = 25 C Primary to secondary Information classified Confidential - Do not copy (See last page for obligations)

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Below pictures show size (mm), pin connection and pins distances (mm) of the transformer.
Figure 4. Transformer size

(a) Bottom view

(b) Side view

Figure 5.

Transformer pin diagram and transformer electrical schematic

(a) Pins distances

(b) Electrical diagram

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AN2864

Testing the board

3
3.1

Testing the board


Typical board waveforms
The board has to operate with wide range input voltages so the relevant waveforms were reported for the minimum maximum and nominal input voltages.
Figure 6 and 7 show the drain current and the drain voltage waveforms at the nominal input voltages, that are 115 VAC and 230 VAC when the load is the maximum (1 A). Figure 8 and 9 show the same waveforms for the same load condition, but when the input voltages are the minimum one (90 VAC) in Figure 8 and the maximum one (265 VAC) in Figure 9.

Figure 6.

Drain current and voltage at full load 115 VAC

Figure 7.

Drain current and voltage at full load 230 VAC

Figure 8.

Drain current and voltage at full load 90 VAC

Figure 9.

Drain current and voltage at full load 265 VAC

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Testing the board

AN2864

3.2

Precision of the regulation and output voltage ripple


The output voltage of the board was measured in different line and load condition. Results are reported on Table 4. The output voltage variation range is of a few mV in for all the tested conditions. The VDD voltage was also measured to verify that it is inside the operating range of the device.
Table 4.
VINAC (V) VOUT (V) 90 115 230 265 5.05 5.06 5.06 5.06 VDD (v) 10.7 10.6 10.6 10.4 VOUT (V) 5.04 5.04 5.04 5.04 VDD (V) 23.5 24.1 25.3 25.2 VOUT (V) 5.04 5.04 5.04 5.04 VDD (V) 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 Information classified Confidential - Do not copy (See last page for obligations)

Output voltage and VDD line-load regulation


No load Half load Full load

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The ripple at the switching frequency superimposed at the output voltage was also measured. The high frequency voltage ripple across capacitor C9 (VOUT_FLY), that is the output capacitor of the flyback converter before the LC filter, was also measured to verify the effectiveness of the LC filter and for completeness of results. Results are reported in Table 5.
Table 5.
VINAC (VRMS) 90 115 230 265

High frequency output voltage ripple


No load VOUT (mV) 11.1 10.9 12.8 14.7 VOUT_FLY (mV) 94.1 90.9 102 110 Half load VOUT (mV) VOUT_FLY (mV) 26.0 26.1 26.5 26.7 192 192 201 194 VOUT (mV) 41.5 39.7 40 39.4 Full load VOUT_FLY (mV) 261 269 274 270

Waveforms of the two voltages (VOUT and VOUT_FLY) are reported in figures Below.

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AN2864 Figure 10. Output voltage ripple 115 VINAC full load

Testing the board

CH2 : VOUT

CH2 : VOUT_FLY
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Figure 11. Output voltage ripple 230 VINAC full load

CH2 : VOUT

CH2 : VOUT_FLY

A Lower frequency ripple is present when the device is working in burst mode. In this mode of operation the converter does not supply continuous power to its output. It alternates period when the power MOSFET is kept off and no power is processed by the converter and period when the power MOSFET is switching and power flows towards the converter output. Even no load is present at the output of the converter, during not switching periods the output capacitors are discharged by their leakage currents and by the currents needed to supply the part of the feedback loop present at the secondary side. During the switching

Testing the board

AN2864

period the output capacitance is recharged. The below figures report the output voltage and the feedback voltage when the converter is no loaded.
Figure 12. Output voltage ripple 115 VINAC no load (burst mode)

CH2 : VOUT

CH3 : VFB

Figure 13. Output voltage ripple 230 VINAC no load (burst mode)

CH2 : VOUT

CH3 : VFB

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Testing the board Table 6 shows the measured value of the burst mode frequency ripple measured at different operating condition. The measured ripple in burst mode operation is very low and always below 25 mV. Table 6.
VIN 90 115 230 265

Burst mode related output voltage ripple


No load (mV) 9.11 8.72 8.84 8.86 10 mA load (mV) 13.4 11.1 12.3 12.2 25 mA load (mV) 11.3 11.9 15.1 15.8 Information classified Confidential - Do not copy (See last page for obligations)

3.3

Efficiency
The efficiency of the converter was measured in different load and line voltage condition. According to the energy star average active mode testing efficiency method the measurement were done with full load and with 75%, 50%, and 25% of the full load for different input voltage. The results are reported in Table 7.
Table 7.
VINAC (VRMS) 90 115 230 265 Full load (1 A) 78.6 80.3 79.8 79.4 75 % load (0.75 A) 80.8 81.3 81.7 81.7 50 % load (0.5 A) 81.0 83.2 80.5 79.7 25 % load (0.25 A) 82.1 82.7 77.6 74.8

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Efficiency
Efficiency (%)

For better visibility of the results they were plotted in the diagrams below. In Figure 14 the Efficiency versus VIN for the four different load values was plotted. In Figure 15 was plotted the value of the efficiency versus Load for different input voltages.

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Testing the board Figure 14. Efficiency vs VIN

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Figure 15. Efficiency vs load

The active mode efficiency is defined as the average of the efficiencies measured in different load condition. These different load conditions are: the 25%, 50% and 75% of maximum load and the maximum load itself. Table 8 reports the active mode efficiency calculated from the Table 7 measured value. For more clearness the Table 8 values are plotted in Figure 16. In Figure 17 the averaged (average was done considering the efficiency at different input voltage) value of the efficiency versus load are reported.

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Testing the board

Table 8.

Active mode efficiencies


VINAC (VRMS) 90 115 230 265 Efficiency (%) 80.6 81.9 79.9 78.9

Figure 16. Active mode efficiency vs VIN


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Table 9.

Line voltage averaged efficiency vs load


Load (% of full load) 100 75 50 25 Efficiency (%) 79.39 79.85 78.67 75.56

Testing the board Figure 17. Vin average vs load efficiency

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In the version 2.0 of energy star program requirement for single voltage external AC-DC power supplies [2] the power supplies are divided in two categories: Low voltage power supplies and standard power supply respect to the nameplate output voltage and current. An external power supply in order to be considered a low voltage power supply needs to have a nameplate output voltage lower than 6 V and a nameplate output current greater then or equal to 550 mA. Tables below report the EPA energy efficiency criteria for AC-DC power supplies in active mode respectively for standard models and for low voltage models.
Table 10. Energy efficiency criteria for standard models
Minimum average efficiency in active mode (expressed as a decimal) 0.48*Pno+0.140 [0.0626 * In (Pno)] + 0.622 0.870

Nameplate output power (Pno) 0 to 1 watt > 1 to 49 watts > 49 watts

Table 11.

Energy efficiency criteria for low voltage models


Minimum average efficiency in active mode (expressed as a decimal) 0.497 *Pno + 0.067 [0.075 * In (Pno)] + 0.561 0.860

Nameplate output power (Pno) 0 to 1 watt > 1 to 49 watts > 49 watts

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AN2864 Figure 18.


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 st ( Pno ) lv ( Pno ) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Testing the board Energy star efficiency criteria

0.1

1 Pno

10

100

The criteria are plotted in Figure 18 where the red line is the criteria for standard model and the blue line is the criteria for low voltage model. The power supply here presented belongs to the Low voltage power supply category and, in order to be compliant with energy star requirements needs to have efficiency higher than 68.2 %. For all the considered input voltages the efficiency (see Table 8) results higher then the recommended value.

3.4

Light load performance


The input power of the converter was measured in No Load condition for different input voltages and results are reported in Table 12.
Table 12. No load input power
Vin AC (VRMS) 90 115 230 265 Pin (mW) 13.50 13.70 21.20 25.00

In the version 2.0 of energy star program [2] also the power consumption of the power supply when it is no loaded is considered. The criteria to be compliant with are reported in table below:

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Testing the board

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Table 13.

Energy consumption criteria for no load


Maximum power in no load for AC-DC EPS < 0.3 watts < 0.5 watts

Nameplate output power (Pno)


0 to = 50 watt > 50 watts < 250 watts

Even if the energy star program does not have other requirement regarding Light Load performance, in order to give quite complete information we report the input power and efficiency of the demonstration board also in other two low load cases. Table 14 and Table 15 show the performances when the output load is 25 mW and 50 mW respectively.

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Table 14.
VIN_AC 90 115 230 265

Low load performance 25 mW of load


POUT (mW) 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 PIN (mW) 44.3 45.3 56.1 59.4 Eff. (%) 56.4 55.2 44.6 42.1 PIN-POUT (mW) 19.3 20.3 31.3 34.4

Table 15.
VIN_AC 90 115 230 265

Low load performance 50 mW of load


POUT (mW) 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 PIN (mW) 74.3 75.7 86.1 95.5 Eff. (%) 67.3 66.1 58.1 52.4 PIN-POUT (mW) 24.3 25.7 36.1 45.5

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The performance of the presented board are much better then required, the power consumption is about twelve times lower the energy star limit. Even if the performance seems to be un-proportionally better then requirement it is worth while to notice that often AC-Dc adapter or battery charger manufacturer have very strict requirement about no load consumption and in case of the converter is used as an auxiliary power supply in LCD TV, for example, the line filter is often the big line filter of the entire power supply that increase a lot the stand by consumption.

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Testing the board

3.5

Overload protection
VIPER17 has several protections and one of these is against over-load or output short circuit. If the load power demand increases the output voltage decrease, feedback loop reacts increasing the voltage on feedback pin. Feedback pin voltage increase leads to the PWM current set point increase, increasing the power delivered to the output until this power equals the load power. If the load power demand exceeds the converter power capability (That can be adjusted using RLIM) the voltage on feedback pin continuously rises but the power delivered does not raise more. When the feedback pin voltage exceeds VFB_lin (3.3 V Typ) VIPER17 assumes it as a warning for an overload event. Before shutdown the system the device waits for a time fixed by the capacitor present on feedback pin. In fact if the voltage on feedback pin exceeds VFB_lin the internal pull up is disconnected and the pin start sourcing a 3 A current that charge the capacitor connected to it. As the voltage on the feedback pin reaches the VFB_olp threshold (4.8 V Typ.) VIPER17 stops switching and is not allowed to switch again until the VDD voltage goes below VDD_RESTART (4.5 V Typ.) and rise again up to VDD_ON (14 V Typ.). The following waveform shows the behavior of the converter when the output is shorted. Figure 19. Output short circuit (VIN = 115 VAC, full load before the short)

Ch1: VOUT Ch2: VFB Ch4: IDRAIN

If the short circuit is not removed the system starts to work in auto-restart mode. The behavior, when a short circuit is permanently applied on the output is a short period of time where the MOSFET is switching and the converter tries to deliver to the output as much power it can, and a longer period where the device is not switching and no power is processed. The duty cycle of power delivery is very low (around 1.5 %) then the average power throughput is then very low (see Figure below).

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Testing the board Figure 20. Operation with output shorted (VIN = 115 VAC)

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Ch1: VDD Ch2: VFB Ch4: IDRAIN

3.6

Secondary winding short circuit protection


Viper17 is provided with a first adjustable level of primary over-current limitation that switches off the power MOSFET if this level is exceeded. This limitation acts cycle by cycle and its main purpose is to limit the maximum deliverable output power. A second level of primary over current protection is also present and In this case it is not adjustable, it is fixed to 600 mA (Typical value). If the Drain current exceeds this 2nd OCP (Second over current protection) threshold the device enter in a warning state. The next cycle the MOSFET is switched on, and if again the second level of over current protection is exceeded the device assumes that a secondary winding short circuit or a hard saturation of the transformer it is happening, at this point the MOSFET is no more allowed to be switched on and device stops operating. In order to enable the MOSFET to be switched on again the VDD voltage has to be recycled, that means: VDD has to go down up to VDD_RESTART, then rise up to VDD_ON. When the VIPER17 is switched on again (VDD equals VDD_ON) the MOSFET can restart to switch. If the cause of the 2nd over current protection activation is not removed the device goes in auto-restart mode. This protection was tested on the presented board. The secondary winding of the transformer was shorted, in different operating condition. Following figures shows the behavior of the system during these tests.

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Testing the board Figure 21. 2nd OCP protection tripping (VIN =115 VAC, full load before the short)

Ch2 = VFB Ch3 = VDRAIN Ch4 = IDRAIN


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In Figure 21 when the board is working in full load condition with an input voltage of 115 VAC the secondary winding was shorted. The short on secondary winding leads to high drain current, after two switching cycles, the system stops and continuous running with high currents in the primary as in the secondary windings, and through the power section of the Viper17 are avoided.
Figure 22. Operating with secondary winding shorted restart mode (VIN =115 VAC, full load before the short)

Ch1 = VDD Ch2 = VFB Ch4 = IDRAIN

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3.7

Output overvoltage protection


Monitoring the voltage across the auxiliary winding during the MOSFET off TIME, through the D2 diode and the resistor divider R3 and R14 (see schematic of Figure 2) connected to the CONT pin of the VIPER17, an output over-voltage protection is implemented. If the voltage on CONT pin exceeds the VOVP thresholds (3 V Typ.) an over voltage event is assumed and the device is not more allowed to switch. To re-enable operation the VDD voltage has to be recycled. In order to provide high noise immunity and avoid that spikes erroneously trip the protection, a digital filter was implemented so the CONT pin has to sense a voltage higher of VOVP for four consecutive cycles before stops operation.
Figure 23. OVP circuit
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A ux iliary w inding

Rlim (R2)

O VP D ETEC TIO N LO GI C F r om SenseF ET

To OVP Pr otection

The value of the output voltage when the protection has to be tripped can be fixed properly selecting the resistor divider R3 and R14. Being R3 selected considering the maximum power that the converter has to manage output R14 has to be selected according to the following formula. ROVP _(R14 ) = RLIM _(R2) NAUX N VOUT _ OVP Vdrop _ Dovp _(D 2 ) 3V 3V s

The protection was tested disconnecting the opto-coupler feedback pin and light loading the converter. In this way the converter operates in open loop and delivers to output the maximum power it can. The excess of power respect to the load charge the output capacitance increasing the output voltage since the OVP is tripped and the converter stops working. In Figure 24 it is possible to see that output voltage (Ch1, yellow waveform) increases and as it reaches the value of 6.6 V converter stop switching. In the same figure the CONT pin voltage (Ch3, fuchsia waveform) and the drain current (Ch4, green waveform) are reported. The crest value of the CONT pin voltage tracks the output voltage. In Figure 25 the detail of the last switching cycles before the protection is tripped are reported.

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To PWM Logic

D ov p (D 2)

R ov p ( R14)

CO NT PIN

C urr . Lim . BLO CK

Cur rent Limit C ompa rator

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Testing the board

Figure 24. OVP protection

Figure 25. OVP protection (detail)

It is possible do not implement this protection, if it is not necessary, not mounting diode D2 and resistor R14 reducing then the number of components.

3.8

EMI measurements
A pre-compliant tests to EN55022 (Class B) european normative was also performed and results are showed in the two figures below:

Figure 26. 115 VAC

Figure 27. 230 VAC

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Conclusions

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Conclusions
The issue of minimizing the power consumption of flyback converter when light loaded or in no load conditions was considered in this application note and some design guidelines were given. The advantages of using the new VIPER17L device in this matter were highlighted and a demonstration board optimized for stand-by consumption was presented. The measured performance were very good, in fact we were able to measure a no load input power of 25 mW at maximum line (265 VAC). Also the efficiency was good and compliant with EPA 2.0 external power supply requirement.

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References

References
[1] Cross regulation in flyback converter: analytic model (IEEE 1999) [2] ENERGY STAR program requirements for single voltage external AC-DC adapter (Version 2.0) [3] VIPER17 datasheet

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Revision history

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Revision history
Table 16.
Date 16-Mar-2009

Document revision history


Revision 1 Initial release Changes

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