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Athermal transformation Bainite Coarse pearlite Fine pearlite Isothermal transformation diagram Kinetics Martensite Nucleation Phase transformation

Plain carbon steel Spheroidite Super cooling Super heating Tempered martensite Thermally activated transformation Transformation rate

1. Alloy steel Baja paduan adalah baja yang dicampur dengan berbagai elemen dalam jumlah total antara 1,0% dan 50% berat untuk meningkatkan sifat mekanik. Baja paduan dipecah menjadi dua kelompok: rendah paduan baja dan baja paduan tinggi. Perbedaan antara keduanya adalah agak sewenang-wenang:.. Smith dan Hashemi menentukan perbedaan sebesar 4,0%, sedangkan DeGarmo, et al, mendefinisikan itu pada 8,0% [1] [2] Paling umum, frase "baja paduan" mengacu rendah -paduan baja. Setiap baja paduan benar-benar, tapi tidak semua baja yang disebut "baja paduan". Bahkan yang paling sederhana adalah baja besi (Fe) (sekitar 99%) paduan dengan karbon (C) (sekitar 0,1% sampai 1%, tergantung pada jenis). Namun, "baja paduan" adalah istilah yang mengacu pada standar baja paduan dengan unsur-unsur lain selain karbon. Alloyants umum termasuk nikel mangan (yang paling umum),, kromium, molibdenum, vanadium, silikon, dan boron. Alloyants kurang umum termasuk aluminium, kobalt, tembaga, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, timah, seng, timah, dan zirkonium. Berikut ini adalah berbagai sifat yang lebih baik pada baja paduan (dibandingkan dengan baja karbon): kekuatan, kekerasan, ketangguhan, ketahanan aus, ketahanan korosi pengerasan, dan panas kekerasan. Untuk mencapai beberapa sifat yang lebih baik logam mungkin memerlukan mengobati panas. Beberapa menemukan menggunakan dalam aplikasi eksotis dan sangat-menuntut, seperti dalam bilah turbin mesin jet, di pesawat ruang angkasa, dan dalam reaktor nuklir. Karena sifat feromagnetik dari besi, baja paduan beberapa menemukan aplikasi penting di mana respons mereka terhadap magnetisme sangat penting, termasuk dalam motor listrik dan transformator. Rendah paduan baja biasanya digunakan untuk mencapai hardenability lebih baik, yang pada gilirannya meningkatkan sifat lain yang tidak begitu baik. Mereka juga digunakan untuk meningkatkan ketahanan korosi dalam kondisi lingkungan tertentu. [3] Dengan media untuk tingkat karbon tinggi, rendah paduan baja sulit untuk mengelas. Menurunkan kadar karbon ke kisaran 0,10% sampai 0,30%, bersama dengan beberapa pengurangan elemen paduan, meningkatkan mampu las dan sifat mampu bentuk baja sambil mempertahankan kekuatannya. Seperti logam digolongkan sebagai kekuatan tinggi-rendah-paduan baja. Beberapa baja paduan umum rendah: Anda ass

300M 256A

B. BAJA PADUAN Baja paduan biasanya mempunyai kekurangan-kekurangan di antaranya,yaitu kekerasanya tidak dapat merata atau kemampuan pengersanya kurang baik .

1. Komposisi baja paduan Baja paduan rendah adalah yang menganudng unsur paduan di bawah 10%.sedangkan baja paduan yang tinggi mengandung unsur paduan di atas 10%.Baja paduan rendah dapat di bagi 2 menjadi -Baja Paduan Rendah Kekuatan Tinggi -baja paduan biasa 2.Pengaruh unsur paduan sifat baja Baja paduan rendah kekuatan tinggi mempunyai sifat mekanisdan taha korosi yang tinggi dari pada baja paduan rendah biasa,paduan silisium,mangan,nikel dan molibden,5% akan membentuk larutan padat dengan ferit,sehiingga menambah kekuatan baja. 3.Jenis-jenis baja paduan A .BAJA PERKAKAS B. BAJA SPECIAL KHUSUS C. BAJA TAHAN KARAT D.BAJA TAHAN PANAS E. BAJA MESIN 2. Bainite Bainite is an acicular microstructure (not a phase) that forms in steels at temperatures of 250 550 C (depending on alloy content).[1] First described by E. S. Davenport and Edgar Bain, it is one of the decomposition products that may form when austenite (the face centered cubic crystal structure of iron) is cooled past a critical temperature of 727 C (1340 F). Davenport and Bain originally described the microstructure as being similar in appearance to tempered martensite. A fine non-lamellar structure, bainite commonly consists of cementite and dislocation-rich ferrite. The high concentration of dislocations in the ferrite present in bainite makes this ferrite harder than it normally would be.[2] The temperature range for transformation to bainite (250550 C) is between those for pearlite and martensite. When formed during continuous cooling, the cooling rate to form bainite is more rapid than that required to form pearlite, but less rapid than is required to form martensite (in steels of the same composition). Most alloying elements will lower the temperature required for the maximum rate of formation of bainite, though carbon is the most effective in doing so.[1] The microstructures of martensite and bainite at first seem quite similar. This is a consequence of the two microstructures sharing many aspects of their transformation mechanisms. However, morphological differences do exist that require a TEM to see. Under a light microscope, the microstructure of bainite appears darker than martensite due to its low reflectivity.

Bainite is an intermediate of pearlite and martensite in terms of hardness. For this reason, the bainitic microstructure becomes useful in that no additional heat treatments are required after initial cooling to achieve a hardness value between that of pearlitic and martensitic steels. At 900 C a typical low-carbon steel is composed entirely of austenite, the high temperature phase of iron. Below around 700 C (723 C in pure iron) the austenite is thermodynamically unstable and, under equilibrium conditions, it will undergo a eutectoid reaction and form pearlite an interleaved mixture of ferrite and cementite (Fe3C). In addition to the thermodynamic considerations indicated by the phase diagram, the phase transformations in steel are heavily influenced by the chemical kinetics. This leads to the complexity of steel microstructures which are a strongly influenced by the cooling rate. This can be illustrated by a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram which plots the time required to form a phase when a sample is cooled at a specific rate thus showing regions in time-temperature space from which the expected phase fractions can be deduced for a given thermal cycle. If the steel is cooled slowly the transformation will agree with the equilibrium predictions and pearlite will dominate the microstructure with some fraction of proeutectoid ferrite or cementite depending on the chemical composition. However, the transformation from austenite to pearlite is a time-dependent reconstructive reaction which requires the large scale movement of the iron and carbon atoms. While the interstitial carbon diffuses readily even at moderate temperatures the self-diffusion of iron becomes extremely slow at temperatures below 600 C until, for all practical purposes, it stops. As a consequence a rapidly cooled steel may reach a temperature where pearlite can no longer form despite the reaction being incomplete and the remaining austenite being thermodynamically unstable. Austenite that is cooled very rapidly can form martensite, without any diffusion of either iron or carbon, by the shear of the austenite's face-centered crystal structure into a distorted body-centered tetragonal structure. This nonequilibrium phase can only form at low temperatures, where the driving force for the reaction is sufficient to overcome the considerable lattice strain imposed by the transformation. The transformation is essentially timeindependent with the phase fraction depending only the degree of cooling below the critical martensite start temperature.[6] Further, it occurs without the diffusion of either substitutional or interstitial atoms and so martensite inherits the composition of the parent austenite. Bainite occupies a region between these two process in a temperature range where iron self-diffusion is limited but there is insufficient driving force to form martensite. In contrast to pearlite, where the ferrite and cementite grow cooperatively, bainite forms by the transformation of carbon-supersaturated ferrite with the subsequent diffusion of carbon and the precipitation of carbides. A further distinction is often made between so-called lower-bainite, which forms at temperatures closer to the martensite start temperature, and upper-bainite which forms at higher temperatures. This distinction arises from the diffusion rates of carbon at the temperature at which the bainite is forming. If the temperature is high then the carbon will diffuse rapidly away from the newly formed ferrite and form carbides in the carbon-enriched residual austenite between the ferritic plates leaving them carbide-free. At low temperatures the carbon will diffuse more sluggishly and may precipitate before it can leave the bainitic ferrite. There is some controversy over the specifics of bainite's transformation mechanism; both theories are represented below. 3. Nucleation Nucleation is the extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase. Some examples of phases that may form by way of nucleation in liquids are gaseous bubbles, crystals or glassy regions. Creation of liquid droplets in saturated vapor is also characterized by nucleation (see Cloud condensation nuclei). Nucleation of crystalline, amorphous and even vacancy clusters solid materials is also important, for example to the semiconductor industry. Most nucleation processes are physical, rather than chemical, but a few exceptions do exist (e.g. electrochemical nucleation). A good example would be the famous Diet Coke and Mentos eruption. Nucleation normally occurs at nucleation sites on surfaces contacting the liquid or vapor. Suspended particles or minute bubbles also provide nucleation sites. This is called heterogeneous nucleation. Nucleation without preferential nucleation sites is homogeneous nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously and randomly, but it requires superheating or

supercooling of the medium. Nucleation is involved in such processes as cloud seeding and in instruments such as the bubble chamber and the cloud chamber. Heterogeneous nucleation Heterogeneous nucleation occurs much more often than homogeneous nucleation. It forms at preferential sites such as phase boundaries or impurities like dust and requires less energy than homogeneous nucleation. At such preferential sites, the effective surface energy is lower, thus diminishing the free energy barrier and facilitating nucleation. Surfaces promote nucleation because of wetting contact angles greater than zero between phases encourage particles to nucleate. 4. Spheroidite Spheroidite is a microstructure found in steel alloys consisting of sphere-like cementite particles within an -ferrite matrix. It is produced by an appropriate elevated-temperature heat treatment of pearlite, bainite, or martensite[1]. The process of spheroidization can be further explained and described by Rayleigh's perturbation theory and fault migration theory. Spheroidite is relative soft and tough, because the structural damage caused by a crack is contained by minimizing the brittle cementite particles and maximizing the ductile ferrite matrix. The purpose of spheroidization is to increase the workability of high carbon steel, as spheroidite is known as the most ductile form of steel. However,due to high ductility and energyconsuming production process, spheroidite is relatively insignificant in engineering application. Spheroidite can be produced by heating a pearlitic or bainitic microstructure to and leaving at a temperature below the eutectoid for a sufficiently long period of timefor example, at about 700C (1300F) for between 18 and 24 hours. Instead of the alternating ferrite and cementite lamellae (pearlite) or the microstructure observed for bainite, the Fe3C phase would transform into sphere-like particles embedded in a continuous -phase matrix. This transformation is driven by additional carbon diffusion with no change in the compositions or relative amount of ferrite and cementite phase. The driving force for this transformation is the reduction in -Fe3C phase boundary area. The kinetics of spheroidite formation are not included on isothermal transformation[2]. Medium-carbon and high-carbon steels with microstructure containing even coarse pearlite may still be too hard to conveniently machine or plastically deform. These steels, and in fact any steel, may be heat-treated or annealed to develop the spheroidite structure. Spheroidized steels have a maximum softness and ductility and are easily machined or deformed. The spheroidizing heat treatment, during which there is a coalescence of the Fe 3C to form the spheroid particles, can take place by several methods, as follows: [3] Heating the alloy to a temperature just below the eutectoid in the + Fe 3C system. If the precursor microstructure contains pearlite, spheroidizing times will ordinarily range between 15 and 25 hours. Heating to a temperature just above the eutectoid temperature, and then either cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at the same temperature. Heating and cooling alternately within about 50C (122F) of the eutectoid temperature.

To some degree, the rate at which spheroidite forms depends on prior microstructure. For example, it is slowest for pearlite, and the finer the pearlite, the more rapid the reate. Also, prior cold work increases the spheroidizing reaction rate 5. Supercooling Supercooling, also known as undercooling,[1] is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid. A liquid below its standard freezing point will crystallize in the presence of a seed crystal or nucleus around which a crystal structure can form creating a solid. However, lacking any such nuclei, the liquid

phase can be maintained all the way down to the temperature at which crystal homogeneous nucleation occurs. Homogeneous nucleation can occur above the glass transition temperature, but if homogenous nucleation has not occurred above that temperature an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid will form. Water normally freezes at 273.15 K (0 C or 32 F) however it can also be "supercooled" at standard pressure down to its crystal homogeneous nucleation at almost 224.8 K (48.3 C/55 F).[2][3] The process of supercooling requires that water be pure and free of nucleation sites, which can be achieved by processes like reverse osmosis, but the cooling itself does not require any specialised technique. If water is cooled at a rate on the order of 106 K/s, the crystal nucleation can be avoided and water becomes a glass. Its glass transition temperature is much colder and harder to determine, but studies estimate it at about 165 K (108 C/162.4 F).[4] Glassy water can be heated up to approximately 150 K (123 C/189.4 F).[3] In the range of temperatures between 231 K (42 C/43.6 F) and 150 K (123 C/189.4 F) experiments find only crystal ice. Droplets of supercooled water often exist in stratiform and cumulus clouds. Aircraft flying through these clouds seed an abrupt crystallization of these droplets, which can result in the formation of ice on the aircraft's wings or blockage of its instruments and probes, unless the aircraft are equipped with an appropriate de-icing system. Freezing rain is also caused by supercooled droplets. The process opposite to supercooling, the melting of a solid above the freezing point, is much more difficult, and a solid will almost always melt at the same temperature for a given pressure. For this reason, it is the melting point which is usually identified, using melting point apparatus; even when the subject of a paper is "freezing-point determination", the actual methodology is "the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice".[5] It is, however, possible, at a given pressure to superheat a liquid above its boiling point without it becoming gaseous. Supercooling is often confused with freezing-point depression. Supercooling is the cooling of a liquid below its freezing point without it becoming solid. Freezing point depression is when a solution can be cooled below the freezing point of the corresponding pure liquid due to the presence of the solute; an example of this is the freezing point depression that occurs when sodium chloride is added to pure water. 6. Superheating In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites, while taking care not to disturb the liquid. Thermally activated transformation The thermally activated, stress-assisted martensitic tetragonal monoclinic (tm) and tetragonal orthorhombic (to) transformations in a high-toughness Mg-PSZ were investigated by monitoring the phase assemblage with Raman spectroscopy after a variety of heat treatments and loading conditions. After a short anneal at 1000C, which transforms m- and o-ZrO2 to the t polymorph, isothermal tm and to transformations occur at room temperature during the months following the anneal. The transformation rates in the annealed samples are greatly enhanced under external stress. Alternatively, samples containing regions of significant residual stress, introduced by indentation for example, and then annealed at relatively low temperatures, underwent additional thermally activated transformation in the stressed regions. The thermodynamics and kinetics of this complex transformation plasticity, and its effect on mechanical properties, are discussed.

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