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Background study and findings

1.Understanding the basic routing and routing algorithms We studied the routing architecture and looked into different algorithms that are used to implement routing. In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router's memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. In a practice known as static routing (or non-adaptive routing), small networks may use manually configured routing tables. Larger networks have complex topologies that can change rapidly, making the manual construction of routing tables unfeasible. Nevertheless, most of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) uses pre-computed routing tables, with fallback routes if the most direct route becomes blocked (see routing in the PSTN). Adaptive routing, or dynamic routing, attempts to solve this problem by constructing routing tables automatically, based on information carried by routing protocols, allowing the network to act nearly autonomously in avoiding network failures and blockages. Examples of adaptive-routing algorithms are the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the OpenShortest-Path-First protocol (OSPF). We worked on RIP in the current phase

2. Linux kernel network interface


A network interface must register itself in specific data structures in order to be invoked when packets are exchanged with the outside world. Network drivers also have to be prepared to support a number of administrative tasks, such as setting addresses, modifying transmission parameters, and maintaining traffic and error statistics. The API for network drivers reflects this need, and thus looks somewhat different from the interfaces we have seen so far.

3.Routing information protocol


RIP is a classical distance vector routing protocol that uses hop count as its metric for determining the best route to a given destination. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. These are some of the stability features of RIP RIP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its transport protocol, and is assigned the reserved port number 520.