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# 17

r chapters; th
Figure 3.1).
Figure 3.2
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18 Industrial Process Sensors
section 3.4.6).
Compression
Waves
Figure 3.1 Te ringing of a mechanical bell creates sound waves.
0 ms
0.73 ms
1.47 ms
2.21 ms
2.94 ms
P(x)
P(x)
P(x)
P(x)
P(x)
0 1 2 Meters
Figure 3.2 Te propagation of pressure waves through air, shown at fve diferent instants in
time. Te dots represent molecules of air, which move forward and backward along the direction
of propagation. Te local compression of air molecules causes variations in the pressure P(x),
which is shown as a function of position x.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 19
see chapter 4)
section 3.4.3)
Figure 3.4.
f
T

1
(a)
( b)
Figure 3.3 Two types of wave: (a) longitudi-
nal; (b) transverse.
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20 Industrial Process Sensors
T
(a)
(b)

Time Axis
Position Axis
A
Peak-to-Peak Amplitude
Figure 3.4 A continuous wave at a single frequency: (a) the time dependence of a wave mea-
sured at a fxed point; the amplitude A and the peak-to-peak amplitudes are shown; the period
T is the time interval between zero crossings at the axis (or equivalently, the interval between
any two successive points of the wave that have the same phase); (b) Te position dependence of
a wave at a single instant in time; the wavelength is the distance between zero crossings at the
axis (or equivalently, the distance between any two successive points of the wave that have the
same phase).
Continuous Wave (CW)
Pulse
Tone Burst
Asymmetric Pulse
Figure 3.5 Four varieties of wave shape, as discussed in the text.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 21
in chapter 8.
section 3.6)

2
2 2
2
2
1
x c t

_
,

( , ) sin( ) x t A kx t +
( , ) sin( ) x t A kx t + +
c
k

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22 Industrial Process Sensors

2
2
f
T
k
2

c f

( , )
( )
x t e
i kx t

+
e i
i
+ cos sin

( ) ( )
( )
t A e e d
i i t

1
2
A e t e d
i i t
( ) ( )
( )

1
2
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 23
It should be evident that the wave shapes shown in Figure 3.5 can be transformed into
Fourier components using equation 3.11; since each of the components is a solution of
the wave equation, it follows that these other wave shapes are also solutions of the wave
equation.
c
k
g

## sed in chapter 8).

z c
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24 Industrial Process Sensors
c
n
n
c
2
1
2
1

_
,

2
2
1
1

_
,

n
n
sin sin
2
1
2
1

n
n

1

1

2
n
1
n
2
Nodes
Antinodes
3
Beat
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f )
Figure 3.6 Generic wave phenomena: (a) refection and refraction; (b) the superposition of two
colliding waves; (c) the interference of two waves (the dotted and dashed lines) causes cancellation
(solid line) at this moment in time; (d) a standing wave; (e) the beat signal caused by combining
two signals of diferent frequencies (as in heterodyning); (f) the resonance of a cavity.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 25

c
n
n

_
,

arcsin
2
1
+
1 2
sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) [ sin( kx t kx t kx t kx + + + t)] 0
sin( ) sin( ) cos sin kx t kx t kx + +

_
,

+

2
2
tt +

_
,

2
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26 Industrial Process Sensors
sin( ) sin( ) sin si

1 2
1 2
2
2
t t t +

_
,

1
]
1
nn

1 2
2
+

_
,

1
]
1
t
A B
Figure 3.7 Two speakers that emit the same tone create an interference pattern that includes
dead zones in which the sound is reduced.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 27
f
c c
cT v T
c
c v T
c
c v
d
d s s s

_
,

_
,

( )
1

_
,

f
s
A B C
Wavefronts
Figure 3.8 A Doppler shif caused by motion of the source A moving away from observer B and
toward observer C.
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28 Industrial Process Sensors
f
c v
c v
f
d
d
s
s

_
,

f
c v
c v
f
d
d
s
s

_
,

f f
d s

_
,

1
1

f f
c v
c
f
d s s

_
,

( ) 1
f f
d s
1
2

## 44168_C003.indd 28 10/3/07 10:45:17 AM

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Sound and Wave Phenomena 29
Nodal Line
Beam
Diracted
Beam
Aperture
Incident
Wave
Huygens
Waves
Figure 3.9 Difraction of a wave by an aperture. Wave fronts are represented by solid lines,
and troughs are represented by dashed lines. Many of the Huygens waves have been omitted for
clarity.
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30 Industrial Process Sensors
Wavefronts
Huygens Waves
Direction of
Propagation
Figure 3.10 Reconstruction of wavefronts by Huygens waves.
Angle
Intensity
Figure 3.11 A representative polar plot. Te
solid line represents the intensity of the wave as
a function of angle.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 31
P
A A
( )

_
,

dP
d
0
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32 Industrial Process Sensors
A A A + x x x
x

0 0
( ) ( )
(
A A A
A
x x x
x
+ +

_
,

AA A
A A A A + + + x x x
x
x
x
) ( ) ( )

0 0
+ + +

0 0 0 A A
( )
x x

A A
+ ( )
0 0
x x
x
(x, t)
(x + x, t)
x
Figure 3.12 Te volume element of air used
in the derivation of the wave equation for sound.
Te dimension along the x axis is greatly exag-
gerated for clarity.
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Sound and Wave Phenomena 33
A A A
A
P
P
x
x
P
x
x

( ) ( )

0
2
2
( ) ( ) A A
A
x
t
P
x
x

0
2
2
0
t
P
x x x x

_
,

A A

0
2
2
x

2
2 2
2
2
1
x c t

_
,