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EEET2369 Signals and Systems


Introduction to Signals and Systems
Lecturer: Dr Katrina Neville
RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems 2
Lecturer Information
Course coordinator:
Dr Katrina Neville
E-mail: katrina.neville@rmit.edu.au
Location: 10.07.09
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Assumed Knowledge
Its recommended that you have successfully completed
EEET2248 Engineering Methods (or an equivalent course)
before attempting this course.
This course assumes that you have:
The ability to solve basic algebraic equations and sets of linear
equations
Competence in basic integral and differential calculus and
differential equations
Competence in the use of MATLAB for basic programming
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Assumed Knowledge
If you have not successfully completed EEET2248 or feel you
are weak in these areas, please make use of the study
resources offered by RMIT:
The Study and Learning Centre (SLC) offers maths drop-in
sessions, advice on report writing and exam preparation.
SLC is located at 12.04.20 (opposite the Hub)
Learning Lab (online): http://emedia.rmit.edu.au/learninglab/
Spend some time becoming familiar with MATLAB. A good
book to get you started is:
W. J. Palm III, Introduction to MATLAB for Engineers, New York: McGraw Hill,
2011.
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Course Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to:
Apply time and frequency domain analysis techniques to different
signals and systems
Classify signals and systems as discrete/continuous, linear/
nonlinear, causal/non-causal, time-variant/invariant, etc.
Select and utilise appropriate methods for basic signal processing
applications
Design basic system simulations in MATLAB
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Course Topics
The topics covered in this course include:
Complex exponentials and sinusoids
Time- and frequency-domains of signals
Sampling and reconstruction of signals
FIR and IIR filter design and analysis
Impulse responses, frequency responses and transfer functions of
systems
Introduction to continuous-time signals and systems
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Course Outline: Assessment
Laboratories (5) (30%)
6% for each laboratory report
Assignments (20%)
Examination (50%)
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Laboratory work
Experiment 1: Introduction to MATLAB (Weeks 2 & 3)
Experiment 2: Chirps and Beat notes (Weeks 4 & 5)
Experiment 3: Sampling and reconstruction (Weeks 6 & 7)
Experiment 4: FIR and IIR Filters (Weeks 8 & 9)
Experiment 5: Applications of Filters (Weeks 10 & 11)
Lab experiments are conducted in groups of up to 4 students.
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Laboratory and Tutorial Start Dates
Labs and tutorials start next week (week 2).
Experiment 1: Introduction to MATLAB
Reviews some of the material covered in EEET2248 Engineering
Methods.
Focuses more on the skills needed for Signals and Systems.
Make sure you are correctly timetabled into your lab and
tutorial classes before then.
If you havent timetabled into a lab/tute class go to:
http://sts.rmit.edu.au/STS
If you have any problems with timetabling e-mail:
sece@rmit.edu.au
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Assignments
There are two assignments this semester each worth 10%.
They will cover the topics
Signals and spectra
Filters
These assignments will be assessed on your ability to
communicate your comprehension and understanding of the
concepts covered in this course.
To get a HD for these assignments its expected you will be
able to clearly explain what is happening and why its
happening.
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Overview of Learning Resources
Course material (i.e. lecture slides, tutorials, lab experiments,
etc) are available via myRMIT Studies.
As the lectures are heavily based around the following
prescribed text, it is highly recommended that you purchase
this textbook from the RMIT bookshop.
This book contains a CD with worked solutions and useful
experimental tasks to help further your knowledge in the area.
J. H. McClellan, R. W. Schafer and M. A. Yoder, Signal
Processing First, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006.
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myRMIT Studies
MyRMIT Studies (Blackboard) can be accessed by logging into
the system via the site: http://my.rmit.edu.au and clicking on
the link to Studies.
You will find material related to lectures, labs and tutorials on
myRMIT Studies as well as staff contact details and updates on
important dates.
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Lecture Overview
This lecture will introduce the basic concepts behind signals
and systems.
We will start by considering different types of signals and
systems and see some examples of these.
The second part of the lecture will review sinusoidal signals,
how to interpret them and how we can represent these signals
to help with analysis of signals and systems.
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Introduction to Signals and Systems
The main aim of this course is to introduce the basic concepts
behind signal processing.
Signal processing is a vast area and has many applications in
the Electronic and Communication Engineering disciplines.
Signal processing can be broken down into two main areas;
digital signal processing and analogue signal processing.
This course will consider:
How we can obtain different types of signals
How are signals mathematically represented
What sorts of manipulations can we do to these signals, and
What systems can we design and utilise to process these
signals
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RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems
What are signals?
Write down what you think a signal is.
Write down some examples of signals that you can think of.
Discuss with people around you if youd like.
RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems
Analogue (Continuous) Signals
There are three main types of signals that we will look at this
semester; analogue, discrete and digital.
Most signals are originally in the form of analogue signals,
they are continuous in both time and amplitude.
Examples of continuous time/amplitude signals are: voice,
music and video.
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RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems
Discrete-Time Signals
Discrete-time signals are often obtained by sampling an
analogue signal at set time instances.
Discrete-time signals are still continuous in amplitude but now
are only defined at certain time instants.
These types of signals are used in some communication
systems where multiple signals are transmitted during different
clock periods.
RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems
Digital Signals
Digital signals are discrete in
both time and amplitude and
are represented as
sequences of 1s and 0s.
They are obtained by
sampling an analogue signal
(making it discrete in time),
quantising (making it
discrete in amplitude) and
encoding (assigning a binary
value to the samples).
Digital audio, video and
images are examples of
digital signals.
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RMIT University2013 EEET2369 Signals and Systems
What are Systems?
Write down what you think a system is.
Write down some examples of systems that you can think of.
Discuss with people around you if youd like.
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Analogue Systems
Analogue systems are designed to process continuous
(analogue) signals.
Apart from mechanical systems, analogue systems have been
around the longest.
In Circuit Theory in first year we looked at simple analogue
systems made up of devices such as diodes, resistors,
capacitors, inductors, etc.
A simple, passive low-pass filter (RLC configuration)
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Digital Systems
Digital systems have become very popular since the 1970s
when digital computing started to become more common.
Digital systems process ones and zeros that have often been
generated from sampling and quantising an analogue signal.
Microprocessors are common systems used in digital signal
processing, these devices are often programmed to perform
appropriate operations on a digital signal.
Image from Texas Instruments website: http://www.ti.com/tool/tmdxevm6670
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Mathematical Representation of Signals and Systems
Some common terms to mathematically represent signals and
systems are given:
: for analogue signals and systems the bracketed (t) is
conventionally used to represent continuous-time.
: the square bracketed [n] is also a convention used to
represent discrete-time and will be commonly seen when
considering discrete-time signals and systems.
is another term used to say that an output signal
is obtained by passing the input signal, though some system
with a time-domain response, (see figure).
) (t x
] [n x
)} ( { ) ( t x T t y = ) (t y
{} T
) (t x
Output
) ( t y
Input
) (t x
System,
{ } ) ( ) ( t x T t y =
{} T
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Review of Sinusoids
Sinusoidal signals are one of the simplest types of signals to
analyse.
The next part of this lecture will recap sinusoidal signals and
look at some of the useful identities to help in examining them.
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Sinusoidal Signals
The general formula for a co-sinusoidal waveform is given as:
Similarly for a sinusoid the general formula is given as:
For both these signals represents the amplitude of the
waveforms, i.e. the waveform will oscillate between .
is the radian frequency. Radian frequency is found from
the frequency in Hertz by multiplying by .
Therefore: .
Finally is the phase shift of the waveform, or where in the
cycle the waveform will begin. In signal processing this is also
represented in radians.

) cos( ) (
0
+ = t A t x
A
) sin( ) (
0
+ = t A t x
2
rad/sec 2
0 0
f =
Hz
0
f
A
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Trigonometric Identities
The following trigonometric identities are often used to simplify
mathematical representations of sine and cosine signals to aid
in analysis.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
) ( sin ) ( cos ) 2 cos(
2 2
=
1 ) ( cos ) ( sin
2 2
= +
) cos( ) sin( 2 ) 2 sin( =
) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin( ) sin( b a b a b a =
) sin( ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) cos( b a b a b a m =
( ) ) 2 cos( 1
2
1
) ( cos
2
+ =
( ) ) 2 cos( 1
2
1
) ( sin
2
=
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Example 2-1: Plotting Sinusoids
Plot the function:
What is the amplitude?
What is the frequency?
A single period of this waveform is?
And what is its phase-shift? (in radians and degrees):
] 4 . 0 ) 40 ( 2 cos[ 20 ) ( = t t x
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So far.
So far we have looked at the classification of signals and
systems and seen some examples of these.
Weve also reviewed sinusoidal signals and the parameters
that define the phase, frequency and amplitudes of sinusoids.
In the next part of this lecture we will look at some of the
manipulations that can be performed on signals, how to
mathematically represent these and how these manipulations
can be recognised from the signals mathematical form.
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Manipulation of Signals
Its good to be able to identify certain manipulations to a base
signal function by observing changes to its mathematical form.
Changes to a signal can easily be identified by observing the
mathematical function that defines a signal.
Changes to time-delay/phase, amplitude, frequency (in periodic
functions) or dilation/contraction can easily be identified from
observations about the function.
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Time-Shifting Signals
In the sinusoid example we saw a phase-shift of a sine wave
will give some sort of time-shift in either the positive or negative
time direction.
There are some basic rules for time-shifting that apply to all
signals and will be used a great deal this semester.
Lets consider a simple square pulse:


=
elsewhere , 0
2 t 0 , 1
) (t x
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Time-Shifting Signals
What will look like? ) 3 ( + t x ) 2 ( t x What will look like?
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Time-Shifting Signals (cont)
What will look like? ) 3 ( + t x ) 2 ( t x What will look like?


=
elsewhere , 0
4 t 2 , 1
) 2 (t x


= +
elsewhere , 0
1 t 3 - , 1
) 3 (t x
What general rule can we apply here?
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Relating Phase-Shift (in Periodic Functions) to Time-Shift
For the previous sinusoid example:
we can use the rules for time-shifting a signal to say this is the
same as: .
i.e.
In general, to relate phase-shift to time-shift we can use:
] 4 . 0 ) 40 ( 2 cos[ 20 ) ( = t t x
)] 005 . 0 )( 40 . 2 cos[( 20 ) ( = t t x
A time-shift of 0.005 sec
in the +ve direction
original as same ] 4 . 0 ) 40 ( 2 cos[ 20 ) (
)] 2 . 0 ( 2 ) 40 ( 2 cos[ 20 ) (
)] 005 . 0 ( 40 2 40 2 cos[ 20 ) (
)] 005 . 0 )( 40 . 2 cos[( 20 ) (


=
=
=
=
t t x
t t x
t t x
t t x
0
2 f
T

=
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Time-Flipping Signals
What will look like? What will look like? ) 3 ( t x ) ( t x
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What will look like?
Time-Flipping Signals (cont)
What will look like? ) 3 ( t x ) ( t x


=
elsewhere , 0
3 t 1 , 1
) 3 ( t x


=
elsewhere , 0
0 t 2 - , 1
) ( t x
What general rule can we apply here?
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Time-Scaling of Signals
What will look like? And finally ? ( ) 2 / t x ) 3 ( t x
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What will look like?
Time-Scaling of Signals (cont)
What will look like? ( ) 2 / t x ) 3 ( t x


=
elsewhere , 0
4 t 0 , 1
) 2 / (t x
What general rule can we apply here?


=
elsewhere , 0
667 . 0 t 0 , 1
) 3 ( t x
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Time-Scaling of Signals (cont)
Discuss if this rule would still apply for periodic functions.
What would you predict will occur when applying this to
periodic functions?
Write down your predictions. Speak to people near you if youd
like.
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Unit step function (a.k.a. Heaviside step function): this
function is often used to help define signals that begin at a
certain time and stay on for an infinite duration after that
specified time.

<

= =
0 t , 0
0 , 1
) ( ) (
t
t u t x
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Real exponent:
Where is a real number
(either positive or negative)
a
at
e t x = ) (
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Rectangular pulse:
Where T is the width of the rectangular pulse and A is the
amplitude of the pulse.
(

\
|
|

\
|
+ = = T t u T t u A t A t x
T
2
1
2
1
) ( ) (
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Impulse function (a.k.a. Dirac delta function):
One of the most important functions in signal processing.
Properties include:
At t = 0 sec the amplitude of a delta function is infinite:
The area under a delta function is always unity:
)
`

=
= =
elsewhere , 0
0 t ,
) ( ) ( t t x
= ) 0 (
Function only
defined at
time = 0 sec


=1 ) ( dt t
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Impulse function continued:
The impulse function is a theoretical function; It cannot be
realised in a practical situation!
It would be impossible to produce a real signal that is infinitely
tall and infinitely narrow.
Some approximations of an impulse function include a very
narrow, weighted square pulse or a weighted triangle pulse.
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Why are these impulse approximations weighted?
Consider the Dirac Delta property when answering
this.


=1 ) ( dt t
Why 1/(2a)?? Why 1/a??
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Other Common Signals (Briefly)
Ramp function: The ramp function starts at and
monotonically increases in amplitude when .

<

=
0 t , 0
0 ,
) (
t t
t x
sec 0 = t
sec 0 t
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Readings for next week
For next week its highly recommended that you read the
following sections in the McClellan textbook (Signal Processing
First):
Complex exponentials and phasors (sections 2-5 to 2-6)
Introduction to spectra (section 3-1)
E-mail me if you have any questions
about this reading and I will make
sure your issues are addressed next
lecture:
katrina.neville@rmit.edu.au
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Finally
This lecture has given an introduction to signals and systems.
We have looked at the definitions of signals and systems and
looked at examples of commonly used signals and systems.
The concept of analogue, digital and discrete-time have been
introduced.
In the second part of the lecture we looked at some basic
manipulations of signals and how we can mathematically
represent these manipulations.
Finally we were introduced to some common signals that will
often appear in the signal processing field.