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3 Units of work: Grades 10 to 12 Advanced

About the units


Each teaching unit focuses on a group of standards. It outlines what teachers should teach, and how. It also indicates the approximate time that it would take to teach the work.

The left-hand column shows supporting standards that will help students who learn more slowly to consolidate what they know, understand and can do. Some of the supporting standards may be standards for the relevant grade and some may have been drawn from the previous grade. The right-hand column shows extension standards that challenge more able students and extend what they know, understand and can do. Some of the extension standards may be standards for the relevant grade and some may have been drawn from the subsequent grade.

The standards are translated into more detailed teaching objectives and listed in the left-hand columns of the subsequent pages. These objectives are written for teachers, but could be adapted and given to students as the objectives of a lesson or sequence of lessons.

The remaining pages of the unit


Each unit then describes briefly: teaching and learning activities, showing: how teachers can present the topic to students; what activities students can do to develop or consolidate the relevant knowledge, understanding and skills; suitable activities through which students can demonstrate their learning during and at the end of a topic.

The title page


Each unit has a title page that gives: basic information about the unit; expectations summarising what students should achieve by the end of the unit; the main resources that will support the work in the unit (excluding textbooks and other learning resources that vary from school to school); the key language focus and vocabulary that students need to know and use.

The expectations on the title page can be used to review progress and check whether students are ready to move on to the next unit. They also provide a framework for giving feedback to students or reporting to parents.

Space is left in each unit for teachers to add their own notes about which of the schools learning resources can best support students work during the unit, including relevant parts of workbooks or textbooks for students and ICT resources, such as an interactive whiteboard.

Number of units and teaching time


The units are designed to cover approximately two to three weeks work for 30 weeks in a teaching year, leaving some time available for revision and preparation for the national tests. However, there is flexibility for teachers to decide how much time they need to spend on each unit or individual topic, bearing in mind the learning needs of their students and the need to cover the units over the course of the year. In general, the units and the topics in each unit are designed to be cumulative to cover the relevant standards and to
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Standards for the unit


The second page of each unit shows the standards which are covered in the unit. These are based on the standards and are set out in three columns. The centre column contains the relevant standards for the grade. These include all the relevant key standards and should be taught to all students.

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recycle skills and vocabulary systematically. Teachers will need to make their own professional judgement about how this sequence might be varied bearing in mind their students' needs. In each grade, objectives from previous grades should be recycled and practised. Wherever possible, these have been incorporated into the teaching activities for subsequent grades. It is important that teachers are familiar with the expectations and objectives from the preceding grade and build on these in their teaching.

Listening and speaking Grade 10 11 12 Listen and respond 20% 20% 20% Speak to communicate and interact 30% 30% 30%

Reading and writing Reading strategies and response 20% 20% 20% Writing strategies and composition 30% 30% 30%

Creating lesson plans based on the scheme of work


The teaching and learning activities described in each unit should help teachers to create their lesson plans for a block of lessons or individual lessons. Lesson plans should also take account of the formative assessments that teachers have been making as they have been teaching previous units. (For this reason, lesson plans cannot be finalised too much in advance of the lessons.) In addition to the suggested teaching activities, the scheme also includes a summary of the main forms and types of games and activities which are referred to in the units. The list is designed as a practical aid to teachers and should be referred to when planning lessons. The summary should be used by teachers to generate additional teaching activities, and can be extended, elaborated and shared as a practical ideas bank based on experience in the classroom. The units vary in length depending on the topic. For the advanced course for Grades 1012, there are 13 units for Grades 10 and 11, 10 units for Grade 12, ranging from 10 to 13 hours per unit, providing a total of about 120 teaching hours per year. Teachers will need to plan and sequence a balance of work in listening, speaking, reading and writing. The amount of time given to the teaching and learning each strand should be guided by students' needs, and by the weightings given in the notes column of the assessment page(s) at the back of each unit. These weightings reflect the balance of marks given to each strand in the national tests. These are given in the standards as follows:

The objectives for each individual lesson based on the unit are likely to address some but not all of the objectives for the units. The objectives may be repeated in more than one lesson, and may appear again in a subsequent unit. As with the scheme of work, there is no right or wrong way to set out a lesson plan. The main criterion is that it helps a teacher to teach the lesson. Typically, lesson plans will indicate: the objectives for the lesson or block of lessons; relevant vocabulary and technical terms; the resources needed, such as textbooks and ICT applications; how the lesson will start; how work will be developed through teaching input and student activities, with suggestions for differentiation where appropriate; how lessons will be summarised and rounded off; homework, where relevant.

The last lesson of each topic should include a review, to draw out and remind students about the main learning points. The review should highlight the ways in which the unit has built on previous learning, the progress that students have made and what they will go on to learn next. Where appropriate, links can be made to work in other units.

The importance of vocabulary


Systematic vocabulary development is an essential building block for all students from the outset. The English standards contain complete and detailed lists of the vocabulary recommended for each grade, up to Grade 9 in

26 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grades 10 to 12 Advanced | Introduction

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a cumulative progression. In every grade, teachers should systematically introduce new vocabulary and draw frequently upon previously learned vocabulary for consolidation and practise. By the end of Grade 9, students should recognise and be able to use at least 2600 high and medium frequency active words listening, speaking, reading and writing, for which a vocabulary list is specified in the standards. Students should be expected to have mastered this repertoire through the topics they have covered in the previous grades. Teachers in Grades 1012 are recommended to consult Section 4 of the English standards, which lists all these words with their relevant grades, to ensure that students draw upon and practise this as a baseline repertoire. These word lists focus mainly on content and topic words nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verb infinitives. Many key grammatical words and phrases such as conjunctions, pronouns, verb inflections and modals are omitted from these lists but need to be embedded in teaching the four language strands. Section 5 of the English standards also contains a summary of the key language structures that should have been covered in all the grades and which will carry these grammatical words. These, too, should be practised and recycled through Grades 1012. All of the above represents an assumed baseline repertoire for the start of the course in Grade 10. In addition, advanced students are expected to increase the range of their vocabulary. By the end of Grade 10 they should recognise, understand and use approximately 3500 active words, and by the end of Grade 12, at least 4500 words. The details of this vocabulary extension are not specified because, by this stage, much of relevant vocabulary will need to be determined by particular topics, contexts and interests being pursued in the classroom. Teachers in these grades have a special responsibility therefore, to ensure that this extension work is planned and developed, and that they monitor it vigilantly. They should systematically introduce vocabulary through creating and exploiting a wide variety of new contexts, introducing and reinforcing new vocabulary and teaching appropriate strategies that promote autonomy and confidence. Students should be taught to: develop active strategies for expanding their repertoire of new words and phrases, for example through: discussion with the teacher; drawing on work in other subjects;
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reading a range of texts; watching and listening to films and broadcasts; using the internet and other IT sources; communicating with others and sharing ideas; extending their personal repertoires of words related to special interests. enquire about and investigate word meanings and applications through asking for clarification and using reference sources such as dictionaries and thesauruses; learn some of the morphological characteristics of words to make connections with known vocabulary and to generate new words and phrases; recall, use and experiment with new words and phrases in a new situations.

Additionally, throughout the grades, students should be developing a wider passive vocabulary of words, which they may recognise and understand in context, but not necessarily be able to use accurately or fluently. These should feed into their active vocabulary as well. The 4500 words required by Grade 12 should be regarded as a baseline. In practice, the number of words each student will know by the end of Grade 12 should be significantly higher than this. In addition to vocabulary, the word knowledge objectives also plot a progression of spelling knowledge throughout the grades. By the end of Grade 9, students should have sufficient understanding of spelling conventions and word parts to comprehend and generate new words in speech and writing confidently, and with reasonable correctness. Teachers in Grades 1012 should be familiar with the spelling conventions that students should have covered and ensure that this knowledge is consolidated and applied in reading and writing. The word level work through Grades 1012 focuses particularly on the morphology of words and their relationship to spelling patterns. Teachers should use games and activities where students can investigate and explore spelling patterns. This kind of learning is best done fast and frequently, say for 510 minutes per day rather than through long practice sessions, which can become boring and waste valuable time. It should then
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be applied in meaningful contexts, as opportunities arise, for example to help students recognise known words, interpret and connect unfamiliar words to existing knowledge

use comprehension checks which show at a glance whether or not students have understood (e.g. holding up a card with the correct answer, taking a vote on a correct answer, following an instruction correctly, responding to a deliberate mistake); help students who have not understood at the time, for example by asking them to check their response and try again, rephrasing a question to make it clearer, using Arabic to explain in first language, back-chaining, providing a secondary task of less complexity to secure success; have students help and support each other, for example through: asking one student to model a response for, or ask a question of, others; explaining or justifying responses; assessing the responses of others; discussing and evaluating each others responses and giving reasons for agreeing or disagreeing.

Teaching listening and speaking


Throughout Grades 1012, listening and speaking should be given about 50% of the teaching time but with greater emphasis on developing confident and fluent speaking skills. By the end of Grade 9, most of the key language structures and functions should have been covered. Through Grades 1012, these are extended and consolidated but the greatest emphasis through these grades is on the applications of earlier learning in a wide variety of contexts. There should be a clear emphasis on extending students strategies for accurate comprehension, and their competence to speak fluently and at length. Individual lessons will typically progress from whole-class teaching of listening and speaking to paired or group-work where students interact with one another through a structured activity, supported by the teacher. Class teaching should be carefully controlled to keep discipline and avoid unnecessary shouting but also informal and well-paced to engage students' interest, and maintain the flow of the language. When teaching listening skills and comprehension, teachers should always elicit active responses from students. Mostly these responses will be oral and part of a spoken interaction of some kind. Students need to learn how to understand and respond to main ideas and factual detail in a wide range of monologues and dialogues, to apply comprehension strategies to working out what has been said and for responding with appropriate spoken language. Class and group-work should be fast paced with high levels of interaction. For example, during class work, the teacher should: systematically interact with each student directly with high levels of positive feedback and encouragement to keep them engaged; have students interact with each other, for example by asking them to take a minute or two to discuss a question, make a prediction or solve a problem and then calling in the responses for discussion and evaluation with the class;

The teaching of speaking skills should be the core of the language work through Grades 1012 and, as well as being fully embedded in the teaching of listening, it should have special priority throughout these grades. The standards and objectives for speaking build on previous learning from Grades 7 to 9. Most of the language functions will already have been introduced. These are extended and elaborated in Grades 10 and 11. Some new language structures are also introduced including the future perfect and future perfect continuous, a variety of structures for talking about the hypothetical past, present and future, and more extended using the passive voice and reported speech. Overall, however, the major emphasis throughout these grades should be on: increasing students linguistic competence through applying and extending speaking skills for a range of informal and formal purposes, in an increasing variety of contexts, including discussions, debates, summaries, arguments, presentations and performances; the development of fluent and accurate speaking strategies for pronunciation, stress and intonation, group interaction, and communication maintenance and repair.

There is a systematic progression of these applications and strategies, throughout the topics and units. These are summarised in the expectations at
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the start of each unit and, in more detail in the standards on the following pages. Teachers should ensure that these are precisely identified in their lesson planning and that students are able to understand and use them with confidence. The teaching structures and functions is tied into the topics and also provides the framework for vocabulary development. A high proportion of the work will need to be organised in groups to allow students time to work collaboratively on research, discussions, role-play preparation for presentations and group presentations. Classroom organisation for this work needs to be carefully planned, for example, with students seated in groups and roles clearly defined. Group members should be clear about the expected outcomes. Organisation should facilitate interaction within and between groups, as appropriate to the tasks, and there should be a strong emphasis throughout on outcomes in the form of presentations and performances for an audience. Rules and routines (e.g. for interacting within groups, controlling noise levels, moving around the room, accessing materials and resources) should be planned, well understood by teachers and made clear to students. These ground rules should be agreed among teachers and common to all classes, to maintain continuity and consistency across the grades. In the initial stages, students may need to be carefully trained to work effectively. Lesson time needs to be carefully allocated to ensure that sufficient time is allowed for group-work and for presentations, which may need to be structured over a series of lessons to ensure that everyone has sufficient opportunity to participate. It is important to achieve a reasonable balance between active participation in discussion, presentation by individuals or groups, and participating as a member of an audience. Presentations should be planned and organised to enable those who are listening to do so actively through taking notes, preparing questions, making summaries, identifying key points, solving problems, preparing a critical or evaluative response, etc. During group-work, the teacher should move around the class ensuring first that the task is clear to students, and then observing, guiding and assessing the learning. Encouraging students to participate actively in lessons will also expose their misconceptions and errors. The way teachers handle mistakes is often crucial to later success. Over-correction and an undue emphasis on 'failing to get things right' can have a negative impact on students' capacity to learn. It is very important to emphasise what students are doing successfully and to
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develop a classroom climate of confident trial and error, which encourages them to reflect on what they say and develop the confidence to monitor and self-correct their own language.

Teaching reading and writing


Throughout Grades 1012, reading and writing should be given about 50% of the teaching time but with greater emphasis on developing students competence in writing (see weightings table above). For reading, teachers should expect advanced students, at the start of Grade 10, to be reasonably competent and fluent at decoding texts and literal comprehension. Throughout Grades 1012, reading serves a dual purpose. Students are expected to read and respond critically to texts. In addition, they should learn to identify and use text features creatively, and with increasing precision and effect, in their own writing. Across the grades, the teaching of reading should be of two related kinds: extending comprehension skills and strategies and guided independent reading. Extending comprehension skills and strategies: The standards and objectives set out a systematic progression of different text types across Grades 1012, and identify their key language and organisational features. Learning to recognise, evaluate and manipulate these text features is essential to advanced students progress through Grades 1012. They provide the contexts in which students learn to analyse, criticise and evaluate texts and provide a vital source of new and purposeful vocabulary. In addition, the text-type objectives are carefully aligned with the objectives for writing, and form the foundation for the writing curriculum. They cover four key aspects of written English: sentence construction; discourse cohesion; language choice and modification; style, particularly the features of formal and informal written English for different purposes.

The range of text types includes:

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narrative: stories, factual recounts, newspaper reports, magazine articles, journal reports, bulletins; information texts; persuasive texts: stating opinions and promoting a point of view adverts; discussion, debate and argument; notes and summaries.

should select texts that will challenge students, extend their knowledge of language and significantly widen their vocabularies. Students should also be developing their competence in using a range of active reading strategies including text marking and note taking, skimming and scanning, locating, retrieving and synthesising information, predicting and guessing unfamiliar text from incomplete cues, self-monitoring and correcting, identifying alternatives, interpreting texts and applying information to other situations, relating texts to experience and preferences. As well as teaching comprehension skills, teachers should also demonstrate these strategies through shared reading, as a advanced for students to apply them for themselves, when they read independently. Teaching strategies using shared texts might include: demonstrating and discussing the language choice and grammatical features of different text types; using texts to provide a context for investigating words and extending vocabulary; having students read the parts of the text aloud to check for understanding and expression, relating meaning to sentence structures and punctuation; inviting students to predict, interpret or guess unfamiliar or incomplete parts of the text by using spelling, grammatical and contextual cues; teaching students to interact with the text and develop critical awareness and evaluative skills using evidence from the text and relating it to wider argument and evidence; having students evaluate/interpret and mark up copies of a common text as preparation for sharing and discussing their views; having students individually or in groups read the text to others, while they monitor, comment and question; making opportunities for students to re-read the text, or other related texts, for themselves, for example through setting it as one among other group activities in part of a lesson or by creating separate versions for individual or paired work, or for home work.

Teaching comprehension is often best organised as shared text work with the class, where teachers use a common text: either an enlarged text that students can read simultaneously and that can be marked up (e.g. an enlarged hard copy, OHT or PowerPoint projection) or individual hard or IT copies. This encourages discussion and enables teachers to demonstrate reading strategies, identify key text features and teach students critical skills. Shared text work should be planned as part of topics and use texts linked to those topics. Teachers should select a wide variety of texts of limited length to allow for work in depth. The relevant text features are given in detail in the English standards for each grade. Since this is an aspect of ELT with which some teachers may be less familiar, all teachers are strongly recommended to consult the Reading and Writing section of these standards for each grade carefully. The topics in the scheme of work provide guidance over text choice but teachers will need to select texts for their own students. When doing so, they should bear in mind: text choice; much of the text work is non-fiction and exemplars for this work can be found on the Internet, in information and text books linked to work in other subjects, texts about topical events in newspapers, brochures etc.; text structure: the extent to which texts embody the relevant features the texts should enable teachers to make these features explicit and help students to re-apply them in their own writing; text range and variety: the need to provide opportunities to compare texts with similar purposes so that students can see how authors use language differently, and begin to judge its effects; text difficulty for comprehension work where text work is shared and supported by the teacher, the level of reading facility required may be higher than students could cope with as independent readers. Teachers

Independent reading: teachers should provide for intensive and extensive independent reading.

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Intensive reading should normally be covered in class time. It should be guided and monitored by the teacher and may be linked to an earlier shared text that has been studied by the class. Text lengths for intensive reading progress from approximately 1200 words in Grade 10 to 2000 words in Grade 12. Unlike shared reading, the level of facility should be about 90% for intensive reading, and texts should be predictable i.e. related to known contexts, topics and text types, but unseen i.e. texts that are new to students and have not previously been read. Intensive reading can be effectively organised in pairs or small groups where each student has a copy of the same text but where they read at their own speed and by themselves. Texts can be levelled so that the whole class has the same text, or differentiated to provide for groups of differing abilities. The teachers role is to introduce the text, monitor the students as they read, and help them to reflect on what they have read and their strategies at the end. Normally, this kind of activity should take about 15 minutes in a lesson. Texts for intensive reading should, where possible, be related to those covered in shared reading, for example a continuation of a shared text, a text on a similar topic to compare, a text of the same text type. Students should be encouraged to apply comprehension skills and reading strategies they have learned through shared reading. Often it is helpful with intensive reading to link it to a task which gives the teacher a comprehension check, for example a question to answer as students read, a text feature to look out for, a piece of information to retrieve, a skimming task in limited time with a more extended text, a vocabulary task to discern meanings from context or highlight new or key words. Extensive reading will normally be directed for private study time and can be linked to students personal interests, topics from current and previous English lessons and topics from other curriculum subjects. Students should be reading new and unseen texts on familiar and unfamiliar themes. These texts can be of any length appropriate to students needs and the topic. By Grade 12, students should be able to read extended specialist texts relevant to their studies and a wide range of other texts, including the Internet. They should have acquired sufficient strategies to interpret the vocabulary and language demands they meet. The teacher should guide and systematically monitor students choices. Writing should receive about 30% of the emphasis for advanced students. By the start of Grade 10, students should be regularly and independently
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composing texts of at least 10 sentences with appropriate paragraphing, in either handwritten or word-processed form. There should be a clear and explicit emphasis on teaching composition through Grades 1012 building systematically on the models of written texts investigated through shared and independent reading. The language and organisational features of these texts should be well understood and applied by students in framing their own writing. Written composition, like speaking, requires generative skills to create text. Throughout these grades, the standards and objectives for written composition are tied to the text types that have been used in reading so that language features and text organisation learned in reading can be applied to writing. Teachers should investigate these features carefully during shared reading and make them explicit to students to help them transfer their learning to writing. Students should have experienced regular shared writing sessions with teachers through Grades 7 to 9. This approach is central to the teaching of composition and should be continued through to Grade 12 and systematically linked to independent writing tasks. Shared writing is like shared reading, but involves the teacher in sharing the composition of a text with students. Working on a common text gives teachers the opportunity to demonstrate composition strategies and the application of text knowledge drawn from reading, and students the opportunity to participate and experiment with ideas and structures. Teachers might use a white board, flipchart or, if technology allows, an interactive white board. Shared writing can fulfil a variety of functions including: using known text models to jointly plan and draft a text or part-text through demonstration by and discussion with the teacher; demonstrating, discussing and investigating the uses and effects of sentence construction and language choices; teaching about text organisation and discourse cohesion in relation to varying purposes and text types; teaching the application of spelling conventions and rules; teaching about reviewing, refining and editing of texts to improve impact, effect and precision.

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Students will require opportunities in class time for independent writing. However, much of this work, like extensive reading, should be undertaken in private study time. Timetabled independent writing time is best timed towards the end of a lesson, in preparation for homework, and used to: start work off (e.g. through planning based on previous shared writing or constructing the first part of a text to be completed later this might also be done in pairs or small groups with supervision and guidance from the teacher; share and evaluate drafts from homework in pairs, groups or with examples selected by the teacher; begin editing and improving these might be the students own work following feedback from peers or teacher, or anonymised drafts designed for the class or a group to work on collaboratively with a particular purpose in mind; make decisions about the published form of a draft (e.g. using wordprocessing formats or templates in preparation for students to complete in their own time).

the English department to provide the relevant expertise outside timetabled lessons.

Incorporating the use of ICT


Possible activities in which students use information and communication technology (ICT) are shown in the scheme of work. For example, teachers in Grades 1 to 3 could select from these possible uses of ICT for their mathematics lessons. Interactive and audio language games software can help to reinforce students basic skills and language knowledge. Students should be making extensive use of word processing to plan, compose, edit, review and present their writing. They should be encouraged to do so as much as possible and to use the relevant facilities in an informed way to help with spelling, word choice and formatting. For many topics, students will need to search the internet. They will need to use relevant search engines and know how to search, access, extract, organise, collate, summarise and present written and graphic text information. Some of this work can readily be linked to work in other subjects. Students should also be encouraged to use internet reference sources, particularly online dictionaries, spell-checkers, thesauruses and other language sources for etymology and the uses of idiom. An interactive whiteboard is a hardware device combining the functions of a monitor and keyboard of a computer. It acts as a large display and is also touch sensitive. Information is entered by touching specific areas of the screen. These are particularly valuable for activities involving shared texts, which can be created by teachers from book-based texts and can be marked, edited and re-organised in a variety of ways for teaching. Whiteboards are particularly good for promoting student interaction and participation. PowerPoint can be used to create useful presentations. Slides can be sequenced to give the impression of a moving object or a film.

Teachers should always monitor and check independent work carefully to discuss errors and alternatives with students and to ensure that they can reread and make sense of what they have written.

Students who fall behind


Since advanced students are likely to be a selected group, teachers should aim to teach them as a class. It is important to ensure that all can keep up and that help is at hand and readily available when needed. Difficulties may arise because students have failed to grasp some important concepts or principles, because of insufficient support at home (e.g. with homework), or through absence or illness. These students should be identified and supported as early as possible. The longer learning difficulties are left, the more difficult they become to remedy them. In most cases, this support should be provided in the classroom. Occasionally, students need to be withdrawn from the class for more intensive support over short periods. Support of this kind may require considerable knowledge of English language teaching and may need to be organised by

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Useful websites for English in Grades 10 to 12


Websites are a useful source of English teaching resources. There are websites that provide teachers with information on the language and skills they are teaching and websites offering free interactive activities for students, downloadable print materials, puzzles and games. For example: www.bbc.co.uk/education resources to cover a large range of educational issues www.teachingideas.co.uk/english/contents.htm free resources and ideas for activities that can be downloaded or printed out www.teachingenglish.org.uk free downloadable articles, lesson plans, teaching tips and activities www.learnenglish.org.uk/kids online and printable stories, songs and games www.onestopenglish.com topical news items edited to three levels with worksheets for each level for you to use in the English class. Each worksheet contains vocabulary, speaking and grammar work as well as reading practice http://clipbank.aolsvc.co.uk/clipbank/index.jsp educational video clips on a variety of subjects.

learning objectives should be drawn from the objectives in the units, directly relevant to the planned learning outcomes for the lesson(s) and expressed in language that they will understand. Learning objectives, while being individual, can also be common to a group or the whole class. Differentiated learning objectives should only be devised where they are necessary to accommodate the needs of particular individuals who have fallen behind or who may be particularly able. The learning objectives should be made explicit at the start of lessons and then discussed at the conclusion. Teachers should use the objectives to encourage and help students constructively, promoting success, not failure. The objectives should be a focus of continued discussion and reevaluation with individuals and may be used for additional discussion with parents. Students should be encouraged to evaluate and comment on each others work. Sometimes this can be through informal discussion. On other occasions, they might observe or comment in more structured ways such as through the use of criteria lists or comparisons that they rate. Peer assessment must be handled with great sensitivity to ensure that all students achieve success and are not embarrassed or humiliated in any way. When evaluating the work of others, students should always be required to present evidence from the performance or text as relevant and justify their opinions. Teachers should monitor peer assessment with care to ensure that the interests of all students are properly served. Observation of students should be systematic, focusing on a small number each lesson or for each particular task. Some students may benefit from very frequent discussion and attention to keep their learning focused or help them catch up. Others may progress well with less frequent discussion. Teachers should make their own judgment in the light of their knowledge of students needs. Whether frequent or less frequent, assessment should always be undertaken at regular intervals. For class teaching, teachers should plan activities which enable students to respond by demonstrating what they know (e.g. by holding up a correct card or following an instruction correctly), and which enable teachers to see at a glance who understands and who does not. Teachers should provide feedback and response to students at the time of the assessment. This often saves time and makes correction and progress more effective.
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Assessment
The teaching and assessment of English are two aspects of the same process. Teachers should be assessing as they teach. There is also an important place for more structured assessments (e.g. through tests and tasks devised specifically to assess particular skills). The following points should be taken into account when planning teaching and assessment: Students should be clear about what they are expected to know or be able to do so that teachers can engage them in thinking about and assessing their own progress. They should each have one or more personal learning objectives relevant to the lesson or sequence of lessons in unit, and know that these will be used as the basis for gauging progress. Students

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Assessment of this kind should not be complex; it is part of the normal course of teaching. Keeping brief, individual records in a form that suits the teachers' needs is essential for later more formal assessment and reporting.

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