TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSN ll 10070214 ll 21/21 ll pp105110 Volume 14, Number S2, December 2009
KIM Jinwook (O) ^{*}^{*} , KIM Tongbeum () ^{†} , SONG Seungjin (
)
Turbomachinery Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151742, Korea; † Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Ministry of Education, School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Abstract: Although compressor blades have long been shrouded for aerodynamic and structural reasons, the importance of the leakage flow in the shrouded axial compressor has been investigated recently. How ever, the effects of the leakage tangential velocity variation on the blade passage flow are unknown. There fore, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the loss and flow turning in the blade passage in shrouded axial compressor cascades subject to the variation of the leakage tangential velocity. The newly found results are as follows. First, increasing the leakage tangential velocity reduces overall loss up to 32.6% compared to the reference case. Second, increasing the leakage tangential velocity spreads loss core in the pitchwise direction so loss core becomes more twodimensional. Third, increasing the leakage tangential velocity makes the near hub passage flow more radially uniform.
Key words: shrouded axial compressor; leakage flow tangential velocity; total pressure loss; passage vortex
Introduction
Gaps between stationary and rotating components can not be avoided in turbomachines, and leakage flows will impair the compressors’ aerodynamic performance. Shrouding is one way to reduce the leakage and im prove the blades’ structural integrity. When stators are shrouded, the hub ends (tips) of stator blades are con nected to an annular ring, i.e., the socalled ‘in nerband’. Between the innerband and shrouded cavity endwall, a single or multiple sealtooth assembly is used to reduce leakage through the shrouded cavity. Figure 1 shows schematically a stator blade shrouded
Received: 20090508; revised: 20090620 _{*} Supported by the 2nd BK21 Program, the Micro Thermal System Research Center at Seoul National University, Korea, and the SRC/ ERC Program of MOST/KOSEF (No. R112001095020020) _{*}_{*} To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: kjw7604@snu.ac.kr; Tel: 8228801701
at the hub with a single tooth labyrinth seal. In such seals, due to the adverse axial pressure gradient, the leakage flow enters the seal cavity downstream of the blades and rejoins the main flow upstream of the blades.
In multistage axial compressors, the leakage flow through stator hub seals increases theblockage and secondary flow mixing in the main flow, resulting in the increased loss ^{[}^{1}^{,}^{2}^{]} . Typically one percent of the total
_{1}_{0}_{6}
Tsinghua Science and Technology, December 2009, 14(S2): 105110
mainstream mass flow leaks through for each percent of sealclearance/blade span ratio ^{[}^{1}^{]} . Wellborn and Okiishi ^{[}^{3}^{,}^{4}^{]} found that the leakage flow rate spoiled the near hub performance of the stator and altered stator exit flow conditions. They also found an efficiency degradation of one percent and a three percent penalty in the pressure rise for every one percent increase in the sealtooth clearance to blade height ratio. Similar trends have been predicted numerically by Wellborn and Okiishi ^{[}^{3}^{}^{5}^{]} and Heidegger et al. ^{[}^{6}^{]} Heidegger et al. ^{[}^{6}^{]} and Demargne and Longley ^{[}^{7}^{,}^{8}^{]} also examined the influence of the tangential velocity of the leakage flow on the flow field. The tangential velocity of the leakage flow is set by the blade loading and the relative motion between rotating and stationary surfaces. Thus, it depends on the compressor’s operat ing point. They found reductions in the overall block age and loss with increasing leakage tangential velocity. Typically, the leakage flow has a lower momentum than the mainstream flow. The mass fraction and the tangential velocity of the leakage relative to the main stream flow determine the extent of the inlet boundary layer distortion that influences secondary flows in the blade passage. Demargne and Longley ^{[}^{7}^{]} argued that the increase in the leakage tangential velocity reduced the tangential momentum thickness and the overall loss. Despite such efforts, the influence of the leakage flow tangential velocity variation on the blade passage flows remains unknown. Therefore, this paper aims to understand how the leakage flow tangential velocity affects passage flows by examining the flow down stream of the blade passages. The scope of current re search is limited to shrouded axial compressor cascades.
1
Experiment
1.1 Test rigs
A compressor stator cascade employing air was used for experiments. This facility has full seal cavities and secondary flow loops for the seal flow. Thus, these simulate the effects of the seal and the relative motion and facilitate detailed flow investigation in a stationary environment. In comparison, the cascade facility used by Demargne and Longley ^{[}^{7}^{,}^{8}^{]} did not have a seal but an upstream slot (and a separate downstream slot) to
focus on the upstream (and separately downstream) seal cavity trench effect. A secondary flow loop was used to circulate the lea kage flow in the seal cavity. Inside the secondary loop, a controllable fan was used to adjust the tangential ve locity in the cavity ^{[}^{9}^{,}^{1}^{0}^{]} . The test sections in both test rigs contained six stator blades and a shrouded cavity. The upper ends of the blades were attached to an endwall plate (casing) while the hub ends were mounted on an innerband. A singletooth seal (Fig. 1) was placed under the inner band. The blade geometry at the midspan of GE’s LSRC was used to fabricate twodimensional blades ^{[}^{1}^{,}^{2}^{]} . Parameters of the blades and the shrouded cavity are listed in Table 1.
Table 1
Parameters of compressor stator cascade and
operating conditions. c is the incoming flow velocity.
Parameter
Value
True chord, C Span, H Pitch, S Inlet and exit flow angles, _{1} and _{2} Solidity, Cavity depth, h Sealclearance/Cavity depth, /h Reynolds number based on the true blade chord
200 mm 196 mm 126.6 mm 47.6 ^{o} and 21 ^{o}
1.58
17.03 mm
0.11
2.6×10 ^{5}
v _{y} /c (Estimated flow coefficient, )
0.09 (2.31 ^{*} )
0.20 (1.04 ^{*} )
0.25 (0.83 ^{*} )
0.35 (0.59 ^{*} )
0.45 (0.42 ^{*} )
Note: *, values from Eq. (1)
1.2 Instrumentation
A 5hole probe (United Sensor ^{T}^{M} ) was traversed to measure stagnation pressure and flow angle at x/C _{x} =1.30 from the blade leading edge. The pressure signals were acquired via a Scanivalve ^{T}^{M} . In measur ing plane, loss and flow angles were obtained from a grid of 34 (over the entire span) and 21 (over the one pitch) points in one blade passage located at the center of the test section. A Pitottube was positioned at the midspan 0.5 axial chord upstream of the blade leading edge to monitor the incoming mainstream flow velocity.
KIM Jinwook (O) et al.Effects of the Leakage Flow Tangential Velocity in Shrouded Axial …
107
1.3 Determination of the leakage flow tangential velocity
In a linear cascade, no rotating motion exists. In real machines, however, the motion of the hub relative to both the stator blades and the innerband is expected to yield additional velocity mismatch between the main stream and leakage flows. To the author’s knowledge, Demargne and Long ley’s work ^{[}^{7}^{,}^{8}^{]} was the first attempt to use a linear cas cade with upstream and downstream slots to study the effect of relative motion (i.e., leakage flow tangential velocity) in a linear cascade. However, the presence of an actual labyrinth seal differentiates the present work from theirs (Fig. 1). Also, a separate flow loop for the cavity regions was used to connect both sidewalls of the linear cascade, and the leakage flow tangential ve locity (momentum) was imposed by a controllable fan (Fig. 2).
In this paper, a new parameter is introduced to char acterize the leakage flow tangential velocity (v _{y} ) rela
tive to the mainstream velocity
v
y
/
c
(
c
(
c
2
x
c
2
y
)
1/2
).
The use of this parameter facilitates determination of v _{y} to be imposed for a given Reynolds number (or main stream velocity). A simplified expression of v _{y} /c can be obtained as a function of flow coefficient ( c _{x} /U _{t}_{i}_{p} ) as
v
y
U
tip
0.308cos(
1
)
1
0.208
(1)
where U _{t}_{i}_{p} is the rotor tip speed in rotating machines and _{1} is the inlet flow angle. This expression was ob tained by adopting v _{y} /U _{h}_{u}_{b} ~0.385, which is the average
c
c
x
value for both upstream and downstream cavities ^{[}^{3}^{]} U _{h}_{u}_{b} /U _{t}_{i}_{p} ~0.8 for the blade span used in this study and c=c _{x} /cos( _{1} ) where U _{h}_{u}_{b} is the rotating hub speed. In validating this expression for a flow coefficient of 0.44 ^{[}^{2}^{]} , Eq. (1) yields v _{y} /c 0.4, which shows good agreement to within 4.5% with numerical simulation results ^{[}^{1}^{1}^{]} . The use of the above correlation allows us to relate the operating conditions in the linear cascade experi ments to the flow coefficient in rotating machines. An annular shrouded compressor cascade (with a station ary cavity wall) was selected as the reference case. In this case, the tangential motion of the leakage flow in the shrouded cavity is determined by the tangential component of the mainstream and shear stress on cav ity surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ana lyses of this case were conducted in Ref. [12], and the value of v _{y} /c=0.09 was obtained. Thus, v _{y} /c=0.09 was selected to represent the reference case of annular cas
cade with a stationary cavity wall.
1.4 Data reduction
Loss was measured using a 5hole probe at the down
stream. Here, the loss coefficient (Y _{P} ) is defined as
Y
P
P
t
P
P
t
P
s
(2)
where P is the stagnation pressure. Reynolds number (Re) is based on the blade true chord C and upstream mean velocity c. Measurement uncertainty associated
with the loss coefficient (Y _{P} ) was found to be within 3.2% in a 95% confidence interval ^{[}^{1}^{3}^{]} .
2
Discussion
2.1 Overall loss
Figure 3 shows the pitchwise massaveraged loss measured at x /C _{x} 1.30 downstream from the blade leading edge. In all the five cases, the loss is concen trated near the casing and hub endwalls. Increasing v _{y} /c from 0.09 to 0.45 reduces the spanwise extent of the blade hub region under the influence of the secon
dary flow from z/H 0.35 to 0.20. On the other hand,
the loss in the outboard span region (z/H > 0.4) is largely unaffected. Also, for v _{y} /c 0.45 (the operating point), the value of the loss coefficient is about 0.04 at the midspan. This value matches the LSRC’s
_{1}_{0}_{8}
Tsinghua Science and Technology, December 2009, 14(S2): 105110
experimental data and thus builds confidence in our data. As the leakage flow tangential velocity increases to v _{y} /c 0.09, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.45, the loss is reduced by 3.72%, 14.9%, 23.3%, and 32.6% compared to the reference case, respectively. The dependence of loss on the leakage tangential velocity is consistent with pre vious findings ^{[}^{5}^{}^{8}^{]} .
Fig. 3 Spanwise variations of the pitchwise mass averaged loss coefficient with varying the leakage flow tangential velocity at x/C _{x} =1.30
2.2 Total pressure loss contour
Loss contours have been measured at 1.30C _{x} from the blade leading edge. Figure 4 shows the spanwise and pitchwise loss distributions for v _{y} /c 0.09, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.45, respectively. The same contour level and range have been used in the figures.
For the reference case (v _{y} /c=0.09) in Fig. 4a, the loss
core has lifted off from the hub surface and a second
loss core has emerged. According to Kim ^{[}^{1}^{2}^{]} , immedi
ate downstream of the trailing edge, lossy flow
emerges from the downstream cavity trench into the
mainstream towards where relatively low pressure ex
its. This leakage flow pushes the loss core away from
the hub and forms a distinctive second loss core.
Thus, the loss continuously increases from the leading
edge as flow convects downstream.
For v _{y} /c 0.45 in Fig. 4d, the radial extent and the
magnitude of the overall loss have been reduced rela
tive to Fig. 4a. Also the high loss region has shifted even closer to the pressure side compared to Fig. 4a. The high loss region now only covers up to about 5%

















(a) v _{y} /c 0.09 
(b) v _{y} /c 0.20 
















(c) v _{y} /c 0.35 
(d) v _{y} /c 0.45 
Fig. 4
Total pressure loss contour with varying the leakage flow tangential velocity at x/C _{x} =1.30 (contour interval is 0.05).
KIM Jinwook (O) et al.Effects of the Leakage Flow Tangential Velocity in Shrouded Axial …
109
span height, and the overall loss contour shape has be come even more twodimensional, covering almost the entire pitch at up to 20% span. Thus, entrainment ef fect has further reduced loss in the passage. The newly found effects of increasing v _{y} /c on the loss in the downstream of the blade row can be sum marized as follows. Downstream of the downstream cavity trench at x/C _{x} =1.30, a significant radially downward shift as well as reduction of loss occurs with increasing v _{y} /c. This result is due to a weakened sec ondary flow effect and is discussed in more detail in the next section.
2.3 Flow turning by the blades
To examine the influence of the leakage flow tangen tial velocity on the flow angle, measurements have been made at x/C _{x} 1.30. Figure 5 shows plots of pitchwise areaaveraged radial distribution of devia tion angle at x/C _{x} 1.30. The deviation angle is ob tained by subtracting the exit blade angle k _{2} from the measured exit flow angle _{2} . Measurement uncertain ties associated with deviation have been found to be within 2.6% with a 95% confidence interval, using the method of Coleman and Steele ^{[}^{1}^{3}^{]} .
matches the LSRC’s experimental data. Therefore, the data obtained in this research builds confidence once again. The near hub deviation pattern indicates a clas sic vortex structure (with counterclockwise rotation
viewed from downstream) or a “passage vortex.” In creasing v _{y} /c decreases the deviation for 0.05 z /H
0.4 and increases the deviation for
z /H 0.05. Thus,
increasing v _{y} /c weakens the secondary flow and makes the flow more uniform. Also the radially downward shift of the vortex is visible. To the authors’ knowledge, this result is the first experimental validation of the numerical predictions by Heidegger et al. ^{[}^{5}^{]} Finally, the weakening is due to a combination of the change in the upstream flow condition, the reduced secondary flow generation within the passage, and the entrainment effect of the downstream cavity trench.
3
Conclusions
This paper examines the effects of the relative motion between stationary and rotating surfaces (i.e., leakage flow tangential velocity, v _{y} /c) on the blade passage flows in shrouded axial compressor cascades. The find ings of this study are as follows. (1) A new shrouded compressor cascade facility has
Fig. 5 Variation of the pitchwise areaaveraged de viation angle with the leakage tangential velocity at x/C _{x} =1.30
The exit flow shows positive deviation (under turned) along the entire span (Fig. 5). The same as the loss contour, there is no visible effect of the leakage flow on the exit flow turning for z/H>0.4. At midspan, all of the cases show a deviation angle of +5º regard less of the leakage tangential velocity. This value also
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