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TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSN ll 1007-0214 ll 21/21 ll pp105-110 Volume 14, Number S2, December 2009

Effects of the Leakage Flow Tangential Velocity in Shrouded Axial Compressor Cascades *

KIM Jinwook (O) ** , KIM Tongbeum () , SONG Seungjin (

)

Turbomachinery Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea; † Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Ministry of Education, School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China

Abstract: Although compressor blades have long been shrouded for aerodynamic and structural reasons, the importance of the leakage flow in the shrouded axial compressor has been investigated recently. How- ever, the effects of the leakage tangential velocity variation on the blade passage flow are unknown. There- fore, this paper presents an experimental investigation of the loss and flow turning in the blade passage in shrouded axial compressor cascades subject to the variation of the leakage tangential velocity. The newly found results are as follows. First, increasing the leakage tangential velocity reduces overall loss up to 32.6% compared to the reference case. Second, increasing the leakage tangential velocity spreads loss core in the pitch-wise direction so loss core becomes more two-dimensional. Third, increasing the leakage tangential velocity makes the near hub passage flow more radially uniform.

Key words: shrouded axial compressor; leakage flow tangential velocity; total pressure loss; passage vortex

Introduction

Gaps between stationary and rotating components can- not be avoided in turbo-machines, and leakage flows will impair the compressors’ aerodynamic performance. Shrouding is one way to reduce the leakage and im- prove the blades’ structural integrity. When stators are shrouded, the hub ends (tips) of stator blades are con- nected to an annular ring, i.e., the so-called ‘in- ner-band’. Between the inner-band and shrouded cavity end-wall, a single or multiple seal-tooth assembly is used to reduce leakage through the shrouded cavity. Figure 1 shows schematically a stator blade shrouded

Received: 2009-05-08; revised: 2009-06-20 * Supported by the 2nd BK21 Program, the Micro Thermal System Research Center at Seoul National University, Korea, and the SRC/ ERC Program of MOST/KOSEF (No. R11-2001-095-02002-0) ** To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: kjw7604@snu.ac.kr; Tel: 82-2-8801701

at the hub with a single tooth labyrinth seal. In such seals, due to the adverse axial pressure gradient, the leakage flow enters the seal cavity downstream of the blades and rejoins the main flow upstream of the blades.

Fig. 1 Meridional view of the shrouded cavity and stator blade
Fig.
1
Meridional view of the shrouded cavity and
stator blade

In multi-stage axial compressors, the leakage flow through stator hub seals increases theblockage and secondary flow mixing in the main flow, resulting in the increased loss [1,2] . Typically one percent of the total

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Tsinghua Science and Technology, December 2009, 14(S2): 105-110

mainstream mass flow leaks through for each percent of seal-clearance/blade span ratio [1] . Wellborn and Okiishi [3,4] found that the leakage flow rate spoiled the near hub performance of the stator and altered stator exit flow conditions. They also found an efficiency degradation of one percent and a three percent penalty in the pressure rise for every one percent increase in the seal-tooth clearance to blade height ratio. Similar trends have been predicted numerically by Wellborn and Okiishi [3-5] and Heidegger et al. [6] Heidegger et al. [6] and Demargne and Longley [7,8] also examined the influence of the tangential velocity of the leakage flow on the flow field. The tangential velocity of the leakage flow is set by the blade loading and the relative motion between rotating and stationary surfaces. Thus, it depends on the compressor’s operat- ing point. They found reductions in the overall block- age and loss with increasing leakage tangential velocity. Typically, the leakage flow has a lower momentum than the mainstream flow. The mass fraction and the tangential velocity of the leakage relative to the main- stream flow determine the extent of the inlet boundary layer distortion that influences secondary flows in the blade passage. Demargne and Longley [7] argued that the increase in the leakage tangential velocity reduced the tangential momentum thickness and the overall loss. Despite such efforts, the influence of the leakage flow tangential velocity variation on the blade passage flows remains unknown. Therefore, this paper aims to understand how the leakage flow tangential velocity affects passage flows by examining the flow down- stream of the blade passages. The scope of current re- search is limited to shrouded axial compressor cascades.

1

Experiment

  • 1.1 Test rigs

A compressor stator cascade employing air was used for experiments. This facility has full seal cavities and secondary flow loops for the seal flow. Thus, these simulate the effects of the seal and the relative motion and facilitate detailed flow investigation in a stationary environment. In comparison, the cascade facility used by Demargne and Longley [7,8] did not have a seal but an upstream slot (and a separate downstream slot) to

focus on the upstream (and separately down-stream) seal cavity trench effect. A secondary flow loop was used to circulate the lea- kage flow in the seal cavity. Inside the secondary loop, a controllable fan was used to adjust the tangential ve- locity in the cavity [9,10] . The test sections in both test rigs contained six stator blades and a shrouded cavity. The upper ends of the blades were attached to an end-wall plate (casing) while the hub ends were mounted on an inner-band. A single-tooth seal (Fig. 1) was placed under the inner- band. The blade geometry at the mid-span of GE’s LSRC was used to fabricate two-dimensional blades [1,2] . Parameters of the blades and the shrouded cavity are listed in Table 1.

Table 1

Parameters of compressor stator cascade and

operating conditions. c is the incoming flow velocity.

Parameter

Value

True chord, C Span, H Pitch, S Inlet and exit flow angles, 1 and 2 Solidity, Cavity depth, h Seal-clearance/Cavity depth, /h Reynolds number based on the true blade chord

200 mm 196 mm 126.6 mm 47.6 o and 21 o

1.58

17.03 mm

0.11

2.6×10 5

v y /c (Estimated flow coefficient, )

  • 0.09 (2.31 * )

  • 0.20 (1.04 * )

  • 0.25 (0.83 * )

  • 0.35 (0.59 * )

  • 0.45 (0.42 * )

Note: *, values from Eq. (1)

1.2 Instrumentation

A 5-hole probe (United Sensor TM ) was traversed to measure stagnation pressure and flow angle at x/C x =1.30 from the blade leading edge. The pressure signals were acquired via a Scanivalve TM . In measur- ing plane, loss and flow angles were obtained from a grid of 34 (over the entire span) and 21 (over the one pitch) points in one blade passage located at the center of the test section. A Pitot-tube was positioned at the mid-span 0.5 axial chord upstream of the blade leading edge to monitor the incoming mainstream flow velocity.

KIM Jinwook (O) et al.Effects of the Leakage Flow Tangential Velocity in Shrouded Axial …

107

  • 1.3 Determination of the leakage flow tangential velocity

In a linear cascade, no rotating motion exists. In real machines, however, the motion of the hub relative to both the stator blades and the inner-band is expected to yield additional velocity mismatch between the main- stream and leakage flows. To the author’s knowledge, Demargne and Long- ley’s work [7,8] was the first attempt to use a linear cas- cade with upstream and downstream slots to study the effect of relative motion (i.e., leakage flow tangential velocity) in a linear cascade. However, the presence of an actual labyrinth seal differentiates the present work from theirs (Fig. 1). Also, a separate flow loop for the cavity regions was used to connect both sidewalls of the linear cascade, and the leakage flow tangential ve- locity (momentum) was imposed by a controllable fan (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2 Schematics of the wind-tunnel with full shrouded cavity
Fig. 2
Schematics
of
the
wind-tunnel
with
full
shrouded cavity

In this paper, a new parameter is introduced to char- acterize the leakage flow tangential velocity (v y ) rela-

tive to the mainstream velocity

v

y

/

c

(

c

(

c

2

x

c

2

y

)

1/2

).

The use of this parameter facilitates determination of v y to be imposed for a given Reynolds number (or main- stream velocity). A simplified expression of v y /c can be obtained as a function of flow coefficient ( c x /U tip ) as

v

y

U

tip

0.308cos(

1

)

1

0.208

(1)

where U tip is the rotor tip speed in rotating machines and 1 is the inlet flow angle. This expression was ob- tained by adopting v y /U hub ~0.385, which is the average

c

c

x

value for both upstream and downstream cavities [3] U hub /U tip ~0.8 for the blade span used in this study and c=c x /cos( 1 ) where U hub is the rotating hub speed. In validating this expression for a flow coefficient of 0.44 [2] , Eq. (1) yields v y /c 0.4, which shows good agreement to within 4.5% with numerical simulation results [11] . The use of the above correlation allows us to relate the operating conditions in the linear cascade experi- ments to the flow coefficient in rotating machines. An annular shrouded compressor cascade (with a station- ary cavity wall) was selected as the reference case. In this case, the tangential motion of the leakage flow in the shrouded cavity is determined by the tangential component of the mainstream and shear stress on cav- ity surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ana- lyses of this case were conducted in Ref. [12], and the value of v y /c=0.09 was obtained. Thus, v y /c=0.09 was selected to represent the reference case of annular cas-

cade with a stationary cavity wall.

  • 1.4 Data reduction

Loss was measured using a 5-hole probe at the down-

stream. Here, the loss coefficient (Y P ) is defined as

Y

P

P

t

P

P

t

P

s

(2)

where P is the stagnation pressure. Reynolds number (Re) is based on the blade true chord C and upstream mean velocity c. Measurement uncertainty associated

with the loss coefficient (Y P ) was found to be within 3.2% in a 95% confidence interval [13] .

2

Discussion

  • 2.1 Overall loss

Figure 3 shows the pitch-wise mass-averaged loss measured at x /C x 1.30 downstream from the blade leading edge. In all the five cases, the loss is concen- trated near the casing and hub end-walls. Increasing v y /c from 0.09 to 0.45 reduces the span-wise extent of the blade hub region under the influence of the secon-

dary flow from z/H 0.35 to 0.20. On the other hand,

the loss in the outboard span region (z/H > 0.4) is largely unaffected. Also, for v y /c 0.45 (the operating point), the value of the loss coefficient is about 0.04 at the mid-span. This value matches the LSRC’s

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Tsinghua Science and Technology, December 2009, 14(S2): 105-110

experimental data and thus builds confidence in our data. As the leakage flow tangential velocity increases to v y /c 0.09, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.45, the loss is reduced by 3.72%, 14.9%, 23.3%, and 32.6% compared to the reference case, respectively. The dependence of loss on the leakage tangential velocity is consistent with pre- vious findings [5-8] .

Tsinghua Science and Technology, December 2009, 14(S2): 105-110 experimental data and thus builds confidence in our

Fig. 3 Span-wise variations of the pitch-wise mass- averaged loss coefficient with varying the leakage flow tangential velocity at x/C x =1.30

  • 2.2 Total pressure loss contour

Loss contours have been measured at 1.30C x from the blade leading edge. Figure 4 shows the span-wise and pitch-wise loss distributions for v y /c 0.09, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.45, respectively. The same contour level and range have been used in the figures.

For the reference case (v y /c=0.09) in Fig. 4a, the loss

core has lifted off from the hub surface and a second

loss core has emerged. According to Kim [12] , immedi-

ate downstream of the trailing edge, lossy flow

emerges from the downstream cavity trench into the

mainstream towards where relatively low pressure ex-

its. This leakage flow pushes the loss core away from

the hub and forms a distinctive second loss core.

Thus, the loss continuously increases from the leading

edge as flow convects downstream.

For v y /c 0.45 in Fig. 4d, the radial extent and the

magnitude of the overall loss have been reduced rela-

tive to Fig. 4a. Also the high loss region has shifted even closer to the pressure side compared to Fig. 4a. The high loss region now only covers up to about 5%

(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
 
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)

(a) v y /c 0.09

(b) v y /c 0.20

(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
 
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)
(a) v / c 0.09 (b) v / c 0.20 (c) v / c 0.35 (d)

(c) v y /c 0.35

(d) v y /c 0.45

Fig. 4

Total pressure loss contour with varying the leakage flow tangential velocity at x/C x =1.30 (contour interval is 0.05).

KIM Jinwook (O) et al.Effects of the Leakage Flow Tangential Velocity in Shrouded Axial …

109

span height, and the overall loss contour shape has be- come even more two-dimensional, covering almost the entire pitch at up to 20% span. Thus, entrainment ef- fect has further reduced loss in the passage. The newly found effects of increasing v y /c on the loss in the downstream of the blade row can be sum- marized as follows. Downstream of the downstream cavity trench at x/C x =1.30, a significant radially downward shift as well as reduction of loss occurs with increasing v y /c. This result is due to a weakened sec- ondary flow effect and is discussed in more detail in the next section.

  • 2.3 Flow turning by the blades

To examine the influence of the leakage flow tangen- tial velocity on the flow angle, measurements have been made at x/C x 1.30. Figure 5 shows plots of pitch-wise area-averaged radial distribution of devia- tion angle at x/C x 1.30. The deviation angle is ob- tained by subtracting the exit blade angle k 2 from the measured exit flow angle 2 . Measurement uncertain- ties associated with deviation have been found to be within 2.6% with a 95% confidence interval, using the method of Coleman and Steele [13] .

matches the LSRC’s experimental data. Therefore, the data obtained in this research builds confidence once again. The near hub deviation pattern indicates a clas- sic vortex structure (with counter-clockwise rotation

viewed from downstream) or a “passage vortex.” In- creasing v y /c decreases the deviation for 0.05 z /H

  • 0.4 and increases the deviation for

z /H 0.05. Thus,

increasing v y /c weakens the secondary flow and makes the flow more uniform. Also the radially downward shift of the vortex is visible. To the authors’ knowledge, this result is the first experimental validation of the numerical predictions by Heidegger et al. [5] Finally, the weakening is due to a combination of the change in the upstream flow condition, the reduced secondary flow generation within the passage, and the entrainment effect of the downstream cavity trench.

3

Conclusions

This paper examines the effects of the relative motion between stationary and rotating surfaces (i.e., leakage flow tangential velocity, v y /c) on the blade passage flows in shrouded axial compressor cascades. The find- ings of this study are as follows. (1) A new shrouded compressor cascade facility has

been developed which enables testing of the relative motion effects in a non-rotating environment. (2) The
been developed which enables testing of the relative
motion effects in a non-rotating environment.
(2) The upstream injection into the mainstream flow
of the leakage flow with increasing tangential velocity
makes the flow in the passage become more radially
uniform and weakens the secondary flow. Thus, the
mixing loss between leakage and passage flows is re-
duced, and the overall loss is reduced.
(3) With increasing leakage tangential velocity,
the three-dimensional shape of the loss core, concen-
trated in the hub suction side corner, becomes more
two-dimensional.
References

Fig. 5 Variation of the pitch-wise area-averaged de- viation angle with the leakage tangential velocity at x/C x =1.30

The exit flow shows positive deviation (under- turned) along the entire span (Fig. 5). The same as the loss contour, there is no visible effect of the leakage flow on the exit flow turning for z/H>0.4. At mid-span, all of the cases show a deviation angle of +5º regard- less of the leakage tangential velocity. This value also

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