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Biology Study Guide


Unit 9: Classification and Taxonomy, Microorganisms

The material in the unit is covered in chapters 18-21 in Biology by Miller and Levine.

1. The scientific name for an Arctic Hare is Lepus arcticus. In this example, what parts of
classification does the name give you? __genus & species______________________

2. Fill in the blanks with the missing taxa:

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

3. If two organisms are classified in the same genus, what must also be true? They also belong to the
same family, order, class, phylum and kingdom.

4. What is the scientific name for humans? What does it mean? _Homo sapiens—“thinking man” or
“wise man”___________________________.

5. If two organisms are in different families, they must be in different phyla. True or False.

6. Assign each of the following words and phrases to one of the columns below.
No nucleus; has a nucleus; no membrane bound organelles; relatively small; relatively large; has
membrane bound organelles
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, Has a nucleus, has membrane bound

relatively small organelles, relatively large

7. What are three similarities between the two types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Both types contain DNA and have ribosomes, cytoplasm and a cell membrane.

8. Define a dichotomous key: _ A key to identification based on a series of decisions, each involving
a choice between two alternate characteristics ___________________________________________

9. Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals all share a common characteristic--their cells are all

10. Give the defining characteristics of each of the four eukaryotic kingdoms.

Protista – any eukaryote not otherwise classified as a plant, animal or fungus

Fungi –heterotrophic eukaryotes that use extracellular digestion and, have chitin cell walls
Plants – multicellular autotrophic eukaryotes that have cellulose cell walls

Animals – multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes without cell walls

11. A classification scheme is shown below.

Classification Examples
Kingdom - Animalia Starfish, pot-bellied pig, dolphin, dog, sparrow,
donkey, zebra, horse
Phylum - Chordata Dolphin, dog, sparrow, donkey, zebra, horse
Genus – Equus Donkey, zebra, horse
Specis - caballus Horse

12. What two animals are most closely related to the horse? __zebra_______and ___donkey____

13. What is the scientific name for a horse? __Equus caballus_____________________________

Use the diagram below to answer questions 14-16.

14. Circle the node on the cladogram that represents the common ancestor of alligators, crocodylidae
and gavialen.

15. Which of the following pairs is the most likely to have similarities in their embryos or amino acid
Caiman & Melanosuchus Caiman and Alligator Caiman and Tomistoma

16. “Paleosuchus evolved from Caiman.” Is this statement true or false? Explain. False—the two
have a common ancestor but caiman evolved after paleosuchus nor from it directly.

17. Circle the correct answer to the following questions:

A—What type of infectious agent causes malaria?

a) virus b) fungus c) bacterium d) protist

B--Antibiotics would be effective against which disease?

a) the flu b) the common cold c) strep throat d) smallpox

18. What are the defining characteristics of a virus (give three)?

a) protein coat b) DNA or RNA core c) requirse a host to reproduce

19.Why are viruses considered an exception to the cell theory? They cannot reproduce without a host,
i.e., they violate the “all cells come from pre-existing cells” statement.

20. How does a vaccine help prevent disease? A vaccine causes the body’s immune system to create
antibodies against an infectious agent.

21. The flu and common cold are caused by a (circle one): virus bacteria.

22. Define a) lytic: a type of viral infection which results in the destruction of the host cell

b) lysogenic: a type of viral infection in which the viral DNA is incorporated in the host
chromosome (becoming a prophage/provirus)

23. HIV is a retrovirus. How does it infect human cells? It uses its RNA to create a DNA copy, then
inserts the DNA copy into the host’s DNA.