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Title : APPROACHES THAT CAN BE USED TO TEACH THE CONCEPTS OF TRANSFORMATIONS. WENCESLAUS TEHAS (NO. MATRIX : 810628135897002) NO. K/P : 810628-13-5897 NO. TELEFON : 013-8289282 wencelespichin@yahoo.com TUTOR: EN. ZURHANA BIN MOHAMMAD PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN: INSTITUT PERGURUAN MALAYSIA KAMPUS TUN ABDUL RAZAK SAMARAHAN

1.0 Introduction

Arthur Cayley (1821-1895) and James Sylvester (1814-1897) were the earliest mathematicians to write about transformations. Their importance is because sets of transformations can be used to classify geometries. The word transforms means "to change." In geometry, a transformation changes the position of a shape on a coordinate plane. What that really means is that a shape is moving from one place to another. A transformation of a collection of objects is a rule that describes how to transform or "move" each object in the collection. For us, the objects are the points in the familiar coordinate plane and the collection is the plane itself (composed of all its points). A transformation, then, is a rule that describes how to move each of the points in the plane to new locations. Every point has to go somewhere, even if it is just too where it was in the first place. No two different points can go to the same place. On this paper, i will discuss more about some approaches that can be used to teach the concepts of transformations. During this task, Ive found some article which on my opinion is related and comply with the task given.

2.1 Article 1 : Interactive :Translations, Reflections And Rotations

Source: http://shodor.org/interactive/lessons/TranslationsReflectionsRotations/ This article is about a lesson which is planned to introduce the students to the concepts of translation, reflection and rotation using an interactive media. On doing so, the writer states some requirement on students prerequisite which is a must for the students before they can proceed with the lesson. From my pedagogical understanding, this is to ensure that the lesson will goes in a smooth flow without any circumstances that can interrupt the planned strategies. On arithmetical prerequisites issue, students must be able to identify the basic two-dimensional shape of a square, a triangle and a parallelogram. Meanwhile on the technological prerequisites issue, students must be able to perform basic mouse manipulations such as point, click and drag. On the lesson plan, there are six identified outline that has been stated by the writer as the guidance for the whole teaching and learning process. The outlines are focus and review, objectives, teacher input, guided practice, independent practice and closure. The approach that has been planned to be use in this teaching and learning process is a constructive approach where the teacher guides the students while students itself build their own knowledge by the guidance of the teacher. As a conclusion, the teacher is trying to use the constructive approach to make the lesson to be so meaningful beside it will give a deep impact on the students understanding on the terms and skills thought.

Source : http://shodor.org/interactivate/discussions/SymmetryInTesselati/ This article is about a plan on teaching the topic of symmetry in tessellation. In this lesson plan, the teacher prefers to do it in a form of discussion. The discussion is more to discuss the difference between two terms which are the definition of symmetry itself and the term of the type of symmetries in tessellations. In this discussion, the teacher triggers the student to build their own knowledge by guiding them on understanding the terms of symmetry and the type of symmetries in tessellations. We can saw the effort when the teacher tries to describe the term of symmetry. After that, then the teacher describe the types of symmetries in tessellations. As a conclusion for this lesson plan, i can say that the approach that the teacher tries to use is the inductive approach. This is because the teacher plays the role to guide the students while the student tries to build their own knowledge by their observations.

This third article is also about a lesson plan. The difference of this article with the two previous articles is that this article is planned for the whole unit which needs 6 8 weeks to teach. From this article, the write are using a lot of teaching strategies, approaches and methods to reach the targeted objective even thou theres none of those objectives was stated. Among all the strategies that were use there was acting out strategies, mimic on what their partners doing, discussion strategies and so on. On this lesson plan also there were several teaching aids was mention and that will be necessary to fulfill the teaching and learning requirement. Among the said teaching aids are the geometry sketchpad, geoboards, pattern blocks and Escher-like Tessellations. For a conclusion, although there were a lot of strategies, approaches and method applied by the writer in this lesson plan, the writer is more focus to hands on activity. To proof this, we can see that almost all of the planned strategies are based on students activity meanwhile the teacher just act as the mentor to guide the students on the whole of the teaching and learning process.

Source : http://www.enlvm.usu.edu/ma/classes/_shared/emready@transformations/info/ lessonplan.html The fourth article is also about a teaching plan. This time it is a weekly plan on teaching the topic of transformations. The lesson plan is based on 4 days of teaching with the duration of 50 minutes per tutorial. So what we can say is that the duration of time taken for the lesson is similar to the duration of time happens on our local secondary schools. So that will make it possible to implement the planed activity directly into our classes. But before we can proceed with the teaching and learning activity, we need to see either the syllabus is matching with our school syllabus. The lesson for the first day is mapping. The writer states the objectives of this lesson are to help students identify images and pre images of a mapping and recognize an isometric. On the second day lesson, the teacher plan to teach the reflections. For this skills the teacher states the objectives of the second lesson is to name a reflection image, to recognize line and point symmetry, and to draw a reflection image. For the third day is translation, fourth day is rotations and for the fifth day is dilations. From the weekly lesson plan, I can say that the approach that writer is trying to use is the deductive approach. We can see the effort when the writer always show or presented the students with the definitions before explaining or letting the students to explore the teaching and learning process

Four articles and four difference approaches, methods and strategies are used. Among all of the strategies use, I will choose the inductive applied with the constructive teaching approach. I choose these two teaching approaches is because Im agree that the teaching and learning process is supposed to be unlimited, fun and brings something new to the students. Without experience the lesson itself, it would be a little bit hard for the students to master all the skills in every lesson. When we look back to the definition of the inductive approach, this type of teaching is that the teacher presents the rule through situations and sentences, does guided and free practice then deduces or elicits the rule from the learners themselves. From The Oxford English Dictionary (OED); to induce (in relation to science and logic) means to derive by reasoning, to lead to something as a conclusion, or inference, to suggest or imply, and induction as the process of inferring a general law or principle from observation of particular instances. The teaching and learning process is supposed to be fun, meaningful and not in a bored situations. Constructive teaching approach is one of the solutions to plan a better and more fun on teaching and learning mathematics. Base on this teaching approach, the students will construct their own knowledge by the guidance of the teacher. Constructive teaching approach is a two ways of communication which is from the teacher to the students and from students to the teacher. This will give an advantage if compared to the traditional chalk and talk method. Among the strategies that I can choose to apply these approaches are by doing discussion along with the students, acting on the situation and students experimental observation on the topic teaches.

Before carrying out a lesson, the teacher itself should master the topic to be taught well. This is important so that teacher know where to start and when to trigger the students knowledge. Below are some definitions that should guide the teacher to do so. A transformation is a mapping f of A onto B such that each elements of B is the image of exactly one element of A. A transformation f is called an isometry of A onto B if it preserves distances. NOTE: The four basic Euclidean transformations: rotation, translations, reflection and glide reflections, are all isometries. Types of Euclidean Transformations A translation is a correspondence between points and their image points so that each image is the same distance in the same direction from the original point.

A rotation is a correspondence between points and their image points where one point is fixed and the image points are transformed at a new angle position. The example below shows 5 rotations of the original shape around the center point:

A reflection is a correspondence between points and their image points so that each image is transformed as a mirror image over a horizontal(vertical or other) line.

A glide reflection is a correspondence between points and their image points where the image points are the product of a reflection and a translation parallel to the fixed line of reflection. This is often used in ornamental patterns - seen especially in the Alhambra in Grenada, Spain.

5.0Reference

http://shodor.org/interactivate/discussions/SymmetryInTesselati/ http://shodor.org/interactive/lessons/TranslationsReflectionsRotations/ http://teachers.net/lessons/posts/2752.html http://www.enlvm.usu.edu/ma/classes/_shared/emready@transformations/info/lessonplan.htm l http://www.math.ubc.ca/~robles/hyperbolic/eucl/isom/

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