Anda di halaman 1dari 39

Archaic Fetishism

jwr47

Fig. 1: Philippe de Champaigne - The Last Supper (1648)


Courtesy of Muse des beaux-arts de Lyon, photograph by Rama (Wikipedia), public domain in the USA

Traditionally Jesus has been depicted in red & blue, the traitor Judas in yellow (at the left in the foreground with his purse in his hands). At the right side maybe also Thomas in yellow with his doubtful finger at his lips. Philippe de Champaigne seems to have been quite aware of the symbolic codes in medieval clothing and painting traditions. In The Annunciation c. 1645, The Visitation, and in The Annunciation, 1644 Mary always has been clothed in red & blue. In The Marriage of the Virgin1 the pregnant bride Mary is painted in red & blue along to her future husband in a yellow garment.

Fig. 2: Philippe de Champaigne The Marriage of the Virgin (ca. 1644)


Uploaded by: Acacia217 (Wikipedia), public domain in the USA

1 File:Philippe de Champaigne The Marriage of the Virgin.jpg

Raphael also applies the same medieval color coding in The Marriage of the Virgin (Raphael, 1504). One of the persons in the foreground breaks an arrow on his knees. It is a symbolic gesture which belongs to ancient wisdom and had been understood as so many other fetishism's contributions.

Fig. 3: The Marriage of the Virgin (Raphael, 1504)


Uploaded by: Sailko (Wikipedia), public domain in the USA

Archaic Fetishism
Archaic fetishism is an antipodal pole to modern fetishism: the belief that common objects such as colors might be attributed with supernatural powers. Why shouldn't the Coccinellidae have been equipped with supernatural power as well as the ass, the cat or even a common dog? Will we be able to prove these assumptions? In etymology Coccinella septempunctata has been associated with coccum, which in Exodus 25:4 is related to the divine commands in using the red color for the temple's decorations. Therefore in some languages this little red animal has been devoted to God. The bug is a fetish, which had been equipped with supernatural powers, probably for its red color.

The apex
Except for some languages accenting syllables is a mysterious habit, which is uncommon to most users. In written Latin, the apex (plural "apices") is a mark roughly with the shape of an acute accent ( ) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long. In a paleographic document written in Roman cursive, I found a sample ( jdicibus) for a word with a genuine apex and another (judicia) without an apex2. The sky-god's name Dyaus, which may be spelled as Dyous or Dyeus as well, uses a vowel core of three long and separated vocals, which must be pronounced individually and in ancient Latin these vowels would all need an apex such as in Ds, which may be spelled as Ds or Ds.

Acute accents
In seldom cases we may find illustrious authors who take the trouble to insert some of these Mothers of west-European reading, such as the Occitan poem Mireio in which the following clearly illustrate how they had to be accentuated: either by an acute accent (), a grave accent () or a circumflex (). The shape of the circumflex was originally a combination of the acute and grave accents (^), as it marked a syllable contracted from two vowels. In appendix 3 - Explaining the generation of ieu-sequences in Provencal dialects the following accentuated iu-, resp. iu-sequences have been documented: IU: Diu, iu, fiu, liura (from: liberare), ciutat, miu, ciutat, viure, escriure, soutiu IU: liura (from: libra)

Ds - Dis
The sky-god's name Ds (or Dis), which may be spelled as Ds (or Dis) or Dis (Ds) as well, uses a vowel core of three long and separated vocals, which must be pronounced individually. The diaeresis mark is sometimes used in English personal first and last names to indicate that two adjacent vowels should be pronounced separately, rather than as a diphthong. Examples include the given names Chlo and Zo, which otherwise might be pronounced with a silent e. To discourage a similar mispronunciation, the mark is also used in the surname Bront. It may be used optionally for words that do not have a morphological break at the diaeresis point, such as nave, Botes, and Nol.

2 Apex (diacritic)

However its use in words such as coperate and renter, previously sometimes found in US English, has been dropped or replaced by the use of a hyphen except in a very few publications-notably The New Yorker.3

Day
The vowels behave like in the Latin word dis (day), in which the e may be marked with a diaeresis mark to indicate that two adjacent vowels should be pronounced separately. The accentuated Spanish word for day is: da (from Latin: dies), which clearly separates the vowels I and A. In this paper I will follow the New Yorker for this rule and spell the sky god's name as Dis, Dis or Dis. This will make the divine name three-folded, in which the vowels I, A and U need to be pronounced. In analogy the Greek god Zeus should be written Zes to indicate the gap between the e and the u. Jupiter, which originated from IOU-piter, should be written I-piter to indicate the gap between the I, O and the U.

Jove
In a similar sense JOVE has to be understood as I. Je therefore simply may be considered as an original form of IOU-piter. Without diaeresis marks modern languages provoke mispronunciations. Especially English does not help us to correctly pronounce vocals by reading the corresponding written vowels. Pronouncing the word Zes is different from deuce (devil, twice,...), which in spite of its religious roots is being written without diaeresis mark.

Youth
YOUTH originated from Latin IUVENTUS, which suggest that we should consider the archaic spelling of youvth as yvth.

IAU, IEU and IOU-cores


The real goal for this study in archaic fetishism is the search for the IAU, IEU and IOU-cores in archaic dialects. I preferred to search for these elements in some Savoyard and Provencal dialects, but in some examples I will also use some other languages. The divine name largely consists of vowels, because only vocals may be extended to great lengths and spoken or sung at a very loud intensity. Originally the primary vowels had been restricted to I, A, U, but later their number has been expanded up to 5 (AEIOU4) or 7 (5 respectively in capital letters 6), or even more. Therefore all alphabetical vowels (including ,H and Y or ) should be considered as potential fetishes. The consonants are what they are named: consounding start and stop elements. Most important words do contain IAU or long sequences of vowels.

3 Diaeresis (diacritic) 4 AEIOU, or A.E.I.O.U., was a symbolic device utilized by the Habsburg emperors. Emperor Frederick III (1415 93), who had a fondness for mythical formulae, habitually signed buildings and objects with the acronym 5 AEEIOYO in the Nag Hammadi Library cited in Magic Words: A Dictionary 6 AEEIOYO Alpha, Epsilon, Eta, Iota, Omicron, Upsilon, Omega , from Magic Words: A Dictionary

Transmutations
Not all words with IAU are based on the original IAU-core of Dys or IEU of Dis. Some of these words had been generated by eliminating letters and/or transforming consonants into vowels such as in the (French) sample: VIVRE > viure > viure, in which the v transmuted into u and and had been inserted between I and U.

IA
In the Greek alphabet the elementary triad had been defined as I, A, , which by the way is the Church Fathers' translation of the Tetragrammaton YHWH7.

Primary Colors
The primary colors red,blue, yellow and green also belong to the elementary fetishes, which as the divine commands for the raw dyes ( the red coccum and the purple murex snail) to be used in producing temple's decorations have been listed in Exodus 25:4. The third color has been mistranslated in translations and interpretations. In modern Bibles the third color is defined as blue, but a few centuries ago some translators interpreted the color as yellow. Strange as it may seem this error has been existing for so many centuries. Yellow is correlating to the verb to jell. Originally jelling must have been positive symbols, but in the course of time yellow's character turned to negativity.

Runes
In the Futharc evolution the -symbol rune has been defined twice, and the elder of both runes also represents the long -vowel we find in the IU-core. The equivalence of I and , which both have been used for ego-pronouns in English respectively in Scandinavian dialects, suggests to consider this *(h)waz/*ei(h)waz-rune as the most important of all runic symbols. This link between I and might have caused the English language to use I (or Y) as an egopronoun. The most important runic inscription is the AIFIK-rune,8 which - by the way - starts with an Avowel and ends with an -vowel. The striking number of vowels in all derivative entries is illustrative. The F-consonant sometimes behaves like a V/U and a double U (W) and maybe considered as a semi-vowel in Anglo-Saxon: euwin, euwinik, euwik, ewic (eternal). In runic inscriptions eternity has been symbolized by a sequence of vowels. In Lapland eternity has been symbolized by the winter night.

Correlations
These samples demonstrate the correlation between the divine names, the words for day, Thursdays and ego-pronouns. Also the words for justice, piousness, youth, yoke and joy belong to the words with traces of etymological fetishism. These correlations are based on fetishism in which a person tries to relate his ego (and some of his elementary principles) to the divine Creator's attributes. It is a simplified creation in a singular word (the ego-pronoun).

7 The Hermetic Codex II - Bipolar Monotheism 8 Udo Waldemar Dieterich: Das Runenwrterbuch (1844)

Runes
The easiest access to fetishes may be found in the runes, which as isolated items may be telling their own story. The Elder Futhark is the oldest form of the runic alphabets and has been in use from the 2nd to 8th centuries. The alphabet consists of twenty-four runes, often arranged in three groups of eight runes called an tt9. Especially the vowels my be considered as special elements. First of all I concentrate on the archaic vowels I, A, U and .

I, A, U
U = Ur (u, Ur, ?*ruz), represented by an upside-down V A = Ansuz (a, *ansuz) later representing other phonemes such as /o/ 10. The shape of the rune is likely from Neo-Etruscan a ( ), like Latin A ultimately from Phoenician aleph11. I = Is (i, "ice", *saz), represented by a vertical rod similar to I

IO for Yew12 ?
It might be a good idea to also investigate the special case , which symbolized a great number of important topics such as eternity, law, matrimony, the ego-pronoun, etc... 13 : This rune had been included in the Elder Futhark as well": 14 = Yew ( or / o , "yew-tree, *(h)waz/*ei(h)waz ) This Yew-rune is sometimes associated with the World tree Yggdrasil, which, imagined as an ash in Norse mythology, may formerly have been a yew or an oak. The Proto-Germanic for "oak" was another vowel: *aiks (PIE *aigs, likely cognate to Greek krat-aigon), the name of another futhorc rune, ac, which has, however, no Elder Futhark predecessor. It is commonly transliterated as or , or, in reconstructions of Proto-Germanic, 2. Its phonetic value at the time of the invention of the Futhark (2nd century) was not necessarily a diphthong, but possibly a long vowel somewhere between [i] and [e] or [], continuing Proto-Indo-European language *ei 15. Another source even manages to add the old English oh-rune ( o) to these transcripts. The overall transliteration may even have been a vowel-sequence such as IAE or AEI..., (or including eo) even AEIO which might correlate to the Greek word or aion (etymologically related with aei on, however, that is: ever being [in Greek: ]).

9 The Scandinavian clan or tt was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a ing. Runology defines the following tt-sets (row of 8 runes): (1) fuarkgw, (2) hnijpzs, (3) tbemlod). 10 Runic transliteration and transcription 11 Source: Ansuz 12 Taxus baccata is the longest-living plant in Europe. Yew is also the wood of choice for producing longbows. 13 (The Creation Legend encoded in a Singular Vowel) 14 In many western, northern, and southwestern Norwegian dialects, and in the western Danish dialects of Thy and Southern Jutland, has a significant meaning: the first person singular pronoun I, and it is thus a normal spoken word; usually, it is written as when these dialects are rendered in writing. 15 Source: *(h)waz/*ei(h)waz

A O, for Ash, A
The Anglo-Saxon futhorc split the Elder Futhark a rune into three independent runes due to the development of the vowel system in Anglo-Frisian. These three runes are: s (transliterated o), sc "ash" (transliterated , "spear" ), ac "oak" (transliterated a).

This suggests to consider the O and E-vowels as secondary symbolic elements and minor fetishes. In the Futharc evolution the -symbol rune has been defined twice, and the elder of both runes also represents the long -vowel we find in the IU-core. The equivalence of I and , which both have been used for ego-pronouns in English respectively in Scandinavian dialects, suggests to consider this *(h)waz/*ei(h)waz-rune as the most important of all runic symbols. This link between I and might have caused the English language to use I (or Y) as an egopronoun.

Mythology
In Norse mythology, the World Tree Yggdrasil is commonly held to be an ash tree, and the first man, Ask, was formed from an ash tree16. ( Ask and Embla)

Elder Futhark
The Proto-Germanic vowel system was asymmetric and unstable. The difference between the long vowels expressed by e and (sometimes transcribed as *1 and *2) were lost. The Younger Futhark continues neither, lacking a letter expressing e altogether17. The Old English names of all 24 runes of the Elder Futhark are preserved in the Old English rune poem, compiled in the 8th or 9th century. Some of the vowels are the runes: E = Ehwaz, Horse (e, *ehwaz) O = Os (o/, "mouth", "Odin"),

Dotted runes u, k and i are transliterated as y, g and e.

Extra runes are vowels


Furthermore, the Old English rune poem gives the names of five runes which are Anglo-Saxon innovations and have no counterpart in Scandinavian or continental tradition. All of these extra runes are vowels: Ac (a, "oak"), sc (, "ash"), Yr (y , ??), Ior and Ear (ea).

16 Source: Ash tree 17 Source: Ehwaz

The AIFIK-rune
The most important runic inscription is the AIFIK-rune, 18 which - by the way - starts with an Avowel and ends with an -vowel. The striking number of vowels in all derivative entries is illustrative. The F-consonant sometimes behaves like a V/U and a double U (W) and maybe considered as a semi-vowel in Anglo-Saxon: euwin, euwinik, euwik, ewic (eternal). Eternity has been symbolized by a sequence of vowels. The English (all-vowel) word ay (always, probably derived from the Scandinavian 19, which also in dialects is being used as an ego-pronoun) may have been used as a root for the ego-pronoun (I) and for confirmations (aye yes) or negations (nay no) as well. In Lapland the night and eternity may be correlating because in fact in the wintertime Lapland's nights are lasting eternally. This however will only be valid for the nights in Lapland. eternal, Icelandic: 20 (always), a or (ai, adi, ad) to last, fi (time, lifetime), Swedish, Danish: evig (eternal), Gothic: aivs (time, a long time), aiveins (eternal) Old High German: io (always), ewa (a long time, contract, law, matrimony), Anglo-Saxon: , ava, euwin, euwinik, euwik, ewic (eternal), English: ay (<missing explanation> Always; ever.), Greek: (<missing explanation> always), Lapland: eke (the elder Uncle), ekewes (eternal), ik (eternal), iko (at night), ija (the night), ekked (evening). Is it true that eternity and Night and Ragnarckr are correlating?) Aifik Jufur, Eternal God! Lapland: Ekewes Jubmel.

Fig. 4: AIFIK-Runic documentation by Udo Waldemar Dieterich (1844)

18 Source: Udo Waldemar Dieterich: Das Runenwrterbuch (1844) 19 See for details: for ternity - A World made of Word(s) 20 See for details: for ternity - A World made of Word(s)

Tir, Tyr, Tiw


Another interesting rune is Tir. The Tir rune appears to have adopted the Scandinavian form ( Tr, the Anglo-Saxon cognate being Tiw). However, tr exists as a noun in Old English, with a meaning of "glory, fame honor". Perhaps involving the original meaning of Tiw, the god associated with fame and honor. Remarkable is the spelling in various languages, suggesting that Y may have been derived from or equivalent to IU: Icelandic Tiur, Swedish Tjur, Danish Tyr.

Younger Futhark
In the Younger Futhark, which has 16 letters, they are divided into three groups. The Icelandic tradition calls 1. the first group (f, u, , , r and k) "Freyr's tt", 2. the second group (h, n, i, a and s) "Hagal's tt" and 3. the third group (t, b, m, l and R) Tyrs tt"21.

21 Cipher runes

The divine sky god Dyaus


Studying some Savoyard dialects 22 I found a number of interesting etymological features. Based on the sky-god's name Dyaus I started searching the Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard for variants of the vowel triads. The dictionary provides us with lots of local variants, which have been caused by the multiple remote locations in mountainous areas. The Savoyard dialects are also rather old: The antiquated character of the Savoyard patois is striking. One can note it not only in phonetics and morphology, but also in the vocabulary, where one finds numerous words and directions that clearly disappeared from French23. In French the separated pronunciation of subsequent vowels (i-a-u, i-o-u or i-e-u) seems to be more abundant than in other languages. Scholars have been investigating how these spellings developed in French dialects. An overview is given in appendix 3. The transfers EU -> IEU differ from I -> IU -> IEU, because the EU-combination in dem and mem had been originated as religious fetishes, whereas other vowel sequences have been developing according to other mechanisms.

Dis, Dieu, Djo, Dju, Dz, Dzu...


The variants for the divine name Dieu have been listed in the Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard as follows (in which the most important variant has been highlighted in capital letters and all irrelevant information has been skipped for clarity24): DIEU nm.: djeu, dj, djou, dju, djyu, dyeu, dye, dyo, dyou, DYU, dz, dzhyu, dzu. A1)) le bon Dieu : L'BON ~ dzhyunm. (081) / dzu /DYU/ Dyeu / Dyo. A2)) Dieu (dans les jurons25) : dyou, gu, gue, goura, ki, dzo, dzola, ble. A3)) l'enfant Dieu : l'fan Dyeunm. (228), l'fan Dyu (001). --R.1------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- anc. hindou : Dyaus [dieu du ciel] / g. Zeus/ l. Jupiter[pre de Jov] / norrois26 Tyr. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Savoyard dialects prefer the spelling Dyu. Of course the remarkable DZ-variants dz, dzhyu, dzu, may refer to Greek colonists in Marseille. The origin of Gu, gue, goura may be unclear and correlating to God. Blue simply seems to be associated in the sounding: Nom de Dieu Nom de Bleu. I selected and applied some of the vowel combinations as valuable search strings in the same dictionary to trace correlations with other words. The first hit turned out to be the "Ladybird" and "ladybug", which in French had been devoted to God ( bte Bon Dieu)27. God and daylight seem to be interrelated: BON-DIEU (LE), nm. Bon-Dy (L'), Bon-Dz (Le), adyu[adieu].

22 23 24 25 26 27

This study has been based on Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard by Roger Viret source: Franco-Provenal language A sorted and condensed extract from Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard is listed in appendix 1. The applications seem to be restricted to vulgar words. The old norrois language is a medieval Scandinavian dialect . Coccinellidae

The possessive pronouns


Some pronouns (especially the possessive pronouns 28) have been structured according to the divine names of the sky-god. That is: their vowels are lengthy and isolated. Therefore their spelling should be considered as to provide the words with diaeresis marks: meus mes (in French dialects: MEUM > meu > miu29) suus sus eius eus huius huc eus ei

Words with diaeresis marks


I reconstructed some of the words with diaeresis marks: dis ( derived from diu day30) Duts (German) and Dits ( derived from dit the people, and diutisc) duden ( derived from dit the people, and diutisc)

Days of the week


The Savoyard calender had been explained as follows31: d'lion: lundi (Monday) d'mre: mardi (Tuesday) d'mcre: mercredi (Wednesday) de diu: jeudi (Thursday) d'vindre: vendredi (Friday) d'sonde: samedi (Saturday) d'minge: dimanche32 (Sunday)

Thursday had been devoted to the local deity Diu, which had been derived from Dyaus. The Savoyard dialects however preferred the spelling variant Dyu. JEUDI nm. DeDYU, djou, dju, dezyeu, deje, dezye, d(e)zhou, d(e)zhu, dzhyu, dzou, dzye. A1)) le jeudi saint33: l(e) gran d(e)dyu [le grand jeudi], le dzhu s, l'dzhyu sin. And the Savoyard words day obviously also correlate to the divine names:
28 29 30 31 32 33 34

JOUR34 nm. Dzrt, dzo(r), dzort, zdor, zeur, zh, zhr, zhe, zheu(r), ZHr, zhr, zhrt, Zhoor, zhour, zor, R. l. diurnu. JOURNE nf.; journe de travail: dzorn, zdorn, zheurn, ZHORN, zhorniva, zorn.

Latijn/Morfologie voornaamwoorden From Appendix 3 compare: diurnus at daylight, daily Source: Parler savoyard Dominicus dies Maundy Thursday Day

Pious
The word for pious will also be related to the ieu-words: PIEUX35 (Latijn: pious).

Curses
In curses we may find a number of words like gu, gue, which may be interpreted as good God (bon dieu). And also good day bonjour has been identified as a modification of dyou ( the good Dyous). JURON36 B2)) bon ~ dyu / dyou / zou / gu / gue [bon dieu], bon Dzu (083), bonjou(r) [bonjour] (dformation de bon dyou), non de bonjou[nom de bonjour], bont [bont] (dformation de bon Dye [bon dieu]); bon dyou d(e) bon dyou-n(228) ; vin dyou(001c,228), vin dyu, vin jou, vin zou, vin Dyou d(e) vin Dyou, mile dyou; bon san, bon Dyu d'bon Dyu, bon gu, d(e) bon gu [bon dieu de dieu = bon sang de bon sang], bon gue d'bon gue, bon dyou d(e) bon dyou (228), bont de bont (juron surtout fminin).

35 pious 36 curses

The ego-pronoun (JE, d, do, dye, dzeu, dzou, zde, ze, zou...)
The Je-words also include the ego-pronoun, which in a great number of languages and French dialects correlates with the divine name Dieu as well as with the word Thursday ( Jeudi) and the words for day: JE, J', pr. pers. sujet atone 1re p. sing.: DE, de (deu), d, d / d, do, dye, dzeu, dzou, zde, ze, zhe, zhou, zou, zounh.

Of all these variants the Savoyard dialects prefer De, which does not really correlate to Ego. Instead we might think the ego-pronoun possibly is to be related to: Dyu, Dieu or Dyaus, especially in the spelling variants: dye, dzeu, dzou. These correlations between the divine name and the ego-pronoun may be illustrated by some samples: In his poem Mirio the author Frdric Mistral uses the ego-pronoun Iu translation: I and Diu for God37. Antoine Hippolyte Bigot (1825 - 1897) composed a poem Fraternita in which he applied the word Yiou for the ego-pronoun I and Dou for the divine name God38. In another version of the poem the author however used Ieu as the ego-pronoun I and Dieu for God. Apart from French dialects the neighboring languages also provide us with similar correlations39: In the Sardinian dialect Campidanese the ego-pronoun du is quite similar to the divine name God Deu40. In Romanian language the ego-pronoun eu is a subset of vowels from the divine name Zeu. The same mechanism seems to rule over Italian io, respectively Dio, in Sicily iu, resp. Diu, in Sppanish yo, resp. Dios, in Portuguese eu and Deus. In Romansh the ego-pronoun is "jau, for which the people name themselves Jauer, which obviously correlates to the PIE-name for the sky-God Dyaus. In Sursilvan dialect jeu relates to the sky-god Deus. Of course in analogy to Dis, Dis and Dis these ego-pronouns probably should be spelled j respectively j or j). These correlations had been based on archaic fetishism in which man These correlations are based on fetishism in which a person tries to relate his ego (and some of his elementary principles) to the divine Creator's attributes. It is a simplified creation in a singular word (the ego-pronoun). In The Ego-pronouns and Divine Names in Savoy French Dialects the local variants of the egopronouns have been correlated to the divine name.

Siu I have been


Sometimes the ego-pronoun has been integrated in a verb, e.g. iu in Siu: Sample: Siu nascu Maiano, en 1830 I have been born in Maiano, in 183041

37 38 39 40 41

Mirio (English Version) - A Provenal poem by Frdric Mistral Yiou & Dou in the dialect of Nimes Etymology of the Ego-Pronoun (I) Spelling Thee, U and I: Etymology of the Ego-Pronoun (I) Discours QXP - Universit de Provence

Medieval color definitions


Red
In the Middle Ages the Cochineal has been defined as the biblical source for the red dye in the Temple's decorations42. The lice named coccum probably have been misinterpreted as identical or to the equally red 7-dotted Coccinella septempunctata, which is colored in the correct red hue. In some of the Savoyard dialects the Coccinella43 has been named (God's animal bte Bon Dieu): COCCINELLE nf. ( manteau rouge ponctu de noir): bt' Bon Dyu [bte Bon Dieu] , btse bon dzu; btche bon Dyo.

This devotion may have been inspired on the biblical translation (such as in Exodus 25:4), in which the Temple's decorations had to be dyed with coccum44. Both the coccum and the Coccinella had been defined as fetishes, in which the color red related the animals to the divinity.

Blue and yellow


The archaic and medieval sources are well-known to have been infected with translation errors 45. Especially the color blue has been misinterpreted as yellow. The cause may have been the hyacinth's definition, which had been considered as yellow instead of blue. In the hyacint's images we indeed may identify some yellow or even rose variants. The oldest sources for misinterpretations are the Delftse bijbel published 1477, introducing yellow in parallel to blue well before Luther's translation, and the Liesveltbijbel (1542), derived from Luther's Bible, published in Antwerpes, replacing blue by yellow. Delftse bijbel (1477), translated from a Historic Bible (around 1360): [3]Ende dit ist dat ghi ontfaen sult. Gout ende siluer ende coper [4]ende zide blaeu root gheel46 ende twewarf gheuerwet ende wit vlas. ende haer van gheyten. [5]ende weders vellen gheroot Ende blaeu vellen. ende hout van sethim... Liesveltbijbel (1542) published at Antwerpes, and translated from the Luther Bible: 3Ende dit is dat hefoffer dat ghy van hem nemen sult, gout, siluer, metael, 4geel side, schaerlaken, rosetroot, witte ghetweernde side, geyten hayr, 5roode rams vellen, hemelblau vellen, vueren hout,.. Correct however is the translation in the Leuven Bible (1548) published at Leuven, authorized by the Church and translated from the Vulgata: [3]Ende dit es tghene dat ghy nemen moet, Gout, ende siluer, ende metael [4]hemels blau sijde, purpur sijde, ende roode sijde twee-mael gheuerwet, ende wit lijnwaet, gheyten hayr, [5]ende rams vellen root gheuerwet, ende ianthinen vellen, ende sethim hout,

42 43 44 45 46

Exodus 25:4 In Italian the animal is named coccinelle Analysis of the Translation Errors in Exodus 25-4 Analysis of the Translation Errors in Exodus 25-4 Dit is een merkwaardige vertaling. Geel is kennelijk toegevoegd na rood in plaats van purper.

The original source is the Vulgata 4e-5e JH. (reconstructed): 3 haec sunt autem quae accipere debetis aurum et argentum et aes 4 hyacinthum et purpuram coccumque bis tinctum et byssum pilos caprarum 5 et pelles arietum rubricatas pelles ianthinas et ligna setthim In fact the colors do not really matter as much as the prescribed materials (the hyacinth, the purple snail and the coccum). The coccum however may also have been misinterpreted as the Coccinella. This leads us to the question what may have happened to both other color sources hyacinth et purple. The purple problem seems to be solved by Bolinus brandaris (which had been named murex by the Romans) and the Hexaplex trunculus47.

Jaune
The French word for the color yellow is jaune. In the dialect the word dzono correlates with dzu (God) and of all French color words Jaune probably correlates best to Diau, resp. Dieu. Additionally the weekday Jeudi (Thursday) and the corresponding divine name Jeu (Dyeus, YHVH, IU-piter) seems to be related to jaune. JAUNE adj., roux : dzono / zhono / ZHNO, -A, -E. In the Savoyard dialects however jaune is not really yellow, but reddish ( roux), that is: more or less an orange-like copper color, which might be used to define reddish hair. In fact yellow developed to become to a negative symbol, which had been used for traitors 48. After the Renaissance yellow is to become a negative symbol for non-Christians (e.g. for Jews) as well49. Judas will often be depicted with reddish hair - jaune (red)50. Other attributes are his purse, the yellow garment, the isolated seat at the other side of the table, the missing nimbus. These are the five signals, which had been used to educate the illiterate people in medieval churches. Yellow is the color for avarice and cowardice51. In The Kiss of Judas, painted by Giotto di Bondone, Judas is wearing a yellow garment52. The words yellow and yell are correlating. Yellow (French: jaune, Italian: giallo...) is a yelling color53, which might explain the religious background of pronouncing a response to the divine name54 once in a year at the Feast of Trumpets55 including the Day of Atonement56. During the day the High Priest would pronounce the name of Yahweh ten times in total and each time the priests standing close by would make themselve prone upon the ground and the congregation would shout out, "Blessed be the name of God, Holy is His name and may his Kingdom be for now and forever!"
47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 source: Tyrian purple Yellow for Judas Yellow Giotto's The Kiss of Judas (1304-06) Yellow-belly is an American expression which means a coward. Yellow Yellow The Kohen Gadol went to the eastern end of the Israelite courtyard near the Nikanor Gate, laid his hands (semikha) on the goat for the Lord, and pronounced confession on behalf of the Kohanim (priests). The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. 55 The Feast of Trumpets (Yom Teruah) literally means the day of shouting... 56 Yom Kippur

Teruah57 is usually defined to be a long blast with three peeks during the blowing. There is some controversy over the exact sound that is to be made but the shofar was blown throughout Yom Teruah58.

Magenta
The Dutch word paars is correlating with the Savoyard dialect word pers (blue, azure). A1)) bleu, azur : pers, -e, -e.59 This corresponds to J. Vercoullie (1925), Beknopt etymologisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal60: paars bijv., Mnl. peers, uit Fr. pers, van Mlat. persum (-us) = perzikkleurig. The Savoyard dialect however does translate the word pers to blue, azure, which cannot be related to peaches-colored. In the end all of these color definitions are about as unreliable as Bible translations.

57 58 59 60

A rams horn day of atonement Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard van Roger Viret, pagina 251 paars (kleur) - etymologiebank.nl

The colors of Tyre


In November 2012 I studied the dye tradings of Tyre 61 and the Hebrew definition for blue, which has been investigated by Clarke in Clarke's Commentary on the Bible62: Blue - techeleth, generally supposed to mean an azure or sky color; rendered by the Septuagint , and by the Vulgate hyacinthum, a sky-blue or deep violet. Purple - argaman, a very precious color, extracted from the purpura or murex, a species of shell-fish, from which it is supposed the famous Tyrian purple came, so costly, and so much celebrated in antiquity. See this largely described, and the manner of dyeing it, in Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. ix., c. 60-65, edit. Bipont. Scarlet - tolaath, signifies a worm, of which this coloring matter was made; and, joined with shani, which signifies to repeat or double, implies that to strike this color the wool or cloth was twice dipped: hence the Vulgate renders the original coccum bis tinctum, "scarlet twice dyed;" and to this Horace refers, Odar., lib. ii., od. 16, v. 35. This leaves little or no chance to allow yellow as a correct translation for hyacinth. This however does not imply yellow never has been a fetish element. In fact gold, silver and copper also belonged to the divine commands for decorations. In Lamentation for Tyre Ezekiel describes the important export goods and symbolic colors of the archaic global trading. Th most popular colors were purple, red and sky blue, and all of these were religious symbols, or to be more precise fetishes. The colors provided the bearers and owners of garments divine powers. Some of the symbolism may have survived in the imperial Roman prescriptions of Nero, who ordered the exclusivity of purple to the members of the royal family. Red, blue and white are still the most popular flag symbols. Equally red and blue are the symbols to identify male and female elements63. In order to investigate some of the aspects of these colors in Greek and Roman society I also checked the The Parallel Lives by Plutarch64 (100 AD). From this documentation we may understand the colors' symbolism. The Greeks and Romans had reserved purple for their highest ranks65. Red had been reserved as a fetish for male power and authority. Ezekiel 27 documents the trading relations and trading goods, for which Tyre had been famous. Trading included gems, silver, iron, tin, lead, gold, slaves and copper vessels, horses, riders, mules, ivory and ebony. For all trading partners the mayor trading goods have been specified.

61 62 63 64 65

Lamentation for Tyre source: Clarke's Commentary on the Bible quoted in Capita Selecta on Red and Blue Coloration Red and Blue as Gender Symbols and Lamentation for Tyre The Parallel Lives by Plutarch published in Vol. VI of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1918 public domain Symbolism of Purple and Scarlet in Greek and Roman Societies

Sounds66
In French dialects various sounds are using words with IAU and IOU-cores. The usage suggests to consider the animals, which are able to utter such sounds, might have been considered as fetishes with supernatural powers.

The IAU-bray67 of Donkeys


According to Gerald Massey the Egyptians named a donkey a Iu, Aiu, or Aai, in which the elementary diphthong IA has been encoded, which in archaic eras had been identified 68 as the sevenfold vocal sequence. From: Ancient Egypt The Light of the World (Vol. 1-page 506) by Gerald Massey The ass and the young sun-god also were both named Iu, and Iu was the son of Atum-Ra, the ass being his zotype. Iu, as Egyptian, is represented by Iao in Phoenician and in Hebrew. Clement Alexander, who was an Egyptian, spells the name of Jehovah as Iau. Thus, Iu is the ass in Egyptian, Iao is a name of the god with an asss head, and Iau is Jehovah, the god of the Jews and the Christians also. Epiphanius asserts that the deity Sabaoth has the face of an ass. He calls it the gnostic Sabaoth. But Sabaoth was also the Jewgod, or god Iu, who was known by the name of Iao-Sabaoth. In fact IU is the basic vocal combination in the name of the Roman supreme deity Jupiter, which also had been identified inside YHWH. For this reason the ass is a holy fetish, which is enabled to utter nothing else but the prototype of the divine vowel combination69: The Egyptians call the donkey by the name of Iu, Aiu, and Aai, three forms of one primary diphthong in which the seven vowel-sounds originated. Aiu or Iu with the A protheic shows the process of accretion or agglutination which led to the word Aiu, Iao, Ioa, Iahu becoming extended to the seven vowels finally represented in the fully drawn-out name of Jehovah, which was written with the seven vowels by the Gnostics. The animal with his loud voice and long-continued braying was an unparalleled prototype of the Praiser and Glorifier of the Gods or Nature-Powers. He uttered his vowel-sounds at the bottom and top of the octave which had only to be filled in for the Ass to become one of the authors of the musical scale. In China the immortals are riding donkeys70. The donkey was the symbol of the Egyptian sun god Ra as well as the Greek god Dionysus. The bray of an ass may be heard at a distance of several kilometers and signalizes the status of the braying animal.

66 67 68 69 70

List of animal sounds bray Albanian language uses seven vowels: A, E, , I, O, U, Y (Albanian ) Gerald Massey's Ancient Egypt (page 39 & 40) and Notes to Gerald Massey's Ancient Egypt Donkey

Mew / meowing
Other animals which (in French spelling) may be uttering the basic vowel sequence (m)IAOU are the cats and generally all Felidae: MIAOU onom., cri du chat, cri du chat en rut : myou // onom. Mo.

Piauler (to twitter, to beep, to scream) and vyou (to howl)


The correlation between the yelling color Jaune and English yellow (with the screaming yell) and Dutch geel (with a yelling gil) have been discussed already. In French dialects however we will find comparable variants of these expressions. Twittering and crying applies IOU-based words: PIOULER vi. fl. => Piauler. VYOU onom., viou, vyouvyou, viouviou, (bruit que font les pneus d'une auto qui prend un virage toute allure) : vyouvyou. Vyou and viou are based on the screaming sounds caused by slipping tires:

Justice
This category includes several IU-words. Correlations exist to the the divine names for jujo en dzudz (describing the judge). The Iuio-variant even is a genuine vowel-sequence. Al of these words include Jupiter's IU-core, but initially rely on the threefold IOU-core. Of course the sky god (Dyaus, Jupiter, resp. YHWH) also had to be considered as the master judge. JUBILATION nf. => moi, Joie. JUCHER71 => Percher. JUGE72 n. JUJO, -A, -E || mpl., dzudz. JUGER73 vt. JUJ (with a great number of declinations....) JUSTE an., exact, prcis ; quitable, honnte : JUSTO, -A, -E || m., dzust. JUSTICE nf., for extrieur : dzustisse, JUSTISSE.

Juste and Justice may also be spelled with a Dz instead of a J: dzust en dzustisse.

71 To grade up 72 The judge 73 To judge

Alternative IEU-, JE-, JOU- and IU-words


French dialects have been equipped with many more IEU-words than IAU- and IOU-words. The following JEU-words have been identified: JEUN74 () ladv. DYON, zhon. JEUNE an., adolescent ; jeune homme ; jeune fille : djwin-no (Dserts) / dwan-no / dywan-no / dzwno / jwan-no / jwno / jwin-no / jwno / zhouno (Houches) / zhwan-no / zhwno / zhwno / ZHWIN-NO / zwan-no / zwin-no / z(y)wan-no || dzwinh-n, dzwinh-n, ..., dzou-n || dv., zhwnozmpl., zhwnezfpl. (). - < afr. NDE. 11e s. jovene< vlat. *jovenis< clat. juvenis=> Fille, D. => Jeunesse, Jeunet. JENE75 nm., dite : dyon-no, zhon-no, zon-no , zhono (Arvillard), zhwno (BalmeSi.), jejunus [affam], D. => Jener. JENER76 vi. dzon-n, dyon-n, zhon-n, zon-n, indyon-n, R. Jene. JEUNESSE77 nf. (tat, priode de vie) : jwin-nssa, dywan-nssa, jwan-nssa, zhwnssa , R.2 Jeune. JEUNET78 an. => dwan-n, -ta, -e, R. Jeune. JEU79 nm. JE, dzw, jw, zw, zhw . JOUER80 vt. ; vi., jouer, s'amuser : djoug, doy / doh, dwh, d(y)wy, dzouy , jouh, zdoy, zheuy, zhy, ZHOY, zhyzh, zhweuy, zhwy, zhw, zoy, zholy. MIEUX81 VIEUX82: maybe to be interpreted as not youthful. (mon-)SIEUR LIEU, milieu PIEU83 (in dialects also: morceau84) JOYEUX adj., gai: jwaye/ joyow, -za, -e ; golyu, -za, -e. - E. : Heureux.

Related to games are:

Common-based words are:

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

sober To fast To fast youth Very young game To risk, to play The better, the best old pole, bed (nest) piece

The Celts probably have been using the yoke in a matrimonial ceremony85. JOUG86 nm. (en bois pour atteler les boeufs) : zha, zheu, zhe, zh, zhou, zhow, zeu, dz, R. l. jugum=> Joue.

85 The yoke as a symbol in matrimonial ceremonies has been documented by Tacitus in Germana 86 Yoke, Latin: jugum

Appendix 1: Dictionary for IOU, IAU en IEU-cores


Words have been listed from Dictionnaire Franais Savoyard. In order to keep the list simple the geographical locations have been removed. The missing information may be retrieved from the original dictionary.

IOU-words
CHIOUSE: excrment, fiente, crotte 87 FIOULE nm., fuel, fuel-oil, mazout : fyoulo. MILDIOU nm., maladie des feuilles ~ de la vigne et de la pomme de terre : MILDYOU. NIOULER: pleurer88 PIOULER vi. fl. => Piauler, parler d'une voix aigu (une pioule), se plaindre, rler RAVIOULE nf. fl., raviule, ravile => Pomme de terre. RIOUTE / RIOUTTE nf. fl. => Ptisserie. RIOULE (faire la): fte89 THIOU (LE), npr. masc., canal dversoir du lac d'Annecy et qui se jette dans le Fier : L'TYOU. THIOIS, parl entre Thionville et Maastricht, est souvent appel "francique mosellan90 VYOU onom., viou, vyouvyou, viouviou, (bruit que font les pneus d'une auto qui prend un virage toute allure) : vyouvyou. Vin(g)t DIOU91: mince, zut92 ZOUINS93: Personnage aimant paresser tout en se plaignant

JOU-words
JOUBARBE nf. : papakolonnm., rba de Sin-Joz. JOUDRON (LE) riv. le Zhoudron. JOUABLE94 adj. zhyblo / zhoyblyo, -A, -E. JOUE95 nf. ZHWA, zhw, zhw, jw, zva, - zhw< vlat. DEF *gauta< *gabita< pie. *gaba[jabot] => Abcs, JOUER96 vt. ; vi., jouer, s'amuser : djoug, doy / doh, dwh, d(y)wy, dzouy , jouh, zdoy, zheuy, zhy, ZHOY, zhyzh, zhweuy, zhwy, zhw, zoy, zholy.

87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Parler savoyard Parler savoyard Parler savoyard Vocabulaires et toponymie des pays de montagne Parler savoyard Vingt dieux, la belle glise ! Parler savoyard playable cheek To risk, to play

JOUFFLU97 adj., potel : potu, -w, -w, potl, -, -, ryon, -da, -e[rond] (001) ; joflyu/ jouflu, -w, -w/ -weu. JOUG98 nm. (en bois pour atteler les boeufs) : zha, zheu, zhe, zh, zhou, zhow, zeu, dz, R. l. jugum=> Joue. JOUIR99 vi. (d'une terre, d'un bien, de sa retraite ...) : gdi, profit [profiter] JOUR100 nm. Dzrt , dzo(r), dzort , zdor , zeur, zh, zhr , zhe , zheu(r), ZHr, zhr, zhrt, Zhoor, zhour, zor, R. l. diurnu. JOURNAL nm. (de terre), mesureagraire valant en Savoie 2948,37 m ou 400 toises carres (Il correspond une journe de labour. L'hectare donc vaut 3 journaux et 156 toises) : zhornnm, zhorn, zeurn, zorn. JOURNAL nm. (papier journal) : zhorninv, zhorn / zheurn, pl. zhorny , zhornalo, pl. Zhorn, journaloinv, jornalo, pl. Jorn, journalo, pl. Journ. JOURNE nf. ; journe de travail : dzorn, zdorn, zheurn, ZHORN, zhorniva, zorn. JOUX nm. fl. => Fort. JOUXTE anc. prp. => Prs. JOUXTER vt. => Adjacent, Toucher ; joust, tosh, apandre. JOYAU nm. => Bijou. JOYEUX adj., gai: jwaye/ joyow, -za, -e ; golyu, -za, -e. - E. : Heureux.

IAU-words
ATTRIAU / atriau, nm., petit pt de forme arrondie // boulette lgrement aplatie DIAU nm. fl., diot => Saucisse101. HIAUTE (la) (ou Yaute) : Haute-Savoie102 MIAOU onom., cri du chat, cri du chat en rut : myou R. /// onom. Mo. NIAULE nf. => Eau-de-vie. PIAULE nf., chambre : pyla. PIAULER vi., ppier, pousser de petits cris plaintifs,

97 Chubby, chubby-faced 98 Yoke, Latin: jugum 99 Enjoy 100Day 101sausage 102Source: Parler savoyard

JAU-words
JAUGE103 nf. jja, zhzhe. JAUGER104 vt. JJ. JAUNTRE adj. zhnasso, -a, -e, zhnafu, -ou, -ou. Jaune, D. => Crotte105. JAUNE106 adj., roux : dzono / zhono / ZHNO/ zdno / jno, -A, -E.

IEU-words
AEUL (Grand-pre)107 ARTIEU108: orteil MIEUX109 VIEUX DYE, DIEU (MON-)SIEUR LIEU, MILIEU PIEU (morceau) BON-DIEU (LE), nm. Bon-Dy (L')(Albanais), Bon-Dz (Le) (Montagny-Bozel, COD.). adyu[adieu] (001). COCCINELLE nf. ( manteau rouge ponctu de noir) : perntanf. ; parpavoula(St-PierreAlb.), PArPYULAnf., paplyoula [belle dame] nf., parpyoula, R. Papillon ; bt' Bon Dyu [bte Bon Dieu] nf. (001), btse bon dzu; talyenm., btche bon Dyo. DIEU nm. : djeu, dj, djou, dju, djyu, dyeu, dye, dyo, dyou, DYU, dz, dzhyu, dzu. A1)) le bon Dieu : L'BON ~ dzhyunm. / dzu /DYU / Dyeu / Dyo. A2)) Dieu (dans les jurons) : dyou, gu, gue, goura, ki, dzo, dzola, ble. - E. : Diable, Sacr. A3)) l'enfant Dieu : l'fan Dyeunm, l'fan Dyu. --R.1------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- anc. hindou : Dyaus [dieu du ciel] / g. Zeus/ l. Jupiter [pre de Jov] / norrois Tyr. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

103gauge 104To estimate 105excrement 106yellow 107see appendix 2 The Provencal Project: Mirio 108toe 109The better, the best

JEU-words
JEU nm. JE, dzw, jw, zw, zhw. JEUDI nm. DeDYU, djou, dju, dezyeu, deje, dezye, d(e)zhou, d(e)zhu, dzhyu, dzou , dzye. A1)) le jeudi saint110: l(e) gran d(e)dyu [le grand jeudi] (001 | 002), le dzhu s (271), l'dzhyu sin. JEUN () ladv. DYON, zhon. JEUNE an., adolescent ; jeune homme ; jeune fille : djwin-no (Dserts) / dwan-no / dywan-no / dzwno / jwan-no / jwno / jwin-no / jwno / zhouno (Houches) / zhwan-no / zhwno / zhwno / ZHWIN-NO / zwan-no / zwin-no / z(y)wan-no || dzwinh-n, dzwinh-n, ..., dzou-n || dv., zhwnozmpl., zhwnezfpl. (). --R.1------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- < afr. NDE. 11e s. jovene< vlat. *jovenis< clat. juvenis=> Fille, D. => Jeunesse, Jeunet. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ JENE nm., dite : dyon-no, zhon-no, zon-no , zhono (Arvillard), zhwno (Balme-Si.), jejunus [affam], D. => Jener. JENER vi. dzon-n, dyon-n, zhon-n, zon-n, indyon-n, R. Jene. JEUNESSE nf. (tat, priode de vie) : jwin-nssa, dywan-nssa, jwan-nssa, zhwnssa , R.2 Jeune. JEUNET an. => dwan-n, -ta, -e, R. Jeune.

JU-words
The JU-words more or less have been copied from the corresponding Latin words, which as a rule have been based on the purely vocal IU-roots of Jupiter (and Dyaus) JUBILATION nf. => moi, Joie. JUBILER vi. => Rjouir (Se). JUCHER111 => Percher. JUDAS pm.. - nm., tratre ; : Jud. JUDE npf. Jud. JUDICATURE nf. circonscription judiciaire, juridiction; tat /// charge /// fonction ~ de juge : judikatura. JUGE112 n. JUJO, -A, -E || mpl., dzudz. JUGER vt. JUJ (to be followed by a great number of declinations....)

110Witte donderdag 111Hoog plaatsen 112rechter

JURON113 B2)) bon ~ dyu / dyou / zou / gu / gue [bon dieu], bon Dzu(083), bonjou(r)[bonjour] (dformation de bon dyou), non de bonjou[nom de bonjour], bont[bont] (dformation de bon Dye[bon dieu]) ; bon dyou d(e) bon dyou-n ; vin dyou, vin dyu, vin jou, vin zou || vin Dyou d(e) vin Dyou || mile dyou ; bon san, bon Dyu d'bon Dyu// bon gu d(e) bon gu [bon dieu de dieu = bon sang de bon sang], bon gue d'bon gue(Table), bon dyou d(e) bon dyou , bont de bont (juron surtout fminin).

JUSTE an., exact, prcis ; quitable, honnte : JUSTO, -A, -E || m., dzust. JUSTICE nf., for extrieur : dzustisse, JUSTISSE, justa.

YEU-words
YEUSE ( oak) YEUX ( eyes)

Oui-words
OUI ( yes) OUIN-OUINS (les): Les habitants de Genve, par extension les suisses114.

113curse 114 Parler savoyard, the word OUIN has been derived from OUI (yes)

Appendix 2 The IOU, IAU and IEU- Vowel triads in Mirio115


Searching the vowel triads ieu, iau en iou in the Full text in Occitan for the poem Mireio:

IEU-words
Page n21 - Beu Diu, Diu ami, sus lis alo Page n22 - beau, Dieu ami, sur les ailes Page n25 - L'estiu passa, nous fague faire Page n27 - e di miu estampa Page n28 - et des mieux dcoupls, Page n29 - e soun fiu trenavon. Page n30 - bon, gracieux, de main de maitre. . Page n33 - viei, Dieu lou bufo E fai vira coume baudufo? Page n34 - vieillard, Dieu souf- fle, Page n39 - ^re que ienieu Tempento I fla! ha! tamben, Page n40 - le vieux marin se cabrant de colere... Page n46 - , des lieux san- vages, Page n48 - mon Dieu ! Un Page n50 Dieu vous main- tienne en bonheur et Page n52 - coyreurs au milieu (de la lice) deja venaient Page n53 - roure, N'avieu just courregu qu apos apres li perdigaii Page n62 - locality reparait plusieurs ibis dans le pome, Page n63 - quenouille au milieu de ses neophytes. ** Page n64 - mouiir au lieu de leur debarquement. (Voyezle Chant Page n65 - de la F6te-Dieu. Les cavaliers les ajustenti leui* ceinture, Page n70 - le vieux Haitre Ramon : r gt apos Page n71 - du recalieu, Entanterin qak la cadaulo Quauque esperitoun siblo Page n74 - bien mieux qu apos elle, Page n75 - sorre, avieu grand gau d*ausi soun dous acord Page n78 - les vieux princes des Baux, Page n83 Boudieu ! digue Mireio en aparant, Page n84 - Bon Dieu ! dit Mi- reille en Page n86 - creux, ndieu ! A peine Page n91 - quand venieu subr apos ouro, Estrassa, moustous Page n93 - noum de Dieu ! Me fagu^s pas cr Page n94 - nom de Dieu ! Ne Page n95 - Valabrego, Sieu qu apos un gandard, Mir io, Page n96 - comme une lieuse (de gerbes). Page n97 - ceu, Tanarieu querre, E Dimenche Tauries, pendoulado Page n99 - , a ieu pauret! basto, uno fi Page n104 du Monde paieUj que publie en ce moment M. Page n107 - Tan de Dieu que nous sian marida. D u Page n108 - du vieux Maitre Ramon Spouse honor^e, Page n111 - vague, Poudieu ben, aqueu jour, barra moun

115a poem in Occitan by French writer Frdric Mistral. It was written in 1859.

Page n112 - Tenvieuse leur darde une Page n113 - bono, sieu b^n pauro I Acoumence la fi Page n114 - a pas lieu, repondit-elle, tons les jours: Page n115 - moun prince amarieu d apos escala. Souleto em apos Page n116 - plaisante et dlicieuse (que) Page n117 - davans ieu s*espandi E sa mar bluio Page n118 - grand el vieux chef de pasteurs Page n119 - rfeino, ieu! E que Marsiho eme si velo, Page n121 - Mai ieu, Azalals la r ino, Dins moun Page n122 - qui mieux cour- tise Page n124 - elleauraitle mieux aim j Page n125 - dimars venieu de busca apos a Coume anave Page n128 Dieu une fois montra miracle! Page n129 - Ome de Dieu ! crid Termito... Page n130 - Homme deDieu! s apos ecria Termite. Page n132 - elle aima mieux, toute vive, aller s apos enPage n137 - de mar ieu me farai, Tepoiirlarai! Page n139 - blanqueto, ieU) capelauj counfessai^aij E t apos ausirai Page n140 - apos un vieux ch^ne... Page n145 - qu*il vieut de ce c t^. Page n146 - trouvereste du milieu du dou- zieme si^cle. Page n154 - les vieux b^liers qui Page n156 - Oh! Dieul Ton iTi apos a dit vrai : Page n159 - ron vieu dins aquel ubrage... Senti Page n161 - vosto lieureio... K respinchavo. Pi i partigu^ Page n163 - trent dou dieu terrible, Qu apos en un barrejadis Page n164 - trident du dieu terrible, qui, Page n165 - u RoseCamarguen sieu, dis, un ribeirdu Sieii lou Page n166 - rable aieul avait trois rodes^^ (de Page n167 - Au Segnour Dieu, dins lis espaci Aubour^ si dos Page n168 - gneur Dieu, dans T^tendue Page n171 - Coume lou nieu qu apos un tron estrasso E Page n172 - Cependant au lieu determine, oil Page n174 - au lieu du marquement. La multitude cornue Page n178 - tous deux furieux, acham s, Page n179 - Santo de Dieu ! coume ro bello, Qiiand Page n185 - apos un gracieux campanile, que soutiennent dix colonnes corinthiennes Page n186 - signifie un lieu ousont de iiombreuses vaches. G apos Page n188 - une couple dlieures de haul Page n189 - Que Tamourouso pieuceleto I apos avie dicho un matin dessouto Page n191 - E Taurelo d'estieu que frusto, k jour fall, Page n192 - mi- lieu des glaciers Page n195 - lou fieu de Meste Ambrose, ra*no erbo, Page n196 - sur Teau rieuse, et laisse au Page n198 - aux rois Dieu envoie en abondance. Page n200 - que du vieux lambeau de toilo Page n204 - amour au milieu dcs typhas... Page n206 - ainsi, furieux, ils se gourmaient la t te, Page n207 - P^r mieu pica soun empegn^ire, Lou gaiard Page n208 - tes au milieu (de laplaine}* Page n209 - Li cieune, li fouco lusento, Li becaru, Page n210 - Ourrias,au milieu de lalande !...

Page n211 - lis estrieu, li grands esli apos ieii ferra, Page n212 - un pied viciorieux, pressait la poitrine Page n215 - Li cieurie, li f uco lus^nto, Li Page n219 - Bs ieu que mo troumpe ! ublidave Ques Page n220 - Tonnerre de Dieu ! )) crie le Page n224 - suivaient, silencieuses et lentes, le rivage. Page n225 - negadis ansin Dieu meme Dono un relais per se redeme. Page n226 - de Dieu, mangeurs de pauvres, Page n227 - long dou fieu que trai, Li pescadou (qu* Page n228 - Du milieu de I apos eau qui TemPage n230 - , au milieu d apos une foret vierge, pr Page n235 - Hegardes) pensatieu, li chato que fan gau I E Page n236 - aussi, Malthieu Anselme, qui, Page n237 - Maire de Dieu! pi^iquilo, e toumbo soun pani Page n238 - re de Dieu ! puis s Page n239 - Lou bon Dieu, car si^u b^n de plagne Page n240 - pareils malheurs Dieu vous d livre, Page n241 - sabe Qu'aurieu de vosto amour vougu lou vSire empli. Page n242 - en un lieu que la salamandre Page n243 - Di fieu dis ome s*aflam ron E, Page n244 - kme a Dieu, chemin faisant* Page n245 - signe de Dieu I Alor Mir^io la saludo Page n246 - signes de Dieu ! Page n250 - tout chemin glorieux a sa traversee Page n251 - soun fieu de lanoy E cr^i fiela de Page n252 - char- donneret,ieur fait alors : Page n254 - peux dire adieu !... Quel brouillon Page n256 - en ce lieu m^me avait pu etro Page n257 - E de pieu-pi^u, e de paraulo A mita dicho, Page n259 - de cieucle, de figuro, De raio luminouso e Page n262 - fantdmes ce (lieu) est le repaire, Page n269 - , inieu que gen de busco : Es Page n270 - ne brAle mieux : ce Page n276 - croix de Dieu plant^e au timon ! Page n277 - apos un fieudejour au bout ie raio. Menu, Page n278 - Dieu est adore dans son temple... Page n279 - plupart des lieux chant^s dans ce po me. Page n280 - , au milieu de ce cataclysmc de pierres, la Page n281 - Adieu, F^vrier! Avec ta gel^ Page n283 - apos en sieu f u I ... Page n284 - i son vieux p re. Page n288 - pi- iieuse fleur de cApre Page n289 - Lou bon Dieu que me ven esclaure D u soulet Page n290 - te bon Dieu qui vient m apos exclure Page n291 - que moun Dieu, mai que ma sorre ? Me Page n292 - adresse au vieux vannier (ces paroles) : Page n295 - : nioun Dieu li beu blad ! Quenti Page n296 - Provence, a'ieul? dit soudain un Page n298 - bon aieul! Page n300 - le bon Dieu vous envoie ! Page n303 - Tanii de Dieu ^ Ansin lou m^stre li Page n304 - Tami de Dieu ! Ainsi les

Page n305 - , E peieu di boiis an ^ron ii signe Page n307 - Se venieu dire lou countr^ri. Hai touto Page n309 - Ie vendrieu s^nso misleii. Que Page n310 - avec un pieu ! . Page n311 - davans Dieu e Nostro-Damo, Res autre qu Page n312 - et devant Dieu et Notre-Dame, Page n314 - a bouillons furieux s apos ^lance dans la rivi Page n315 - fio de Dieu ! De facharie niorno e malauto, Page n317 - que n avieu dins ma patrio Pas un terroun k Page n318 - Malheur de Dieul s apos cria-t-il soudain, Page n319 - de sang vieu ! Mai, de retour d Page n320 - le vieux grondeur ainsi remPage n321 - Toustau lou vieure abounde, P^r que de longo Page n322 - le grand Dieu avec ses anges Page n324 - la rouge liieur des fenx vers Page n325 - rare, precieuse, a laquelle on tient beaucoup Les sorciers Page n328 - Le venerable aieul, d apos aucune maniere, Page n330 - le bon aieul el^ve en Page n333 - li prt'';;o-nieu d apos estoublo, li parpaioun, Page n334 - .les mantes religieuses, les papillons avertissent Mireille. Page n335 - pousqu^sse vieure, E I apos embrassa coume fai I Page n340 - trois fois gracieusement elle les ceint Page n343 - Erne ieu, i Santi-Mario Res vou veni, Page n345 - treboulado Subran partieu k grand voulado E dins la Page n347 - Car, del'estieu fug^nt la flamo, Li noumbrous Page n348 - Dieu ouvre la main et le Mistral, Page n349 - Lou bon Dieu A ines i font d*aigo clareto, Page n350 - en ces lieux brules toute seule, Page n351 - soulet eme Dieu, i gorgo d u Bausset Vous trouv^ Page n352 - elail un vieux puits tout rev^tu de lierre, Page n353 - esta, ieu que vous parle ! Ai ! Page n355 - Mai, cieuta douQO e brunello, Ta mereviho courounello, Page n356 - garde de Dieu ! Page n358 - verrez le lieu oucelase passa. Depuis Page n360 - jour de Dieu) les yeux se creusent Page n364 - paix de Dieu aux marais) au Grand-Clar ^ Page n367 - apres un ieux roraan de cheva- Icrie aussi populaire Page n370 - Le vieux Ramon et son epouse, Page n371 - elo aro sieu desrusca ! D apos uno souleto Page n372 - le lieu, la caverne reculte Page n374 - jeunes filles rieuses, dans I apos Page n376 - apos precieux souvenir il Page n377 - redoulent, agradieu, Despuiavon la terro anavon Sus la Page n378 - les ardentes lieuses vite ramassaient les Page n380 - (flots) rieurs ou, au Page n382 - (aux lieux) ou chante la pordrix. Dans la Page n384 - vinrent les lieuses (de gerbes), Page n385 - , bdu Bondieu! que noun m* ro arnba! Page n386 - , beau Dieu! que cela ne m apos ^tait Page n388 - adieu le martelage (de la faux) Page n389 - en plourant pieutavo e li plagnie. Aqueu recit de Page n390 - furieuse, acharn^e, avide, les per-

Page n391 - Hanipau de Dieu ! adounc fagueron Li lougadie touti Page n392 - Pakne de Dieu ! dirent pour lors Page n393 - double, Vesieu lis erbo d u restouble Se clina Page n395 - . Erne ieu, i Sinti Mario, Res Page n396 - ^toiles deDieu clouaient leciel. tt Une aine, Page n397 - torse, ieu souleto Embrecarai sa daio bleto, E Page n398 - oins I'essieu, mouille les cercles (des moyeux), Page n401 - les dix lieures du matin. apos Jean Althen, Page n402 - tion dans plusieurs villes du Midi. ^ Tramontane Page n403 - La roumieuvo d apos amour se tirasso jusqu apos Page n410 - des essaims furieux, des essaims de Page n412 - , mon Dieu ! crier miracle ! Page n414 - mouvanls, odieux ! it Page n419 - apos alin sieu vengudo Querre eici la pas. Ni Page n423 - vdsticourouno, ieu mourirai ! Vosto voues m apos Page n424 - descendent, radieuses, descendent vers moi Page n428 - la mer furieuse, el la mer, Page n429 - Que dins Dieu meme nous tresporto! Dempi^i quouro Page n430 - qui en T)ieului-m6menoustransporte! Depuis quand asPage n431 - N^go Dieu dins soun cor e i^n tout Page n432 - ilnie Dieu dans son coeur et tient tout le Page n437 - noin designe plusieui's oiseaux de i apos ordre des ecliubPage n439 - a la cieuta d u crinrie, Endourmido avau dins Page n440 - sang de Dieu encore hiimide, Page n443 - , que Dieu enspiro, !s erso de la Page n445 - clavelles toun Dieu ! Aro, li vigno erne Page n446 - le vieux Trophime s apos enveloppe Page n448 - des ecueils Dieu nous garde, Page n451 - Houn Dieu, serVe-nous de timouu! M apos Page n452 - dans les cieux. a Du haut palais ou il triomphe, Page n456 - au milieu des palais, Page n458 - le vieux Trophime qui s* lance, Page n460 - Le Dieu qui a brise ton idole Page n461 - parlavo de Dieu, tout bon, tout pouderoiis E Page n462 - parlait de Dieu, lout bon, tout-puissant, Page n463 - n a Dieu, dou^o e cregnento, Oufri sa Page n464 - vient a Dieu, douce et craintive, Page n465 - nosto pauro cieuta... Sian mort sus n sti cambo ! Page n466 - au des dieux, erre... Ayez pitie ! Page n468 - pins du lieu. Page n469 - gau h Dieu : Tas agu remarca, Tre Page n470 - qui rejouissait Dieu : n apos as-lu pas Page n472 - que, vieux genie vres, Page n473 - auro de iieu, jilaran la blancour! Mai dou regret Page n475 - , ieu more. Gandissesvous ensen alin versTaveni, Page n476 - mes le lieu oii taient nos ossements : Page n477 - au Fieu, cm apos an Sant Esperit ! Page n478 - Adieu, Mireille!... L apos Page n479 - .line pieuse el poetique l^gende attribue son origine Page n480 - encore ce myst^rieux l antique monument : Page n481 - jour de Dieu s esvapouro E que li pescadou, Page n482 - oulejourde Dieu s apos evapore

Page n484 - MonDieu ! s apos crie-l-elle, Page n485 - Tautar de Dieu. Sus li pieloun dou santuari, La Page n486 - Tautel de Dieu. Sur los piliers du sanctuaire, Page n487 - Santo de Dieu, Santo amistousu ! D apos aquelo Page n488 - ma croix fieurie, et par villes Page n490 - des savanes prodigieuses. Page n493 - malan de Dieu ! p^r agu tant Page n494 - annee de Dieu' pour avoir tant de maux ? Page n497 - dou bon Dieu entrevese li Cor... Aqui Page n498 - du bon Dieu j apos entrevois les choeurs... Page n499 - ! i'aurieu di, reino celesto, Soulet recati Page n500 - pint k Dieu ! * Page n502 - miracle de Dieu ! leur barque vientici! Page n507 - .. Adieu, adi u!... Deja Page n508 - > adieu ! . . . Page n509 - noum de Dieu, boni g^nt que sia apos qui, Page n510 - noni de Dieu, bonnes ge ns qui tes l^, Page n511 - p^r ieu ce que vous dise : Per Page n512 - Vieux Maitre Ambroise, pleure ton ills ! Page n514 - apos aux Iieux ou elle tait, Page n520 - ieur fait la bienvenue. Page n521 Lieur^o d u paslra, lou coucourelet de Page n522 - retourne, furieux du refus de Mireille. Page n524 - les mantes religieuses, les papillons avertissent Mireille. Page n526 - flots avec plusieurs autres disci- ples, elles abord^ Page n528 - et radieuse mort de la jeune filler

IOU-words
Page n1 - public et serious heureux de vous etre utile. Page n11 - e do roprouducioun soiiii resorva. Page n19 - Mir^io questiouno Vinc^ii. Page n23 - IIou ! toul aco se fai ! Page n25 - per restiou, an la pinedo, Per dins i Page n29 - Digue Meste Ranioun, lou majourau dou mas. An ! Page n31 - eigagno Quesvalissie iouto magagno... Dis estello mens Page n43 - abeuravon li mioUi Page n49 - man aganto Em*afecioun lis os di Santo, (Lou Page n53 - Eh I iioum-d'un-garri ! iri apos escridei apos e, Page n55 - ! qirafecioun ! oh ! quelo estubo Page n62 - plaisir la descriptiou suivante, empruntde au mftme auteur : Page n64 - la loi iiouvelle quelques-unes des peuplades voisines , Page n67 - Escaufdslre e separaciouu di calignaire. Cantas, canlas, Page n69 - t ms qu'eilaniount Elo risi^ jitant de si^ule, Page n77 - de Taubre panouious Escoundu souto lou ramage, Dins rinnoucenci Page n78 - essayaient a Tauiour. Les crates, Page n79 - quau sara ineiour cuifeire, Madamisello, l*anan vMre Page n85 - Ve, ioutaro Dirai qu*as la man fado ! Page n87 - plego La chaiouno di Falabrego... Eu pamens Page n91 - Un uioumeaet se regarderon, E apos m* Page n100 - a geiiouX) comme a present, Page n105 - Azalats e Vioulano. La Court d

Page n106 - niour. Les amours de Page n107 - De Mirfeio ourgueiouso maire E Ii vesino e Ii Page n113 - Toun aguhioun fau toujour qu apos obre, Que! Page n129 - la santo assoulucioun. Aquelo barro que lou pr ire, Page n133 - e de viouloun. Ei plen d*estello, aperamount! Page n139 - aubre di nioure, leu lou clot d apos ^urre Page n143 - De si daioun la von la goumo... Page n167 - e la benedicioun ! Page n171 - E niounte un pople foui embarro un vaste round, Page n173 - batre Lou virouioun de ranfitiatre, Coume lou chin apres Page n175 - sulile, Aniourro a soun espalo, en ie troussant Page n181 - escalo De tourtouioun de serp verdalo ! Page n185 - Bessonniere (besiouttiero), brebis qui met bas des jumeaux. Page n187 - proucessioun di negadis sus lou dougan dou flum. Page n189 - matin dessouto raqfiourie. Dre coume un cani de Dur Page n190 - aux cailioux dont la Crau est pleine Page n191 - un sen trciouli E la joio desmemouriado Qu apos Page n193 - fague un pouioun ! Page n199 - dins lou draiou. Lou tron d apos uno chavano acipo Page n205 - Es I'AiTiour ponderous que li bwlo e li poun. Page n219 - La longo proucessioun adeja s*espandis, Page n221 - mounto, afeciouna, la ribo. Coume bevon Ter linde, Page n223 - au fres margaioun ves^n courre lave. Page n225 - Fin de miou, fm de cop de rounco ! Page n227 - varaio La proucessioun que tant t apos esfraio, Li Page n230 - apos encambo iou Gardoun), le pont du Card. Page n231 Lis aparicioun de la baumo : Li Fouletoun, Page n233 - le niounle li plagnoun venien toujour plus fort. Page n235 - tu, iou paure trenquejaire, Tavan, umble cansounejaire Page n239 - un pau d'agrioutat. , beuPage n243 - pipa, ioumberon d^amoundaut. Dins la gorgo estrechano Page n255 - TEsperiioun s apos enanavo eiiaiiu Eme soun rire. Page n259 dardaioua de fio que pougnon vosti cai apos Page n265 - a vcrlouioun, Boumbis la flainado gancherlo E d Page n269 - A proucesssioun e blanquinello, Milo colono, clarinello Page n277 - e soun vieiounge, Mount-Majour, Tabadi^ di mounge, Page n279 - Agriotat [agrioutat), liqueur composite d apos eau- dePage n283 - findignacioun de M^te Ambroi. Page n293 - E uiouuto d apos aut, Cargo sis auti Page n295 - : nioun Dieu li beu blad ! Page n305 - bleto e silenciouso, Plan-plan devans la riho au souleu Page n311 - aco dins sabenedicioun! Mai, afebrido e blavinello, L Page n313 - k boui fuioun s*esclafis dins lou riau : Page n315 - L*endignacioun, aquest, I apos enaure toutrevoi. Page n319 - apara lou iioum de Franco... Mai, Page n326 - fermenla- liou un goAt excessivement piquant. Ce mets Page n327 - d u vieiounge tranlraiavo,.. LVinat de Touslau Page n333 - phis soun leioun^u? Ourlanto sus-lou-cop, Lougiero e Page n345 - dourraien agrouniouli, De sa dourmido treboulado Subran partieu k Page n349 - ron Li parpaioun que la vogueron. Lis alo de Page n353 - k de biou marin que paisson dins si tes Page n359 - Lou mourraioun... Vengu^ Nostro-Damo d apos Avoust.

Page n363 - rau, niouriin^u Toussis la manado gancherlo Aperalin Page n365 - tibaneu, niouvento au ventouUt ! V^, Page n369 - apos ASSEMBLADO Desoulacioun de Meste Hamoun e de Jano-Vario, Page n370 - k la jioursuile de Mireille. Les grands inicocouliers pleurerent Page n375 - apos Alten preciouso remembrance Vei de pertout i apos Page n377 - Li ligarello afeciounado Leu acampavon li manado : E Page n379 - Li pavaioun d apos un camp de gueiTo : Page n387 - courso de biou, ilro un timoun, un fena ! Page n389 - que li miou estaca Tiron di grupi la luserno, Page n391 - eme sonn niourre Hieu que tu, gafagnard, laboure! Page n395 - grand cambado liou baile Ant^ume, pastre e m Page n403 - La visioun. Descours di SAnU Page n409 - sen, bouleguiou Coume dos oundo bessouneto Dins uno lindo Page n413 - front si dardaioun : vela, pecaireto ! Page n415 - Pietousamen li uiouissaleto Fasien viduloun de sis aleto, E Page n421 - Per li reniouli I i Sanli Mario, apos Page n425 - ome en perdicioun. Tres femo de b uta divino. Page n427 - setengueron, ianioubilo,e'm*ac6 ie parlavon. Tant dous E clarineu Page n429 - , Li proucessioun que van, fid^lo, En Page n431 - dins soun triounfle, N^go Dieu dins soun cor e Page n438 - lutin dont ractiou se inanifcste par des espiegleriess. Page n439 - -nin a Touiouso; Sant Estropi en Aurenjo. Page n441 - Se dins Sioun e Samario, Lou lume de la Page n445 - Di rous leioun saran lou pati, E ti muraio, Page n449 - espavourdi, niourenl! Quentis espaiuie I que deslouriie ! Page n451 - palais ounte Iriounflo Jesu Va vist sus la mar Page n455 - Vos^nli iourrc d apos Arle auboura i apos estendard. Page n457 - xi. inaladicioun ! o vergougno ! Page n463 - de la nacioun Jusiolo !i*an pres, Van Page n467 - un gros leioun porto lou mourre, E si^is Page n481 - Darriero visioun de Nireio : vei li Santi Page n487 - e li iouca ! b^u tems Aura sa Page n493 - ensignas-me iriounte es! Es Page n501 - piei TOuucioun estr^mo, E la vougnfe apos Page n503 - Car rafecioun que m apos ajudavo, De tu Page n505 - ma Hireiouno, e piti, se apos n cop Page n507 - Car la bluiour de Testendudo Tout amp Tentour se Page n519 - Lou drole apassiouna desboundo. La Page n521 - batesto ili ious rivau dins la Crau vaslo. Page n523 - li parpaioun, avertisson Mir^io. Page n525 - Counversioun dis Arlaten . -Page n527 Darriero visioun de Mireio : v^i li

IAU-words
Page n17 - les Iriphthongues iau, iiu, idu, prouon- cez Page n35 - ines que navegaviau, N*av^n vist degun, que Page n70 - elle riait IMiaut en jetant de Page n71 - siblo o miaulo, S^nso lume e s^ns grand Page n72 - siffle ou miaule quelque hi- tin, Page n87 - rejougne Lis enfourniau qu apos a dins soun jougne, Page n95 - reino davans qiiau tout plego... I u, Page n117 - Moun gai reiaume de Prouv^nQO Coiime un claus d Page n129 - apos un caiau lou paure guigno-co ! Page n175 - crestian e bestiau barrulon p r lou sdu. Uno Page n181 - k Seuvo riau, ounte la mar s apos entfend, Page n186 - Sylvar^al (S^uvo-riau), forSt de pins-parasols, situ^e Page n203 - eli li caiau regolon Un sus Tautre k la Page n211 - bidu de S^uvo-Uiau Vai, vai counta quento es ma Page n225 - lou perdoun celestiau!! Coume un bregand a-n-un recouide, Page n233 - Sus li caiau, *ine lou visage Uevessa per lou Page n257 - de catamiaulo, E de brandamen de cadaulo, E Page n258 - miaulements de chattomites, Page n259 - borno, niaufaian !... quau vous Page n283 - assela au caiau, E desruscaYO de redorto Lou jouiue, Page n287 - d u s'encliaure Se Tome ei brave e noun s Page n291 - n-te siau dins toun asclo nuso, Ben toun Page n292 - : iriauvaise ou gaie, Page n293 - pons lou treiau davere *n negadis ! Aqui Page n313 - dins lou riau : Page n314 - dait mille bestiaux! refuse Veranet lo Page n326 - de ce fabliau : Quand la Vieille eut perdu Page n368 - liaut cscarpement qui tire son nom de la Page n371 - leissa lou bestiau : Que v ngon m apos Page n375 - parte coume I'uiau ! Que li segaire c labouraire Page n377 - leissa lou bestiau : Que vengon m apos atrouva Page n379 - leissa lou bestiaui Page n381 - leissa lou bestiau. Page n389 - la Tremouutano Uiausso, e que lou t^ms de tout Page n390 - en pleurant piaulait et Ics plaignait. Page n431 - As beu cliausi sus la banasto L*arange, Page n433 - Urons adounc qiiau pren li peno, E quau en Page n437 - vei*s caiiaux derives do la Durance. Page n439 - Sant Marciau k Limoge Sant Savoui-nin a Page n445 - Marciau e Sayournin Soun ageinouia sus la poupo Page n447 - u blu reiaume Fasien ausi lou cant di Saume Page n449 - De longs uiau fendon lou sourne, E pelo cop Page n461 - E dou reiaume de soun Paire, Que noun sara Page n467 - agu^ Marciau Toulouso De Savournin fugu^ Tespouso Page n475 - Lou gai reiaume de Prouvenco bins lou sen de la Page n501 - E Taleii siau que li carrejo IjOu inai plan que Page n525 Sant Marciau h Limoge Sant Savournin A Toulouso

Appendix 3: Explaining the generation of ieu-sequences.


Ford's investigation116 concentrates on the evolution of the singular IEU-sequences in Provencal dialects. The EU -> IEU sequence differs from the I -> IU -> IEU-sequence, because the EUcombination in dem and mem relates to religious fetishes and contrasts to some other constructs which had been generated by transitions of consonants and vowel insertions. Initial JU-combinations have been copied in a rather unmodified way: Justitia Justicia. Unfortunately Ford's paper does not explain how the Provencal ego-pronoun iu has been developed from earlier roots (ego or alternatively Diu).

The transition of the sequences I -> IU -> IEU


I tonic or pretonic frequently combined with a vocalized I or V giving the diphthong iu in early Provencal. About the 13th century this diphthong passed to the triphthong117 ieu (Grand-gent 32): FILUM > fiu > fiu LIBERARE > liurar > liura LIBRA > liura liura CIVITATEM > ciutat > ciutat

Rem. This change may have been due to the influence of the great number of triphthongs in ieu coming from forms like Old Prov. greu where the e diphthongized before u giving grieu. A different explanation is proposed by E. H. Tuttle in Mod. Phil., Vol. XVI, no. II, p. 152.

The transition of the sequences EU -> IEU


Latin i and u survive if they immediately follow an accented vowel: MEI > mei(miei) > mi MEUM > meu > miu DEUM > deu > diu

The transitions V -> U


V followed by a consonant vocalizes to u: CIVITATEM > ciutat > ciutat VIVRE > viure > viure

The transitions S Es
S initial followed by a consonant develops a prosthetic E in Folk Latin (160 ). This survived in Rhodanien:
SCRIBERE > escriure > escriure

116 Full text of "Modern Provenal phonology and morphology studied in the language of Frederic Mistral" (1921) published by Harry Egerton Ford, Ph,D. 117 In fact it is not a triphthong if all vocals are pronounced individually.

The disappearance of the letter B


B followed by other consonants usually disappears either by assimilation or vocalization: SUBTILEM > sobtil(sotil) > soutiu

Contents
Archaic Fetishism.................................................................................................................................3 The apex...........................................................................................................................................3 Acute accents...................................................................................................................................3 Ds - Dis..................................................................................................................................3 Day...................................................................................................................................................4 Jove..................................................................................................................................................4 Youth................................................................................................................................................4 IAU, IEU and IOU-cores.................................................................................................................4 Transmutations.................................................................................................................................5 IA..................................................................................................................................................5 Primary Colors.................................................................................................................................5 Runes...............................................................................................................................................5 Correlations......................................................................................................................................5 Runes....................................................................................................................................................6 I, A, U...............................................................................................................................................6 IO for Yew ?.................................................................................................................................6 A O, for Ash, A.......................................................................................................................7 Mythology .......................................................................................................................................7 Elder Futhark...................................................................................................................................7 Extra runes are vowels.....................................................................................................................7 The AIFIK-rune............................................................................................................................8 Tir, Tyr, Tiw ....................................................................................................................................9 Younger Futhark..............................................................................................................................9 The divine sky god Dyaus..................................................................................................................10 Dis, Dieu, Djo, Dju, Dz, Dzu...................................................................................................10 The possessive pronouns ...............................................................................................................11 Words with diaeresis marks...........................................................................................................11 Days of the week............................................................................................................................11 Pious...............................................................................................................................................12 Curses.............................................................................................................................................12 The ego-pronoun (JE, d, do, dye, dzeu, dzou, zde, ze, zou...)..........................................................13 Siu I have been......................................................................................................................13 Medieval color definitions..................................................................................................................14 Red............................................................................................................................................14 Blue and yellow........................................................................................................................14 Jaune..........................................................................................................................................15 Magenta.....................................................................................................................................16 The colors of Tyre...............................................................................................................................17 Sounds................................................................................................................................................18 The IAU-bray of Donkeys ............................................................................................................18 Mew / meowing ............................................................................................................................19 Piauler (to twitter, to beep, to scream) and vyou (to howl)...........................................................19 Justice.................................................................................................................................................19 Alternative IEU-, JE-, JOU- and IU-words........................................................................................20 Appendix 1: Dictionary for IOU, IAU en IEU-cores.........................................................................22 IOU-words.....................................................................................................................................22 JOU-words.....................................................................................................................................22 IAU-words.....................................................................................................................................23 JAU-words.....................................................................................................................................24 IEU-words......................................................................................................................................24

JEU-words.....................................................................................................................................25 JU-words........................................................................................................................................25 YEU-words....................................................................................................................................26 Oui-words......................................................................................................................................26 Appendix 2 The IOU, IAU and IEU- Vowel triads in Mirio.........................................................27 IEU-words......................................................................................................................................27 IOU-words.....................................................................................................................................32 IAU-words.....................................................................................................................................35 Appendix 3: Explaining the generation of ieu-sequences..................................................................36 The transition of the sequences I -> IU -> IEU.............................................................................36 The transition of the sequences EU -> IEU...................................................................................36 The transitions V -> U...................................................................................................................36 The transitions S Es..................................................................................................................36 The disappearance of the letter B..................................................................................................37