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PELETTING CERTIFICATION

1. What is an electrical interlock? What is its purpose? Give an example of an interlock in the pelleting system. An electrical interlock is a control method used to systematically operate a series of equipment. Interlock purpose is to prevent upstream equipment from operating if downstream equipment is not operating. 1. Screener 2. Cyclone fan/air lock 3. Pellet leg 4. Conveyer 5. Crumble rolls 6. Cooler 7. Pellet mill motor 8. Centri Feeder 9. Conditioner 10. Feeder screw

2. What is a baffle and what does it do? The baffle is a piece of metal that is located in the feeder and it separates the fines return material from the material coming out of the surge hopper. This keeps the material in the surge hopper from plugging the fines return spout. 3. What is conditioning? Conditioning is cooking process where mash feed is mixing again with additional of liquids, namely steam and molasses, before the mash contacts the die. In here mash feed got gelatinization process, sterilization, because the additional of dry steam. 4. What is hydration and why do we use it? Hydration is the addition of standardize (water) to the mash during the mixing process. The main objective of hydration is to achieve zero shrink, but it also can increase throughput, lower die friction increasing die life and improve pellet quality.

5. What are some of the benefits of properly conditioned mash? Increased production rate Increased die life Reduced electricity costs Reduced shrink Improved pellet quality. 6. How are pellets cooled? Explain this by drawing a simple diagram showing the flow of air through the system. Using blower fan that draw out the moisture in the cooling process (cooler). It take excess moisture from the previous process (pelleting), normally it take out the moisture 5 15 degree of Fahrenheit compare than the ambient temperature. Please refer to the file. 7. What are the five important characteristics of ingredients? Fat content - The fat content of an ingredient or feed can mean either natural fat or added fat. Both are an aid in increasing production rates. It has negative side of the peletability. Texture - Fine or medium ground materials provide greater surface area for absorption of moisture from steam, resulting in better lubrication and increased production rates. Also, more particles are exposed to steam resulting in possible chemical changes that may be needed for quality. Fiber content - High fiber creates production rate problems, as fiber is hard to compress into a pellet. However, because of the natural binders inherent to fiber, a good quality pellet results. Moisture Sufficient inbound moisture added prior to pelleting can be desirable in reaching good pellet durability Starch content its High starch formulations or ingredients are difficult to produce a tough, durable pellet. The natural agglutenments can be activated only with high temperatures and moisture. The gelatinized material acts as a binder to produce the desired pellet quality.

8. What is the method for testing retention time? 1st Method : Running the conditioner at the normal load, at normal feeder speed than stop the feeder. (Check the conditioner amp no load, and load) Do cleaning the conditioner chamber Start to run the conditioner at normal feeder Start to count the timer Until Amp conditioner motor reach the normal amp then stop count the timer.

2nd Method : Running the pellet mill at normal full load (operating condition) Shut off the feeder, leave the conditioner running, shut down the steam as required. As soon as the amp meter drops to no load, turn the feeder on and start timing. As soon as the load on the amp meter starts to spike, stop timing. This is the retention time.

9. What is the proper way to adjust the rolls on the pellet mill? We have to adjust the rolls on the pellet mill because if we dont adjust it in the proper way it will make problem in our production, can cause die jammed (too loose) or it can break our die (too tight) How to adjust : a. Tighten the rolls so that when you turn the die at a slow speed the rolls only touch the die on the "high spot" of the die. b. Another method is to place three tags on top of each other just before each of the rolls. Then turn the die and if there is a die/roll pattern on the tags, the rolls are tight enough. If the tags get cut they are too tight. 10. Match each term with the correct definition. Steam trap Bound moisture Die Relief Retention time Flushing L/d Ratio C E F A B D A. The amount of time that the mash remains in the conditioner mixing with steam, etc. B. Using corn or some other material to rid the die of feed material. C. This device is used to not allow steam into the condensate return line. If steam is allowed to pass through, the boiler will be highly inefficient as steam is being wasted. D. This term relates the effective thickness of a die to the pellet diameter. E. The moisture that ingredients have as they come into the plant. F. Enlarged diameter on the discharge side of the hole.

11. Use the following formula and information to calculate the percent open space of a pellet mill die. {( H x R x pi x r2) / (W x D x pi)} x 100 You have a die with 24 rows of holes and 298 holes in each row. The holes are 5/32" in diameter and the width of the die face is 6". Pi = 3.14 and use the inside diameter of the dies we use in our pellet mill. Find the percent open die space. H R pi W = 298 = 24 = 3.14 = 6 D Dia R r = 26 = 5/32 = 0.078 = 0.006

12. Name two of the three types of materials that dies are made from. Alloy, Chrome stainless, and Carburized stainless. 13. Calculate die speed with the information provided: Die speed in Ft./Min. = RPM x Inside Diameter x pi / 12" High speed = 244 RPM Low speed = 122 RPM Inside Diameter = 31 inches pi = 3.14 Die Speed = 244 RPM x 31" x 3.14 / 12" = 1979 Ft./Min. (High speed) Die Speed = 122 RPM x 31" x 3.14 / 12" = 990 Ft./Min. (Low speed) 14. What should you do immediately after locking out the pellet mill and before you begin to unplug the die? We have to try to start the pellet mill first. Make sure there in no power to it. And also interlocking to the Pellet mill, conditioner & feeder.

15. How do you determine the percentage of wear on a die? We look from the roll relief groves.
Roll relief groves Roll relief groves 50% wear

First measure the depth of the roll relief grooves. Then put a straight edge across the die face and measure from the bottom of the straight edge to the die face. Subtract this distance from the depth of the roll relief groove and estimate the percentage of wear.

16. Why do we run our pellets through a cooler? Because we want to remove excess moisture from the pelleting process so that the finished product is in the proper moisture range. Mash feed from the mixer 11.5%, sometimes have some hydration increase the percentage of moisture around 12%, from the conditioner mash feed around 14 15% because of additional steam. Thats why we have to remove the excess moisture. According to CAN policy that no additional moisture can be added to feed, + 0.5% moisture is the standard. 17. What type of pellet cooler do you use in your plant? Why is it called that? Horizontal Double Pass Cooler, the product thru the horizontal conveyor through the cooler before discharging. There are 4 quadrant in this process : 1st Quadrant Temp 85oC 15% Moisture 2nd Quadrant Temp 55oC 14% Moisture 3rd Quadrant Temp 85oC 13% Moisture 4th Quadrant Temp 85oC 12% Moisture

I IV

II III

Counterflow Cooler, the product thru the cooler by gravity before discharging. And have two sensor (low and high level), when the product touch the high sensor and then the cooler start discharging until touch the low level. This process is continuously like this until no feed remained in the cooler. 18. At what temperature should the pellets be as they exit the cooler? Within 5 to 15 degrees F of ambient temperature.

19. Which type of conveyor, screw or drag, is better for conveying pelleted products and why? A drag conveyor because it doesn't damage the pellet product as much as a screw conveyor. 20. What precautions should be taken during a leg cleanout? The proper lockout / tag out procedures should be followed and never place any part of your body into the leg. Check also the back stop. 21. Where do the fines from the Rotex go to? Down the fines spout and back to the surge hopper to be re-pelleted. 22. When making crumbles where do the "overs" go to? Down the pellet return pipe to the crumble rolls to be "re-crumbled". 23. How many tons of feed will this bin hold? Use the following information. Bin Dimensions: 4' 9" by 6' 6" and 42 ft. deep Product Density: 35 lbs./cu.ft.

4.9' x 6.6' x 42' = 1358.28 cu. ft. 1358.28 cu.ft. x 35 lbs./cu.ft = 47,539.8 lbs. 47,539.8 lbs. / 2,2bs. = 21.61 tons

24. Match the letters in the diagram with their corresponding terms below.

d = Pellet Diameter L = Effective Thickness T = Total Thickness D = Inlet Diameter = Inlet Angle

X = Counterbore Depth B = Counterbore Angle A = Counterbore Diameter

25. Draw a flow diagram of the pelleting system in your plant on separate piece of paper. Please refer to the file