Anda di halaman 1dari 37

8I

z(pn1s cgTluolcs

'..raol^ Jo lulod IcTuIIc urorJ oJII prTq Jo slecJ rarllo pu l(r+secu 's+Tqq 'aJII aql selpnls oq/!\ lsTluelcs Jor{lo Jo rossaJoJd e8olloc 'Jer{cJos -or l(llnsn sI lsT8oloqlruro eq 'aJII +uId ro lrulu Jo rlue s1 s 'ssoulsnq snolJos e s1 Eoloqlpro

'fpn1s eq+ Jo rfllsuelur pue uorlcerlp eq1 uodn spuedep ecuaragrp oq; 'spfiq go fpnls eq1-z(1rnr1c orus eq1 uodn posq eJ rllog 'lue.regrp /-.1 os lezt pu rITrrqs os er 8u1qc1ell prrq pu 3o1oq1p.r\r.-/

Fqqclum prlq pus fFopqiluro

Fulqclunl prlq

The bird watcher also studies the bird.s, but his goal is entirely different; usually it is one of personal pleasure. Bird watching includes the person who casually throws out a few bread crumbs once in a while and. also the one who maintains a regular feeding program, providing a water supply summer and winter, and. who makes a record of all the birds that come to his feeder. He knows when the first rose-breasted grosbeak arrived, how many juncos he feeds during the winter, and so forth. He may participate in the Christmas bird count, or he may not even know the difference between a nuthatch and a chickadee. It can be extended to any length-pleasure is gained out of every minute devoted to it. This perhaps is the reason why bird watching is so popular.
AIso, the casual bird watcher, through intense study, may become an ornithologist. The bird count may lead to a

year-round study of the number and kinds of birds observed. This may lead to bird banding which in turn commences an intensive study of individual species. This information may be sent to the local chapter of the Audubon Society and in a short time the bird watcher has become an authority on some phase of bird study. He may become an ornithologist and submit findings and reports to a central bureau. Ornithology and bird watching-both are pleasurable experiences and return so much to those who follow these

and see.

pursuits. So think seriously about these activities. you will discover, as have thousands of others, that you are entering a new pleasurable and profitable pastime. Try it

Bird watching provides many advantages for the hobbyist. The person who becomes interested in it adds much to his store of knowledge and, as a by-product, frequentty is led into other related valuable activities. It is very flexible, for you can devote as much time to it as you please and yet enjoy it the year around. you can work alone or you can enjoy it as a group activity. And, flnally, you will make a contribution to your community when you pass on to others, especially young people, the information and experiences gained from this fascinating pastime. In another part of this book I pointed out the difference between Ornithology and Bird Watching-Ornithology is a serious, scientiflc study of bird behavior, anatomy, and characteristics, and Bird Watching is mainly a fun hobby.

L4

9I

z(euoru pueds ol e^q noz( op .rog .Furqlolc Jo .sloo+ ..reu1qc -?ru '+uarudrnbe 11soc ou peou noa .Furqclrrl pJIq uI +r+s 3ur11a8 ur ezrrsuedxo Jo palecqdruoc Furqlou sT eJar{J

pouPls lOF ol OlduF srlr


i{cnl pooc 'spuep -r^Tp ourospuq szted 1eq1 1r.rrr1ce oql){\r{uorta e 3u1m.o11og e.re no.f noz( 'elnquluoc nozt e111r1 Jo qcnru .rraorl Jol ^rou>I -lru oN '1r .ofue o+ 1u1!a no.r{ ztelrr eql ztqqoq eq1 fofua .e1e.r ue 1y 'ror{c+^\ prTg lsnt Fureq Jo pelsq roprTg e Furur " .r(qqoq -uoceq o1 leo8 .rno.{ 1es slql q pe8e8ue e.re nolt JT.oS
'eso pu eceed l purru .ree1o e_.{poq pu pupu Jo uorlx1e.r eleldruoc spJogr lI ,11 eaoq .pue ,ouo.rtla^o ol IIcgoueq os sr lr{l 3ur41elr pue Furqrq se8e.rnocue }I .sa -se5 snouosrod pue Sorus ruo.r; .fenne JI rIseJJ o1u1 ..{rlunoc uedo eq1 o+ur lno .8uno.{ pu plo ,eldoed s8uprq Fulp.rrg

'srep4i oJ ortr/ra uorlelndod Ilol eql Jo uoll -.rodo.rd alqazrs e 8ur1n1r1suoc 'zt11nr1c slql yo lred eJe or{/t4, eldoed uorllTru eo.rq+ lnoq or oJoqJ .zt8oloce r(ep-1uese.rd yo u(pn1s IIJoAo rno Jo lred e IlI^ os s1 s.reqle8 erl uor+ruroJul oql eculs esod.rnd InJesn zt.re.rr e so^Jes ,(qqoq sr11 .r(1rnr1ce oql Jo lno ornso1d go leep 1ea.r8 se^IJep eq 1e.{ ,Jo^op -uo esuosuou-ou e s.ll '1urod e o1 dn ,(qqoq slq lnoq sno -rJes sr e11 'se.rn8g z(pn1s-p.rrq Iuol+u oq+ ol pepp eq eur eq1 1eq1 os ree.d qce spJocor slq uT suJnl pu qnlc uoqnpnv IcoI o1 s8uoleq.(1ensn oH'spuolrJ pu {puey srq q1rrlr f.r1 -unoc oql olq so)ilrtr 3uo1 se4r1 eH .+I sees oq uaq^a pu soos eq +q/!r Jo pJocoJ dl.reezt e sdea4 prr olqrssod se .dueur se r$rluepr ol seTrl oH 'spJrq Surpeey pue Eurlcerll Jo epr oq+ se)Irl oH 'uortr 1 lsTrroT}^Jesuoc sI pu IIIF{ lnoq oJn+u ur lsoJoluT o^T+c u se{l oqia uosred e .s.rooplno eq+ so>ITI flecrseq oqd\ uosJod e sr aH .oseql Jo JorllTeu sI repJTg ar{J

oql Jo uarpllqc 8ur1.rep req qllm ragT^r+- 11 p puq Joq ur ssr13 eledo poJe^oc-IJeed e 8urqc1n1c spee/lrl zt8Eeq oql q Je8raop,, aq+ s go lq8noql sI orlrla, Jarlcl\ plrg aql Jo .,.rosse;o.rd pepuTru-luesq,, oql sT oqm, lsrFoloqlruro or{+ Jo e8eul oql olIco.rdde .ro e{rl }ou op l(eq; ,..sJopJTg,, Jo ouru or{l Jloslr uenr8 sq lq+ dno.r8 Jaq+ou sT oreqJ

i,.+seJoJ

sr0pilq puu Fu;pllq

basis.

for lessons. AII you need is the ability to enjoy what nature is offering you. As a matter of fact, bird watching can be as simple as looking out of a window or sitting on a porch. Many people "window-feed.,, birds on a board attached to an outside windowsill on which they place table scraps or bird feed. Thus bird watching can be an excellent hobby for the shut-in as weil as for those who want to pursue it on an indoor-outdoor, winter-summer morning_evening

how to attract birds


There is really nothing difficult about getting birds to come to your yard and feeders. perhaps the most important re_ quirement is patience. rt wilt take some time to get birds to make regular visits to your premises. I have fraA Uiras alight on a new feeder within an hour after it was erected, but this is the exception. Birds are naturally wary of any_ thing new, but after you have gained their confi.dence, their trust and friendliness will prove surprising. Their needs are simple, and they ask for tittle. ati tfrey-rrant is food, water, and shelter. If you try to duplicate these as they are found in irature, you are bound to attract birds to your yard and garden. Remember, birds do not like .,spic_ and-span" surroundings. A brush pile, dead limbs, nearby trees, or possibly some weeds will provide them with the cover and perching facilities that their sense of security

requires.

As your interest in this new hobby increases, you will want to know more about certain birds which you would like to

You can obtain the confidence of birds. Provide enough food,

all cats, and you will have birds


as close companions.

avoid noise, move slowly, banish

16

Milwaukee Public Museum photo

LT

qcTrtr/ta 'uo11eur.ro;q sIqJ '(ga 'd .,'slslT PJIS,, ees) suollen -Jasqo .rno uo so+ou e{"ru uec no {ooq sTrtr+ u1 'se8ed 3o runruTulur aar{ pue 1q311 aq pFor{s >{ooqolou or{J 'Ilorl asod.rnd orll o^res nra eJols luoc-uel-pu-e,rg: eql q nq uec no.z( 1eq1 {ooq Jel-esool qcuT-g x t 'allsuodxaul uV '{ooq -olou pleg sI rerlcl^+ prTq oql ol pI 1ue1rodu4 roqlouv

'asn ur lou uaq/t^, esec Fu1.rtec E u1 1de4 eq pFoqs ,teq; 'eq+ l(nq nozt eroJeq pelsnfpe er srIncoulq aq+ lq+ arns eg 'acT^p STII uo ,t1e.r pue puFu u1 eneq nozf +q/!r relap elqelndeJ IIoJ 'lq8iell ssocxe .r.rec o+ +urt lou op no.f e4rq 3uo1 e uo +q+ Jeqruoruag 'pug uec nozt .r1ed enlsuedxe lsour pue 1se8.rel oql osqcrnd 1ou peeu no 'uol+cgTluapr roJ asolc dn sprlq lulsTp 8urlq o1 pydlaq eq IITlta sJInaourq go .4ed e '3u1qc1e/\a pJIq snolJes eJoru Jod

popoau iloudtnbo
'pol^I+1nc oq uc +ql lsero+u1 lelceds Jo sar reqlo uetu er eraql 'sprlq 3u1.re11eqs pue .BurpeoJ Jo slIluosso eql 8u1.re1seru o+ uoTtTppe ur 'qqotl eql Jo sol+TlTqlssod oq+ Jo oJlr{ oq ppoqs reuur8eq eq+ 'Jo^o1!^oH 'Ir1op uI sellprlc peTII esaqt 1e eroldxe o+ ]Tooq s1t{+ Jo esod;nd etl} tou sr 1I 'sIIc pu s5uos pJIq Jo 8u1p.roce.r eql sT dllerceds Surn8rllur JoqloV 'Surpueq p.rrq dn e{l Jo uo11er31ru prlq q lredxa u ouroc -oq uc no 'seurze8eur o1 sa.rn1c1d "rno.f 1es uene sdeq.red pue .,tqde.r3o1oqd prlq q ezrlerceds osl uc no;1 '3u1qc1em prlq uo qooq olls ro IcoI e Surqsqqnd se qcns 'senrlcef -qo oleJcuoc qllra rtlercos lecr5oloqlluJo u3 8urz1ue8Jo u1 ele.redooc +q8lur no.{.rg 'oJ rInc11red e u1 lredxe u euroc -oq uc nort 'ez11e1ceds o1 e.rec norf ;r 'eldruexa Jod 'suoT+c -orre SuoleJTI euocaq 'sosc oruos uT 'paopq 'pu perJ^ pu ,(ueur er sollrlllc osorlJ 'r(.r1unoc eq1 lnoq8noJttr+ soololep luapJ ,tq pans.rnd ere sollT^r+c Surqclem-pJrq pozH1cedg

'sn ol rIIFrJ ,tpee.qe spleg uI +serolul pu e8uelleqc q5noue pug aldoed lsoru 'slsqelceds JoJ spleg pocurrp z(ueru er oJoq+ q3noq11y 'sloop-Jo-lno 3ur11a8 ol o^Icnpuoc pu '8u1q.rosqe 'un8eq ,t11sea sT lT esnceq Surqcl1!\ prrq o1u1 1eF eldoed 1sotr41

solllrtllce l0 spul}| llu


'secuegedxe
3u11se.re1u1

lnozt lnoq

sreqlo ilel c no.rt pue reqcl.fla pJTq pacual.redxe u auroceq mm no.rt uoos 'so>ITislp p so{TI Jloql urel lrm no,t ueq+ qlr^4. JrIrruJ oruoceq no..( uoq^& 'uap.re8 .rnor( o1 lcJl1

Bird watching provides a

relax-

ing and healthful form of recreation whether one is alone or with good friends.

National Audubon Society photo

can be flled according to bird groups when you return


home,

will

become valuable reference material.

Some bird watchers make a life-size drawing of the outline of a bird, print several duplicate copies and insert them in their book. When an unfamiliar bird is seen, the markings, size, colors, and other features can be quickly indicated on one of the outline drawings for later study and identification. These printed outlines are a great convenience for both the inexperienced and the experienced bird watcher.

The more advanced bird watcher sometimes flnds additional items of equipment necessary. At a later date you may want a telescope that can be mounted on the door of your car or in a window of your home to command a sweeping view of your yard or the area in which you are driving. Telescopes are made in a range of types and prices that will meet a wide variety of needs.
To complement your growing knowledge of birds, you may decide to start a home tibrary. You can select titles from the excellent variety of classic books that have been on the market and keep abreast of new publications by watching advertisements in newspapers and magazines and ehecking book-review sections. (See pagelgg)

18

An excellent counterpart to a collection of bird books is a record library of bird songs and calls. Within the past few years a number of fine albums have become available and

6T

'sraqclIra pJTq pecuerJedxo eql rrroJJ lol E uJeI uc no.d 'qnlc pJTq IcoI Jno^ Jo sJeqrueru Jo slsTsuoc dnoJ8 etll JI 'Aeme spJlq e^IJp llyll spunos pu s+uerue^our ueppns 'ool sreqc?.{ta pJrq eq p1nor{s suolued -uroc .rno,rt 'eFqrarluo/lr eq o1 s1 d1.r1 .rno 11 'sdnor8 .re8.re1 ur lozrJl ol elr{ pm no.f uoq^ suorscco aq -rfeur oroqJ 'suosred Jeq+o ollal Jo euo ql eJour lou qIIIA ro ouol Jeq+Ie sdr.r1 plag Jroql e{ru sroqcl.&t pJTq pacuel.redxg
'rTr{c oql Jo +aeJ t ro I ulqlT^,\ 01 eTuc qloq s.re{clg pu suTqoJ lql punoJ pu os Jo se+nuTrrr OU roJ 111s 11cegred 1es 1 'e1q1ssod s rJ s u.rlaop pennd JooJ eql pue 'eruoq .roururns rno Jo lol eq+ uo lods lernb uI pecId .4eqc eqt q?I/vyJoor s^uec pelroddns qlr.{!r' JTr{c 4cep .rep8oJ pesn eartr I ';leslnort locuoc o? uoaJcs esn osl uc no 'pufitreq epTq o+ qsnq ro ea.Il s3 qcns .roaoc lJnlu roJ rlool 'uollerr.resqo polJluecuoc op ol +u/ra noz( e.reqm lods e qcoJ no uaq6 'lueurdpba Jaqlo pu sJIncoulq rno.( 5uo1 a{;. 'spoolrt pu 'ser{sJru 'seJoqs 'splog uedo se qcns s+lrqr1 Jo .f1er.ren esJe^J+ uc no.{ ;r elqelgo.rd +sotu oq 11rm .{eq1 lttr+ pug [r/ra no 'n1ep euros uI seqrq .rnort ueld 1rm nort 'ecual.redxe ureS no sy

'+unq-pJrq-crucrd uoTlurqruoc Jo lJos 1I elTrrr uec nort uts oJ 'sprlq z(pn1s pue ',t;rluepl 'pug ol sI qcll{r\4. Jo e^Ilcefqo ureru eq1 'dr.r1 pleg 3u14e1 lnoq 3ur4urq1 ur8eq uec nort 'uep.re8 pue p.re .rnorf ol eruoc lql spJrq aq1 partofue e^q no,{ .re1yy

d!4 ploll u lo unl oqt


olur no.r( o{1 o+ 5uro3 sI e{Iq .rnor( '.ro
'spuI pepoog ro rtdurems sI puno.r8
1e^,1

eql JT Jopro uI er sooqs ;oo.rd.relen Jo soor{sJelrg 's8ur -punoJJns .rnozt q1yll, uT pualq nozt dleq TIT/lr\ lq+ Sulqlauros Ja^,\ pu Jer{la^a oq+ JoJ sserp nolt 1eq1 eJ suoT+sa88ns z(1uo sT sdr.4 pleg .rog le.redde 8u1.reelr s r"J sV
aql pouJecuoc
'uollcglluopr ear+ -rsod ;o suoTu e+Jncc oJorrr sT lT seculsul oruos uI pu 'pJIq d;rluepr o1 8u1.reeq uo puedap soruTlotuos sJoqclrla prTq pocu^pv 'sprrq yr1uap1 o1 dleq pnn' s8urprocer esoq+ yo Fulfeld paleede.r /troq +no pug o+ peslrd.rns ,t11uesee1d eq 11I/!r no 'uroql ol uols11 ol ecuolredxe 3u111rq1 sT 1T

Family groups can enjoy a field

trip iogether since bird watching appeals to old and young


alike.

Hendricks-from the National Audubon Societv

Trips can last a few hours, a whole day, or several days. Some hobbyists devote many of their vacations to this healthful activity.
Trips can also be planned for your local Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops or some other group of young people with whom you are associated. Since larger groups reduce the effectiveness of a fleld trip, the participants should be advised beforehand to heed signals for quiet.

when

to look for hirds

Your fi.rst few field trips will undoubtedly be made sometime during the day. As you gain more knowledge and skill in bird watching, you will discover that the best time to observe birds is the early morning-the earlier the better. Some bird watchers arise long before dawn and get settled in their favorite watching spot before the sun is up. If you can do this, you will be handsomely rewarded.

20

If you want to see owls, you will have to get out just at dusk or a little after. With a strong flashlight, you will be able to spot some interesting flights. You probably will be struck by the quiet flight of these birds, which seem to glide through the trees like gray shadows.

'rtlercog uoqnpny ltsuorlN eqg, rtsegnog,

tz

-ods JITruIs pu $IrI/ltopeotr tr 'seeJl IIl f^eq rpT/ra spoo/rt +Iqr{u1 sra>tclg pu sro{cadpoor}a. eql s qcns spJrq aruos
'ruoq+ ees o+ +d lsolu sT er{ oroq^t sI sTrIl pu lsou lteq1 e.reqm. sI sTqJ .sprTq 3o selcads urlroc pug ol lcadxo uc Jeqcl/ta pJTq oql eJarl.{ta s^ oqs ..{1e1cog uoqnpnv orll Jo -rtselrnoc eq1 q8no.rql ,aJsq peluese.rd uo11 -ruroJul eq; 'sdoleerl uI lq8nos aq +ou pporls rlcTq^{ sp4q puno.r8 or alaql puts punor8 3uo1e uoos uroples "qt spJTq cglceds qcrqr\or qcTq^{ spJTq do1ee.r1 oJ eJer{ .e^q uT soJ elTugap er eJoq+ 'ZZ eaP.d uo qclo{s eql ltq u^roqs sV

'5ur4oo1 e.re nort qclq^{ JoJ spJrq er{l pug o+ eJE nozf 1de orour oq+ .uor+col eql pepnlcos eJoru orIJ 'puod il1ur Jo 'o{I e 3uo1e qceq or{+ .r{sJur .ro drue,ls 'IITTI 'ureJls Jo Jo^TJ e 3uo1e e.rnlsed ,ur.rJ uo 1'no papoo/v\ e eq eru oserl .soTlIAI+c uurnq ruoJJ ^roJecuoJor polorrrer lql saceld JoJ {ool 01 .Jole^roq ,lseq sI lI .suos -ees 8u11e.r8rur 8u1lnp dnercadsa'soJ pellrqqm uI punoJ aq 11I^ spJTq ouros lql onJl sr 11 .sr(em,q8rq pue sloor+s ,(snq Fuol ouop eq louuc Surqcle.ol pJIq .lsJTd .InJssoccns aq ol or sdr.r1 pleg JT puTrrr uI auroq oq +sntu s8urql ul1.raC

sprlq pull 0l OrOqil puP iloq


'luuooddrqrvl .penb oln{aaqoq .eeq/!to} ..reerr 'ocunf 'JeIqJ.{rt ollq^ pu {cIq .p4quoa6 :puno.r8 oqt uO .g 'Jor{sJql u.&roJq .ItsurpJc .pJlqlc,ralqJr peprs-lnulseqc 'lnol.reds Suos ,.nno.r.rds pleT.it :soqsnq jaoT .g

,onopsuru.rnoru.^."""fJ';fH;:Yi:";:?;;H#jl:
pe[rq-{cIq pu -1!ro[e :s8u11des pu saqsnq .req8lg
.p

'lJ+speJ'4eeqso.r8 pe
-1.soJq-eso.r'.re8eue1 lolJcs'oallzr pezfe-pa.r .-,te tenlq,qsn.rq1 poo/r^. 'uTqog :soorl Jo seqcuJq Jo,{rtol pu s8uqdeg .g '3ur1.re1s'esnorulTl pelJnl 'eep{cplc 'I o r{coeJcs '{^,r{ lao.r.reds .pJTqenlq ..reqc1ecg pelsarc 's.re>lcedpooty\ :seqcuJq aolloq pu s{unJl eer;, .A

'aIoIro a.roturl.Ig 'eolrod poo/lt 'oeJTA 8u11q.rellr .JeIqJa uoTnJec 'ralqr.&r uerurnq{ce1g :sdo1ao4 pu seqcuJq .req3r11 .1

.utOql 00s

0l ldu oJs nof

OJ0qtu puB

spJlq uou|l[oc Oql t0 0lu0s l0 sllqpq tullsou

cies will be found in open areas. Even a few hundred feet will make a difference in the kind of birds you see. Gradually, you will flnd a number of favorite observation posts. To attract the birds after you are on location and the birds are settled down, try making a kissing sound on the back of your hand. The noise will cause the birds to become inquisitive and they will come close. Many stores carry a small bird call made with a rosin stick that produces a squeak. These calls are very helpful in attracting birds. In these hideaways you will enjoy watching and listening to the birds and you will flnd that their chirping and singing is as pleasant as the sight of the birds themselves. mounted birds. A local zoo wLay have an aviary that will also prove helpful, and in your library you are sure to flnd a number of books that show and list the birds that might be seen in your area.

If your city has a museum, you can study some of the

how

to identify birds

22

The scope of this book does not allow space for a detailed treatment of bird identification, although some of the techniques used will be mentioned. The serious bird watcher should obtain one of the several excellent books that are available. They include valuable background information, colored pictures that make identifying birds easy, and they are small and light enough to take along on fleld hikes.

8Z

'rtrcuJq ea.rl Jeddn 8u1doo.rp uI sreqg ua^orl Jo lsou pgn51'.uroleq aaoller( 'ur oJq a,rllo eJ 8uno,t pu elrued 's.rq 5u1m' e+Iqda orlr1 q+IA'l' qcIq pue e8us.ro rf.reg q eItr tr L,g-Z) STOIUO 5IUOWI,ITVS

'JA^OcSrp lrrr,r nozf spJlq /taeu ortrl T{llr}a

uosl.reduroc roJ uoaT8 ere sozTs JTeql ieuo:(.reao ol rTITruJ os oJ lfeql aculs u.rttoqs lou eJB spJTq osoqJ '3uo1 seqcul oI g sT /vl.oJJds uourruoc oq; '3uo1 seqcruT a/tOT o4 dhg "Ag sr ulqor rrouruoc oqI '11T aql Jo dll eq+ ol {oq eq1 yo d11 sI sTqJ 'uea13 sI prlq etl+ Jo ezls et{l esc qco uI
eq+ urorJ 'spJTq uoururoc uaes uo+Jo lsoru

eq+ Jo suo11d1.rcsep pu s8u1me.rp Jo Jeqrunu aJ oJerl pepnlcul '.reuu18eq aql JoJ 'JeAe&loII '68T e8ed uo palsTl

s 'sTq+ Jo qo[ elalduoc op lql s{ooq Jortr+o Jo reqrunu .r(ue e.re eJerIl :uoqcglluepT pJIq Jo >Iooq lou sr >Iooq sIqJ

u0rlPc!l!lu0p! prlq

u sr sTqJ, 'ap1n8 eql 'aJnsrol

'pleg eq+ q IIIeql Jolunocuo nort e.royaq spJlq raou{ o} lec le lI r{8noJq+ os/lroJg 's8uluerre epp8 .rno.d -(pryg

'pleg eqt ur uor1ru.8oce.r lulsur ol pr luelrodur; uoql JoJ {ool ol aJerl^a rr ou>I 01 lap
uT

'pouJnloJ aneq no.r( .re1;e dn lT {ool pu 3u11q8rs .rnolt yo pJocoJ e>Iru ol {ooqe+ou plog .rno esn 'p.4q fy11uap1 ,t1err11rsod louuc no.( g 'esee 8u1s1.rd.rns r{lrr\ scTlslJolcJtlc asoql lods o1 alq eq lrrr,r nozt eu11 +Joqs uT lnq 'raou polc11duroc rueas lfeur srq;, '1uenbe.r; zteql s8ulpnoJJns yo ed,t1 lqa pu punoJ eJ spJlq aJeq^4'

urol ppoqs .reuu18aq aq;, 'scllslrolcrqc lq8Tg pue '(61o1 punoJ drunf eq seop ro pelsa.r pu olpos eq sr) suollc 'ocTo^ 'paq pu 'ITl 'sFuyrr 'r(poq oql uo s8ulq.reur lelceds 'Joloc 'edeqs le.raue8 aql 'ozTs IIJo^o oq+ epnlcur slTJl IJo -ue8 esaql 'sprlq yo sdno.r8 Jalqc er{1 Jo scllslrolcrqc eql 3u1u.ree1 ,(q slqt saop lsrdqqoq oq; 'dno.r8 sll urrlly!^' prrq 3u1ce1d Jo s1slsuoc uollcglluepl p.rtq '.fneclsg 'Jaqlo -u ruoJJ oeJI^ Jo JaIqJa 3o ad1 euo qsp8ullslp ol TrIq

elque ilI^ ecllc.rd pue prys 1uo 1ng '/!IoJc pu uoe51d E uoo/lrloq ocueJesiTp oql s^4ou>1 uosrad e8e.rene er{J

BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLFIIr- (5-5y2") Creeps down as well as up on trees and branches. Boldly striped in black and white. The female is less conspicuous with whiter underparts. Nest on ground.

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE (43/+-5/2") Usua,lly plump. The only small bird with a black cap, a black bib and white cheeks. Friendly and active. The call is a chick-a-dee-deedee or dee-dee-dee.

BLUE JAY (11-12") A large bright blue bird, whitish below with bars on wings. Has a crest and black bib. Very noisy and conspicuous most of the year. Usually travel in groups from 4 to 5.

BRO\I/N CREEPER (5-53/+"') A brown bird smaller than a sparrow with a slender curved bill and rather stiff tail used as a prop. Climbs tree like a spiral staircase then flies to
base.

BROWN THRASHER" (l0yz-Ll) A slim bird slightly larger than a robin. Is bright rufous-red above and heavily striped below in long stripes. Has wing bars, a curved bill and a long tail.

24

Red bill.

CARDINAL (8-9") Easily recognized since it is the onty allred bird with a crest. The male has a black spot at base of bill. The female is yellow-brownish with a touch of red.

qXrllo'

'uoIlceg -ur SuTsIr ideeeaeqra pollsFtr/rt sT oloN '/ttt'o1ezt st rfiloq eql pu lseJq pu +oJrll l(e.r8 e sH 'II1 peJoloc por Jo snoJnJ raqclecz(g po eq; (,,0-g) USHC.LVCT (ISJ.SSUC

'tr{5Tg uI roloc uoplo8 e 11 aa13 ge1 pue Fuyr,r.repun {ofiel( eq; 'se1g pJIq oql se durn.r elTrllrn snoncldsuoS 'edeu uo qcled per 'ls?oJq ssorc luecsoJc qcIq opyr^, sH GVt-gt) Ug14CITg

'l(tr1unoc aql JeAo a+IJo,r -J prTqanlg oql epru aar{ sJolcey ztue141 'roloc uT rollnp pue .re1ed er selrued 'lsa.rq peJ qlT/r^ pJTq enlq zfluo aq; 'rto.r.reds uqt .re8.re1 (,ahL-zh9) GtIISEInTg N1IEI,f,S1rS

'3u11e1nPun l(.re,r sT +tI8TI.iI 'sreq 3u1*r pue s8ulm qsl{cIq qluvt /rtoile arr11o ilnp sI Joururns ur olruod 's8u1rrl {cIq qtl^ pJIq mollezt leurs dluo oqt sI raruruns uI alru e\I (,,2h9-S) HCNI.{CTOD NOyIWOC

'alluec
'11l eql Jo dll oq+ l puq molelf 'peo.rq sH 'see aq1 Jozro >Issrrr )tcIg 'ozrs uT ulqoJ pu m.o.r.reds uoa.mleq 'prTq pelsorc 'u^rorq '>Ieols V (,8-a/rg) CNIII4,XV/1, UjrqgC

'elou Euos Suyneru sH 'plog aq+ m elqocllou lou sgoloc IIl Jepun lods pe.r lnulsoqc se11 'dec {cIq qll^{ roloc u1 lfe.rF-e1e1g .urqo.r eq+ ur{l JeIIIus pu rerurull$ Q,u/t6-z/t8) (Iulg.f,vc

EASTERN KINGBIRD ($t/2-9") A large black and white flycatcher. When it flies the conspicuous wide white band at the tip of its fanlike tail is its best identification mark. Likes fence posts.

PHOEBE (6V2-7') Has no wing bars or eye ring' Gray brown above and whitish below. Constantly wags its tail. The bitl is black. Has an upright posture. Repeated call is: "phoebee."

WOOD PEWEE (6-6y2") Sparrow-sized flycatcher olive brown above and whitish below with two very conspicuous wing bars but no eye ring. Lower mandible of bill is yellow'
Call: "pee-a-wee."

EVENING GROSBEAIK (71/e'81/2") Latge, chunky, shorttailed. Dusky yellowish color and extremely large conical white bill. Male has yellow mask above eyes, black and white wings. Female silver gray.

ROSE-BREASTEID GROSBEAK (7-81/2") Male is black and white with large triangular patch of red-rose on breast. In flight, ring of white flashes across upper feathers. Female very different, Iike sparrow.

HOUSE WREN (4yz'5y4") Very small bird in gray-brown color. Has energetic actions and cocks in tail over its back. Has no facial striping as other wrens have. Very songful. Builds in house.

LZ

qsllTrlllr qll/vl u.{!toJq podrJls ltlaeeq sr olrual orl1, .mq +nols e3.re1 sH 'drun.r pu paq uo lselq8r.rq .pe.r-z(sotf .Joloc ur l.reqdsr ro osor plo erotr J (,,u/rg-ahg) HCNI.{ EITdUnd

'ol(o JoAo ouTI

'polnu olurod 'sepls pu lseJq uo {cIq uT ..I1,, po+Je^ul z(neeq qll ./!toleq ollr{lv\ 'oloq fe.r8-en1q sr Sur.rds ur aItrAI ...>Icertrc,, pnol sI " 1e3 'durn.r rnoller( trISTrq sH (,,g-g) 1ISTSUVIA gTItIW

'ooc 'ooc 'ooc 'qoo :InJuJnoru ilC '+q8ru uT slop ollqlrl e8.re1 s/!^oqs qcrtllra Irl 'pedeqs-ueJ lou 'pe1u1od sH .uoe8rd cTlsouop eql u?ql rerururls uoa8rd u^ orq IIus V (,,9I-TI) SAOC CNINU1OW

'sse.r8 u1 slsaN 'prrq u/lrorq +qF11 .d4unq3 'elTq/l\ er sroqleJ Jolno .{cou Jo luoJJ uo ..A,, 4cIq
q1rm.1red repun pu Lserq \oIIa (,,Tt_6)
IT31

XUVT /y\Oq\rsw

's>Iuq Ja^IJ uI 5np sleuunl uT s+seN .olllJ rIFIq sI eclo^ 'lassnJ uI popuq sI lsrorJ .>Ioq e3.re1 pu peer{ a8.re1 ,lsarc qsng '{cq pu poq enlq-a?Is (,,VI-TT) UEIHSIJCNDI

'anlq eluos sI eJoql lnq IIJ uI u/raoJq sourocoq e1e1q .s8ulqJru o^rlcurlsrp ou q+I^l, udroJq ureld sI elureJ orIJ .Je^o il onlq qcr.r .deep CI\It,lNnS OCIqNI

lIIFIrq

ts sr

lqt

p"rrq 1uo erlJu (,,u/e9-elrg)

RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD (7yz-gyz') Absolutely unmistakable. Black bird with bright red shoulder epaulettes. Female and young are brownish with sharp pointed bill and well deflned stripes below.

RUBY-CIIOWNED KINGLET (33/a-4!/2") Tiny, short-tailed olive gray with two pale wing bars and conspicuous broken eye ring. Male has scarlet crown-patch usually concealed. Stubby tail.

SCARLET TANAGER (6t/2-71/2") A bright scarlet bird with black wings and tail. The winter male, the immature and the female are dull green above and yellowish below. Males moult in fall season.

SLATE-COLORED JUNCO (6-GL/2") Also called Snowbird. Dark slate-gray with white belty. Has conspicuous white outer tail feathers visable in flight. Some have darker hoods. Young are even colored gray.

CHIPPING SPARROW (5-5y2") A small clear, gray-breasted sparrorrr with a bright rufous cap and a black line through the eye. Almost domestic. Nests near houses. Adults in winter are dull in color.

SONG SPARRO\M (5-63/+") Heavily streaked breast with a big "stick pin" or large central spot. Most common eastern sparrow. As it flies, it pumps its tail. Young do not have central spot.

6Z

'edr.r1s erte seq 'Pelsorg PoU sI selcads rITrrrrs 's5uyn pu {ctsq enlq qlutd' rnolaq e11qin'dec

{cIq sH '{ooqc

etlr1tll,

seer+ spuecsaq 0,9-g)

HC;, 11N

uo elfo peeq {cIg 'uop peq

CS,f,SV6IUS g,f,IHfi

'ellsTqra rEeIC 'rf+q5ru pue rt.rem eroru sT lnq eep>Iclqc eql ol rFrurs 'pe.ro1oc-zflsnr er s{uU s+I 'lsa.rc pe+Jn1 sq lq+ p4q paroloc-esnour 'rte.rE ztluo eq; (,dh9-9) SSnOtr^IJ,IJ. Cg,tn,f,

'Jeururns ur

olI sofi/tl. euoqdelel uo s4cog 1ee.r8 u1 .reqleF 1q+ s/tlorrs ertr+ aJ esoq;, 's1red-.repun 41ft{/!1 elIncunul qlTe\ a^oq {cIq-uoor8 .ro qcelq-onlq d1ee1g (,p-9) IOATV/14.S S51U,I

sosnoq p4q

opur-uur ur paerg 'paTlleq-lq811 sl elruoJ eql 'raoleq pu a^oq >TcIq-aniq sI aleru eq; '11eq {cIq qlT euo z(1uo .{KoIIIlrs 1se3.re1 raO (,2h8-a Z) NIIUIrT{ qTdund

eql pu

'seqc.rod Pu'e sSurPITnq uI pnlu Jo slsou sa>ItrN '4cq >IcIq-enlq pu /taoloq g|nq-uolu -uurc .ro qsr4urd '111 uo slods elplla sH .,'U+ llaollllts,, Ier rllTlta /lrollrns zfluo oql (,2/rL-9) /IOTTV/I^S NU\flS

'qc1ed loJr{l lnorllr/ta lnq rIIuIs sI peu/laorc-ofTq,&l 'ea pue ilIq oql uee^aleq lods mo11e e pue u.{raoJc elTr{rl^ pu {cIq pedr.rls e 'qc1ed loJql e}Iqra rtr+I/ta pelserq de.rp (,,L-ahg) IAO1111trrdS CgtrrO11HI-g,f,IH/l1

I{AIRY AND DOWNY WOODPECKERS (8/z-9t/2" a'nd 6r/z7" respectively) Are identical except size. White-backed with checkered black and white body. Small red patch on back of head. Females no patch.

RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER (9-IOyz") The only zebra' striped back woodpecker. MaIe has entire crown in bright red, female has red on nape of neck only. The young have a brown head, striped body.

RED-HEADED \IIIOODPECKEF. (81/z-9V2") The only bird with entirely red head. In flight, large square patches of white show on rear edge of wing. Male and female are alike, young are dusky.

YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKFIB (8'8y2") The only woodpecker with a red forehead patch. Has longitudinal white stripe on black wing. Males have red throats; females, white. Young are sooty.

IIOOD THRUSH (7lB-81/2") Smaller than a robin. Is rustor rufous-headed with breast and sides heavily spotted. Round spots, not stripes. Similar to Thrasher but Thrush
has redder head.

I8

'uo$1ndod p.4q eq1 asorcuT 01 pepl^ord eq uec uo11ce1o.rd repeq 1ql os peule8 osl sI sprlq Jo s+uerue.4nbe.r eql Jo Eulpuels.repun re$oq 17 'selceds prrq l"npr^Ipq Jo uoTlnqlrlslp oql lnoq peurel uoaq sq qcnur 'uollruJoJul oIqIJ^ Jeqlo pue 'ztlddns pooJ 'Joq+olla uo lp rllTr\tr req1e3o1 'slunoc eseql tuoJd

'uor{l qlrll4. {Jo/!l' uec nof puts +noc or{l JoJ epru sueld aq+ 11 eaeq lyrr.deq1 '.ttu o.t eJer{+ JI 'aJ .rno.,t u1 sqnlc pJrq elqrssod uo {ceqc o+ ilo/!! eq ilI^a +T slql op no.f oroJog 'uol+"ruroJu1 1ueu11red 1aF uec no.f suollezllun8to osoql o1 3u11gm ,(g 'C 'q 'uo13u1 -qs/!\ 'rolre+ul Jo +uerupdeq 'ec1,r.res oJIIpU/V\ pu qsTd sol+s po+Tun oq+ pu '8200T ''N '{ro .{!aoN 'enua^v q+}T,!I gg11 '1e1cos uoqnpnv IuoI+N eq+ Jo secrdsne erIl rapun palcnpuoc sr pu selnJ lcrJls ltq pau.reno8 s1 uolle.redo eq;
'soloN pleTd uoqnpnv or{1 Jo enssr sIlllslrr{c oq+ q peluese.rd pu pel1nql or sllnseJ eqg, '.reed qco Jo pu sruls1.rq3 SurpnlcuT os Jo s.(ep ue1 8u1.rnp ra ,tep e^roN sJnoq +rI8Te ue{l sI lr ocurs lunoC stulsTJqC aql sE ul!5,ouq sr pue s.ree.,t 09 urtr+ oJour JoJ uo 5uro5 ueeq sq sItIJ 'uollepdod p.rlq aql ol p.re8el qlT^r scrlsrl1s ur+qo o1 ree qce apur sI lJog:e ue 'eldoed Jo snsuec eql o{1 e^ s +snf

snsuOc p4q Oql

'5uos Jo IIc pJTq .reaq nor( uoqra roJ {ool ol lqm /hou>1 IIT/II no 'sec1o^ Jloql .dq sp.qq /!rou>I o1 1eE no,t sy 'p;d1eq eq IITrI secTol pue s8uos pJIq uourruoc oql II Jo spJoco.r g:-Tq Jo los V 'eJoJeq pJor{ Je^eu eneq nozt 1eq1 s8ulql Jeq 11I^ nor( SuluelsTl InJorc -,(q lloq pesrrd.rns aq ilI/ta no 'spr1q ar{+ Jo socTo^ eql ol ualsq pue 1e1nb eq ol InpTArpuT ro dno.r8 aq+ {s'e IITrl, .raqclr\^ pacual.redxe eq1 dp1 pleg uO 'fpueq uI saruoc reqcl/lr pJIq uJele^ Jo ecTlp oql oJoryta sI aJeH 'sIIc .ro s8uos luaraglrp xrs Jo eag sq IuTpJc eq1 'eldurexe rod 'secrol .rreq1 ,tq sI spJlq aruos ,t;quepr z{lanrlrsod o1 ,tem .f1uo eq1 }ql pug lrlr. no.r( 'luercgo.rd eJour 1eE nol{ sr/ '+uFodurl a.rour uela sI lI serurlotuos-ll 8u1ees se luelrodruT s 1sn[ sr pJIq Eul.reeq sesc r(utur u1

acrorl

fq uoqec+4uopl

Bird study gives parents


terest.

and

children a valuable common in-

Hal Harrison-from National Audubon Society

Participating in this important annual census is a valuable contribution to conservation and the science of ornithology and you will find your efforts well rewarded.

In addition to the annual Christmas Count, there are a


number of other counts. White they are of less significance, they are just as interesting and enjoyable.

the big day


The Big Day is a Z4-hour bird count taken from midnight to midnight usually during the height of the spring migration. The object of this count is to see how many different species of birds can be sighted during this period. This is deflnitely a group activity. If the group or club is large, it may break up into smaller divisions, each covering a special location such as highlands, open fields, heavy woods, marshes, river banks, and lakeshores. If the group is small, the participants can travel together to cover the best places during the given time.

the big morning


Sometimes the members of a bird club cannot spare the time for an all-day outing. They then may cut down the Big Day to just a morning in which as many species as possible are identified. This half-day count can also be held in the afternoon if need be.

32

88

'saln+crd uollcol -pe11orluoc pu sarnlcld plag lpaqsrn8uTlsTp eq uec se.rn1c1d prTq Jo sed.rfl leraue8 0zr4.1 'ecuorrrearroc ;o sesod.rnd log 'ecT^p elqnla no,f eru8 ol elq eq ,teur oH 'Jalap .rno qlyn' sueld rno.f ssncslq 'pI8IJ pu ilI+s ,trerr pleq eq ol Jeruc oq+ s^loll rtrcTqr\ lunoru ed,$-4co1sunF eperu dnerceds uo pe11lsul sT uT Jerrrc eq; 'uollrlsnl1T Sul.rtuedurocce qde.rFoloqd ",{t s suol o1oqde1e1 .(1qenb rllTlv\ uollcunfuoc u1 oql uT urraoqs pasn oq lsnlu pu IIs ool qcntu sT suol Jaruc 'rurugg r(.reu -rpro ar{J 'pe.4nbe.r s1 lueurdrnbe lerceds ',tqder8o1oqd pJTq ulro ztpee.rle ,{eur no.l[ elTq/v\
JoJ posn oq uc 1q+ Jerrrc

'p4s 3u13e8ue srql uI 1r+s poo8 e o1 go no.f 1aF pue uolllueru1.redxe sselpoeu e1uFrIIa [I/r4 1I 'lcefqns aql uo $Iooq lsoq oql Jo ouo sI sTrtrJ '>1u"qs>IclnrC 'c 'v rq @ 1o ,fdoc ullqo oliler op pFo/la .dqde.r8oloqd prlq ec11ce.rd ol puelul oqra osor{J
'sIIFIs pu sll/la .rno.r( ued.rqs o1 o^q III.{!I' nozt "tqde.rSotot{d 'nort z{;s11es r4l/!r. ocualredxe ouros pq o^t{ no.,t ;r uaag ol ITJ ,teru sllnsoJ lsJg .rnof 'e.ro;aq sarnlcrd ue4e1 Jo^eu arreq nor( y1 'e.rn1crd uI uaos aq uc pJIq lql os q8noue esolc 1eF o1 lrnue8ur so>I+ 1T puv 'e.rn1c1d poo8 e .ro1 1q311 pu uoTlTsod tq8Fr aql olur 1aF sp.rrq ro prTq e ero;eq rtues -seceu seurr+auros eJ sllrll 3uo1 'lflrnue8ul pue ecualled go olrJesoJ +s^ se.4nbe.r U :{s1 eldurls +ou sr splrq Jo seJnl -c1d 3u14e1 'eppro.rd uec qqoq s1q1 e8uenlqc 1so1e.r8 aq1 sJogio pu sprr\le.r -fueur seq 8urqcl1ta pJrq 1o eseqd s1q;

f,qderFoloqd prlq
'eql uoeraloq r(1ernsre1 eru11 .rnort opplp pue slods ecTor{c aoJr{l Jo o.rvU osooqc uc lnq l(.ro11.r.ra1 qcnur os Je^oc ol el"r[ +ou op nor( 1eq1 'oo1 'suetrr 11 'dpn1s JoJ uosoqc a/req no,t spJlq /!leJ oq1 Jo aJTI ;o r(em' le.reue8 pu 'sluoru -elour 'sllqq oql qlT^\ ecuelurenbc" puq+sJg roJ r(1run1

-.roddo lue11ocxa u sopTlo.rd 11 asneceq 8u1p.re.na.r r(.re,r sI s1rtr;, '11tep .releer8 qcnur uI sprTq ^ eJ pn1s ol sI ereq ptselsur 1eo3 aq1 pegr+uepr oq uc spJTq dueur .nnoq Surees Jo 1nq pol.red rnoq-t3 re^o eceld so>I1 fllensn ep lturs eq;

fep ilPlus oql

field pictures
On field trips you will want a light camera of the type ilIustrated so that you can shoot fast and with a minimum of motion required for adjustments. Birds are extremely fast and you must be ready at all times to take pictures. Remember that any sudden motion will scare them away. When you spot a bird, freeze in position; then walk slowly toward it without sideward motion. Rest at intervals and get as close as possible. It is amazing how large birds appear to the naked eye and how small they become when you get them into your range flnder. Nor does their protective coloration make your task easier. Take your picture as quickly as possible. If you wait for just the right pose, you may end up with no picture at all. You will have to build up your colleetion of photographs by taking the picture available and then replacing the poorer ones with better shots Iater on.

control led-location pictures


Perhaps the most interesting and the best pictures are made where the location is controlled as on a feeder or birdbath. When you are attracting birds to your yard with feed and water, you have an excellent opportunity for taking good pictures. Here you have a prearranged setting that will enable you to locate your camera for the best lighting and composition. The camera can be mounted on a tripod close enough to your subjects so that their images will be large and clear like some of the pictures in this book. If the birds seem to be frightened and stay away from the feeder, substitute some object that resembles the camera and keep it in place for several days, if necessary, to
You can combine hobbies such as photography with bird watching.

34

98

'o+JoqIo olrnb eJts sdJl osaql

Jo eruos 'spuod pu srueJls uo pelcoJa ar sdeJl 3ur11au -orr/!a lercedg 'lTq palg:nr e.re 1ru31p pu sJeqloJ rTeql lsoru l-rueql Turq lou soop sprTq yo 3u111eu oql 'eaaTloq eldoed ouros lqra o1 f.re.rluoC 'poseloJ sr pJrq aql ueqJ 'epur sI pJocar pu '5e1 eq1 uo paceld sT puq '1ou eql rrroJJ ua{1 e.re z[aq1 'padderl eJ spJrq eq+ s pue 'rterurz(g u.rr^.ou{ ur poc1d sr srq; 'ap!{ leey .fpog pue q31q 1ee; ual lnoq 1eu uo1.,tu {cIq eug .,f.ren e dn 1es sJepuq pJrg 'popuq uaoq e^q sprlq 000'000'zI lsorul 'olp oJ, 'popJoceJ pu aclg:o slql ol +ues sI lrode.r e 'pep punoJ .ro pa.rnldeceJ sr prTq popuq Jo^eueq,/!\ 'puI -z(.re14tr 'IaJntsT uT ocrgo Surpueq ltsJluec oq+ ol 'punoJ sts1lL lr qcFI/!,r Jepun suoltTpuoc oql pu pJIq aql yo e8e pelIurlsa orll Jo pJocer tnlllr 'lues pu pepJocoJ sT puq qce Jo reqrunu aq; '3e1 s.prTq ol sropuq prlq fq peqcell pu poJeqrunu or spq urnuTrrrnl 11tus 'lrzre8uol pu 'stT -qeq Sur.relulrla pu 3u11seu 'su.re11ed uolle.r8nu Jrot{1 lnoqts orour urel o1 sprlq 3u11eqe1 Jo poqlau 'e s1 Surpuq prlg

Fqpuuq prlq
's8urpuno.uns aql qlr/ll ?sJluoc lou plnoqs luerudlnbe .rnort pue no 'elqlssod se snoncrdsuocuT s are nort lql os saqlolc poroloc-{Jp Jo/la 01 lsaq sr 1r ,tqde.r8o1oqd pleg Jod
'ecu qJnlsrp .[.re sseceu -un Sursnc lnoqll/ta .rt.resseceu s ue+Jo s polorrr eq uc 1ql Jo^oc s^uc uee.l8 >TJp pue selod runuTrrrnl Jo opru

'edr(1 alqepod eq1 sT puTlq lseq er{J 'I1r^.oJrol.{!t yo sernlcld 1eF o1 ztervr luelacxe u sT sTqJ 'luerudlnbe .rno.f pue no.rf esnoq IU/!r lql pulq s.Jelunq.reln8e.r ts pilnq uec nort dnlas srql Jod 'pur{oJoJaq uo11e.rede.rd 1n;e.rec pu elTs elq+Tns pug o1 3u11unq Jo lep 1ea.r8 e se.rrnbe.r slql lnq pIeU aq+ uT epru eq uc a"rn1c1d yo adrtl uollcol-pelloJ?uoc raqlouv 'sua1 oloqdelel lnoq+r/ta slur.rd d.reqs 1aF uec no.A 'trouuur slrtr+ uT se.rnlcrd 3ur4e1 uetl/!\ 'uJnleJ +ou pu lsou eql o^ol lpnn eq1 ro spfiq eql qrnlslp o+ lou orns aq 1nq '8u1peey pue 3u11seu Jo soJn+crd Fur4e1 JoJ pasn eq uc dnlas orus sIqI 'pelecuoc e.rt no-r( aJorylt eceld oq+ ol euq eql unJ o1 seldels ilrus pu euqqsg {cIq osn :IoJluoc oloru -er ,tq pele.redo oq uc Jeurc etIJ 'ecuepguoc Jreql ure8

can be used, and this work may be of special interest to you. Bird banding is serious business. Before anyone can put a band on a bird's leg he must obtain a permit from the Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States Department of the Interior, a state permit, and be found qualified to do the work. For complete information on this important branch of bird watching, write to the Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. They will tell you how to get a copy of Manua,l for Bird Banding written by F. C. Lincoin.

Bird banding is usually considered work for the advanced student or ornithologist. It is included here, however, because it is an important aspect of bird watching. There are only a few thousand banders in the entire country, so you can see how specialized a field it is. However, more banders

bird migration studies


Another interesting scientific branch of bird watching is the study of bird migration. This is an intriguing subject, and you will flnd many books in your library on the subject. For more than fifty years the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Audubon Society have been collecting data on migration. The phenomenon of bird migration is so important that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act has been passed protecting those species which pass back and forth between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. For active participation, get in touch with your local bird club or contact the Audubon Society or the Fish and Wildlife Service in Washington, D. C. An excellent detailed study, Migration of Birds, circular 16, can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government printing Office,

Washington, D.C.

rare bird alert


A favorite activity of many groups is the ll,are Bird Alert. Members of a bird group decide what they believe to be a rare bird or species for the area. As soon as one is identifled, they alert the other members to be on the lookout for it. A certain amount of ingenuity is demanded but it's a big thrill to get on the trail of the rare bird.
These group activities are enjoyed immensely by all who take part in them. It has been said that if you meet a person in the country or in a park with a pair of binoculars strung around his neck you need no introduction; you just start to talk since you are on common ground!

36

L8

ro

+sotr tr 'sosnoq luerupd uT e^TI orlrla asoq+ Jo on4 z(1e1c -edse sI sTrtr,T, '8u1peey .ro 3u1qc1e^a prTq ltue op ol ocutsqc ou oIUTI sq refle/rp l(llc eql +ql pournss lfge.reueS s1 11

SPOJP uPqJn

Fu;qc1Pfii pJq

'uep.re8 p4q aql ur lor+uoc u1 1de4 eq ppor{s oo1eql lnq qcnur oo+ oreJrolul lou op s8op 1eq1 stuoos +I 'e^t{ raqlr plnola nod qclqrrr 1.rls oql + puTrrr .rno.rf dn e{tu lsnru no pue leq1e3o1 oB 1.uop lsnf sp.rrq pu s+C 'oss 1 oq ilI^{ sprTq aql 1ql edoq pue e3.re1 1e EuluunJ s+c e^trl'osrnoc Jo '+ouuc no

'fe1s qyrr sprlq oq+ pue f1mo1s >Iror. .rnof lnoqe oF pue lernb s8ulq+ deel4 'oo1 .derrre spJlq eATJp seop 'Joao.tnoq 'as1op 'uap.reE pue p.ref orll uT f1mo1s oloru lsnru noz( aJoJeJortrI 'uoT+oru r(q paue -lrtrETJJ ztlrsee oJoru a.re zteql 'uoTloru pu aslou 'socutsqJnl -slp orr4,l aq+ JO '+q8ru o+ waql 1nd lrrrr uolloru ueppns ro aslou uy 'peuelq8lJJ rflrsee aJ sprTq 1ql 'ool 'JoqeruotI

'ureql qlrra luelled eq ol o^q [yta nol( pue nort mou4 ol Treql le8 ol otull se{1 1r :1q81u.rerro uru uT 1snr1 dolezrop lou op zteq; 'snolcldsns .ren er spJlq 'oJnlu lfg '1urod sTql + lt.resseceu sT uoTlnc Jo pro/v\ V

su0qnecoJd

riol

'ocueJeJeJ z(pueq JoJ >Tooqolou luouru.red e uI suoTlAJeS -qo lods-e{l-uo 4aql Jeluo s.raqclIn pJTq eruos '{ooqe+ou plog oql ol uollTpp u1 'luelrodrul tuoop feql selou 1tlrla' eos pu sJeq+o qlulr. +1nsuo3 'lucglu8rs 4urq1 nor( suolleaJosqo Jeq+o .ue pue '5u11seu s/ra 1r eJeq.rta 'uo SulpeeJ slt4' 1T +q/ta 'Joq+o2!r '11u1c1rr aql uT spJlq reqlo 'r(ep ;o pu14 'ltep yo atull eq+ 'e1ep 'punoJ oreq/lr 'serceds ot{l :alqlssod se a1e1d -ruoc s soTJlue oq+ o{tr I 'sEulpug lnuu .rnol( e.reduroc o1 nor( .ro; olqlssod 11 3u14eur 'soIlIAIlc .rno.f yo p.roce.r e1e1d -ruoc elnlTlsuoc uc pu .reez( o1 ree uro.r; ldaq eq uc +s11 oqJ 'segl+uopT eq sprlq eql 11 Jo {ooqelou ilrus e u1 .rf.r1ue u elTtu .reuu16eq erll +q1 pe1se88ns st/t! +I oJaq^a .,pepaoN lueurdrnbg,, trepun peuoTlueru ueeq peeJl alq sls11 prTg

slsll prlq

r
peopie believe one must live in the country or wooded area to enjoy this hobby.

in a heaviiy

This is not necessarily the case. True, some bushes and trees must grow in the vicinity to attract the birds in the flrst place, but once they know that food is available you will be surprised how far they wiII come to get it. A friend of ours lives in an area of apartment houses. There is not a tree or bush within several blocks of his apartment. However, three blocks away is a park, containing a stream and some bushes and trees, that makes a nice habitat for birds. My friend placed a feeder on his apartment-house window sill, hoping to iure birds from the park, but for several weeks nothing happened. Then one day a common sparrow found the feeder. fn a few days there were more sparrows. Now the owner has regular customers of sparrows, chicka_ dees, a pair of cardiirals, and, occasionally, other birds.
Do not become discouraged if birds do not appear at once. It may take weeks and weeks before they flnd the handout, but once they do, you will have to be ready to keep the feeder filled.
We have noticed that if we are away for several weeks and, because of our absence we have not fed the birds, it may take three or four days after our return before the birds are back at the feeders again. Although birds are not the most intelligent of animals, they do seem to form very strong

habits that guide and control most of their activities. rf they form a habit of coming to your feeder they will continue to come, until you stop putting out food. But once you stop feeding them, you must invite them back again if you want to have them develop the habit of visiting.
Shown on page 82 is a wind.ow-sheif feeder that works exceptionally well in an urban area. ff you want, you can add a small cup or container for water, such as a tin can, cut down to about an inch and a hatf high.
An everyday scene on
Milwau-

kee's lake front where mallards and other wild waterfowl gather by the thousands each day. This is an example of how wild birds can be enticed into the heart of a big busy city and enjoy it.

38

Milwaukee Journal photo

68

uoqnpnl/ uroJJ uorss1uJod lrcods

z(q pesuapuoC 'r1uld

'9

s1no1 .{g *

'euIzE.3tr I

-ueTcs uT e88ug eJIIpIT/lr Jo o5pel/t^,ou>1 u/!ro Jnolf e^oJdtul dlqs^aolleJ poo8 uT pelsareluT dnor8 ITcos eaH op ol 3u1rtl1 no.r( e.re lrl&\ 'esod.rnd.rnolt uleldxe IIT/ta o/ta; oIcT1.rV 'srue.r8o.rd lecol JoJ sJo{ods ol uollcJl+ u s soaJos pue lcedse.r ztllunuuoc spu?urruoc pue leedd apT/ta sq oTuu eq; 'ztlercos uoqnpnv IuoT1tsN erl+ Jo seqcuJq aruoceq o1 a8elueape leer8 1I pnoJ enq sqnlc ztuetrN ,.'QrIc prlq,, e ldrurs ;1as.rno.{ IIc ']TI/r4' pJrq IuoTscco u o{l pu uollAJosuoc aloruo.rd oqlll spuoTJJ yo dno.r8 lelue8uoc e lsnf oq ol e.re no JI ln61'l(lercos ,.zt8o -Ior{lTuJo,, u JlesJnoz( eureu pu pJolta elqends-xrs eqt esn 'ztpnls cgrluercs snorJes JoJ ur Suio8 er no,( JI 'uorlcunJ rnort elouep oruu .rno.r( 1e1 'e^Jes IIT/ta qnlc eql lEql eJE eql Je+J Jo ,t8o1oq1ru.ro uT lueuiluo.rd lenpyupul u JolJ Jortrlro paruu sI q+v!l rIIIurJ IIr I lql qnlc pJrq/trang 'qnlc eqt Jo ouru eql sogTcods nensn uoTlnlllsuoc er{1 Jo euo oIcTtJV 'uollnlltsuoc lJrp ol sI luTod sFIl 1 e.rnpeco.rd elqrsues 'sue1d lueuerurad e{ur o1 q8noue laou>I o1 lq8no notr uluJrqc .,t.rerodue1 qlT4a S8u11aeru eerqt Jo o.{!41 JoIJV

'qluolu lsrB: erll relJ 1no do.rp oqllr ueuro,{ta pu uoru peJpunq IJe^os tllr.{ll qnlc .rno qcunI ol uql sJe{Jo/!r\ DrlsIsnq}ue 3o dno.r8 11urs qlrllr 3u1p1tnq ur8eq ol ralleq .re; '.re;: s1 11 'eldoed Yo .reqrunu e3.re1 e 3ur11e8 lnoq lsol eq? u1 ,trrom l,uocl 'dn smoqs or{lla oes pu Je{ods poo8 rtr1T/ta eceld olqTssecc ouros ur Surleau e^H 'lcJ eql qsrlqnd o1 .rededsmau 1eco1 .rnor{ >1se 'dnor8 .rno uepeorq o+ .r(pee.r e.re no ueq./!\ 'JoqUnJ .ue oF nort e.ro;aq s8ulleeru IIJ1 /v\al e^q pue sdr.r1 pleg q+r/!l' +J1S 1!\oJ e4e; '.{llerrrJoJur leeru pu eldoed ^lal 'e4r1 no.d s ItuJoJuI Jo lruJo; se eq eur pu 'qnlc 1rls ol oJnlu Jo e^ol qlT^ eldoed om1 qnlc lql se4e1 lI 's+uorua.4nbe.r oql eJ rrrsrsnqlua pu lsoJoluT !6urq1 luepodurl oql lou sr qnlc e 3ur1.re1s o1 qceo.rdd oqJ

fluo

.qnp prlq u uPls 0l luE,ll


pug ,tpreuec [I/!r, no,t pue 'IIrs ool
sT JepooJ

'l!r.opull\4, .rnort 1e noit 1ee.r3 01 spJrq euros .&ropuT/!r oqt ol go 3uq1e3

ruorJ speos aql daeq o1 lI punoJ a8p1.r eI?lII q+L{tL pJ"oq ;eurp.ro u ue+sJ lsnl 'lI piTnq louuc nolt .ro pelecqdruoc slttrl JI ',tssny lou or sprlq-Jaqruoural 'ure8y

join? How old shall they be? Most clubs provide for student memberships at reduced rates, particularly if they are in a college town where the students may be doing good ornithology research.

tific studies? Educate children? Are you interested in just birds or in all wildlife? Make it clear in your purpose. Article Three is delegated to membership. May anyone

Article Four covers meetings. It is normally the custom to meet once a month. The larger clubs have a tendency to meet in public libraries or schools, usually on a public transportation line. Smaller clubs meet in private homes. There should be a provision for an annual meeting. Article Five should provide for the election of a board of
directors. Personally my choice is to have a "Board" which carries on most of the business affairs so your club meetings can hear a few simple reports and vote on just the major issues. All reports should be in writing to save meeting time. Officers are the routine ones: chairman of the board, president, vice-president, secretary, and treasurer. A program committee is essential to success. There must be a meeting place, a speaker, a fi.lm, or topic for discussion. ft's an excellent idea to have sizable committees to share the burden. Other Suggestions. f heartily recommend a bulletin, even a simple mimeograph job. It should contain a list of birds seen in your area that month; a notice of next month's meeting and field trips; and some hints of birds to come in

the next season.

School and garden clubs will ask you for speakers. As you accumulate funds, plan to buy some bird slides from the National Audubon Society. Bird study will be more funand your club stronger-if you affiliate with state and national organizations.

study or conservation.

as short as possible. Strike a balance between pure entertainment and pure study but don't ignore either. I think it is a mistake to have "refreshments" at every meeting. It is too easy for a bird club to become nothing but a social organization. fn that event your good birders will drop out and the social-minded members left will not do much bird

A word about indoor meetings. Keep the business portion

40

Your leading members can give talks on bird identiflcation. Someone else can discuss bird books (with the help of your

^lalcos

uoqnpnv leuotleN aql

[rjoj]-llaH

auao

w
'splrq 3ur -]seillP ro] acelo leepr ue saleu

Surllas lernleu

e u!

sqnJqs

puP searl qlrM eseos uaoo uv

1o1

-ue1d oIUTI qlTdylTrl a.rnlu epnlcur 'q8noua e3.re1 s1 .rnof JI 'srepaeJ pu 'sqlqp.4q 'sesnoqp4q Jo uollcol cr8ele.rls eql roJ sepyro.rd 1node1 3u11ue1d .rnof 1eq1 orns og
'1no,{e1
1eco1 .rno

rnort Fuluueld

JoJ pu peau nor( lqra 3u11ce1as uT acupTn8 .roy r(.res.rnu aas 'Jo^oc puno.r8 JoJ sJoltog uoql pu 'ruoql Jo luoJJ rrl seull pu sqnJr{s 1nd 'JaJ er{l pJltl.ot saorl o1coT

'spJlq go dlegen u 3u11ce.r1l Jo socuqc .rnort eq IIr/\^ Je+leq erll 'eJ s8urlueld .rnor( pe1le^ erour etIJ 'spJrq go serceds luaJoglp slcJl+ e8eqoy lueJeFTC 'sal osuop pue uedo qloq aq ilr/lr oJorp lq+ os 'elqrssod se ,t1eso1c se a.rnlu e1ec11dnp o1 zt.r; 'spJ1q oJorrr lcJll pm pue p.re pedecspuel relleq uT llnsor IITrr{ s8urlueld peuueld-11e7y1
'selureue

IJnl"u rlaql tuoJJ uoTlcalo.rd .roy paeu spJTq or{l Joaoc aq1 enr8 pu14 1q31.r eql Jo s8urlueld esuop 'prTrtr,tr 'elq11^ JI uroql esn nr^a prr slseu .neq1 Sulp1nq JoJ sorlqrcJ IJnlu .reye.rd flraa sprrq '1e.reua8 u1 '3u11seu roJ eceld e rego s8u11ue1d 'puocos 'pooJ lue11ecxe osl ele s8u11ue1d eseq+ {c+1 lql s}cesq eqJ 'sprlq Jo pooJ lrnlu oq+ eJ sJa/laou pu 'seuT^ 'sqnJr{s 'saeJ+ Jo s+InJJ oql pu speos oqJ 'pooJ Jo ocrnos luoTlrpp ue flddns zfeql '1s.rrg 'tue.r8 -o.rd uorlarll-prTq uT suollcunJ eaJrll ru.ro;.rad s3ur1ue14

sprlq lcPrllP lPql sFurpsF


'c1e 'sq.red e1e1s pu Iuorlu 'suorsslruuroc aure8 olls 'slnp1zrlpuT 'eclzr.reg oJIIpU.11L pu qsld 'S 'n eq1 'zt1e1cos uoqnpnv IuoItN oq+ ruorJ srulg JapTsuoc lueruur1.rolue .rog 'slcefqns Jorpo pu sprTq Jo uorlroloc oql uo >II? 01 Iuoql {s 'eJ er{+ u1 slsrSolorq ,(ue eneq no JI 'srIncoulq pu (.re.rq11 1eco1

ning you can have a secluded path even on a small tot. A few open spots along the way will surely be a favorite retreat of the birds. The following pages give a list of the more popular trees, shrubs, vines, and flowers.

popular trees that attract birds


ALDER, A small tree or bush that is good for mass planting. Provides fair cover for protection but is not used by birds for nesting. Produces a fruit in August and September that is eaten by over 20 species of birds such as the tree sparrow, bobwhite, pheasant, grouse, woodcock, and. mourning dove. ELM

AMERICAN ELM An excellent tree for landscape use. Grows up to 129 feet tall. Provides good nesting and is excellent for swinging nests such as those of the oriole. produces a winged nut seed in March and May that is eaten by the goldfinch, pine siskin, and others. fnsects in the bark
are eaten by vireos and warblers.

ASH Grows up to 120 feet. Not too good for city planting. Provides good nesting and some protection. Has winged seed in October and November eaten by the purple fi.nch, grossbeak, and bobwhite.
BASSWOOD OR LINDEN Exceltent for shade planting. Grows up to 110 feet talt. Has beautiful shape, grows fast, and provides good nesting and protective coverting. In August to October it has a nutlike fruit eaten by many birds such as the redpoll, bobwhite, and grouse. Insects in the bark are eaten by warblers, vireos, and others.
'BEECH A large ornamental tree not common in city yards; more suited to its natural surroundings. provides good nesting facilities and protective cover. A three-angled nut is produced in September and October that is eaten by woodpeckers, blackbirds, flickers, wood duck, blue jays, and others. BIRCH Has excellent landscape value and offers good nesting. Decayed limbs are used by woodpeckers and chickadees. Has a small seed in late summer that appeals to the titmouse, junco, fi.nch, and blue jay. Insects that infest the tree are eaten by the warblers and vireos.

ASH

42

av
vldvw ozd

'soIoTJo pu'sreqcedpoo^rr.

's8ulrnxe.m 'su1qo.r JoJ pooJ Jeluyll pu IIJ eppo.rd saTJJaq e8ur.ro pu pol arl;, 'Joloc pue 3u11sau JoJ poo8 r(.rerr 1ou 1nq 3ur1ue1d 1e1ueuuro roJ luoilocxg HSV NMN1O'\I 'slo,o.r.reds Euos pue'sulqor 'seqclqlnu 8u1pn1cul sprlq;o selceds gT reao o1 sleedde 1eq1 roururns uT pocnpoJd sr peas 1nu pe8uyn V 'saTlTITcg 3u11seu pu re^oc poo8 sel13 e8ellog esuop eq; 'enl^ edecspuel poo8 eneq qclq^r Jo II serlorr^ r(ueur or orortrI SST6VI 'esno.r5 pu'seqsnJql 'elrq{\qoq eq1 Surpnlcur lrnJJ eqt la serceds gg Jo^O 'Jo+uT.{!r. II spJrq ztq uelee ere seldde uJorIl eql '8ur1seu pu Jo^oc luallecxe seprrro.rd qyno.r8 {clql 'fu.roq1 eq;'3ur1ce.r1 -l pJTq pu onl^ edecspuel JoJ lsoq er{l Jo euo sI lql oeJl Iluoruuro .repdod pu olllcl11e .rerr V NUOHI^4I^,VH
tr

'salceds Jor{to g? Jerro pue 's8uyn -x^. 'sJeqsJrtr+ 'sIIpJc r(q uelee eJ serJJeq sll 'Jelulrla erTlue oq+ alqFny '3u11seu pu roloc roJ rld '5u11ue1d roJ palTns lsoq :oerl l}ueururo u loN tlussxcvH
plr.{ta

'sralcuJ prTq r{}T/rn sooJl .relndod lsotu eql Jo euo sT +T os spJTq yo serceds 06 .ro^o slcJllv 'lsoJJ q peuel;os a.re faql Jo+J uele eJ serJJeq poJ sll '1r uT lsou IIT/\4. oeJI^ pu ulqoJ oql pu lo^oc Jo lunoru ;TEJ sragto 's8u11ue1d e3.re1 ro llrus roJ elq -llns 'eerl I+uoruuro olIIoAJ v coo/$,coc cNltlg/lttoT.iI

,{ddlH) Tvot-t)

-1ue1d u.rllI roJ

'spJIq erueE oql pu sllTqssoJc pu 'qcug 'qreqso.r8 'p.qq8uulcotu er{l s spJlq qcns slcJll pu Sulpeey Jolur/ra JoJ lua11ocxo sI lrnJJ ilrus eq; '3u11seu poo8 pue 8ur.re^oc elllcelo.rd poo8 eppr -o.rd see.r1 .re8.re1 eq; '.{ery uI sJollrog poJoloc-oso.r se11 '3u1 eorl e^Tlc.r11e .rerr V S17UC 51NITIS^6OT,g

uJoq'ou Jaq?o pu 'saqsnrqr 'osnoJ' '.Eurmxe^ 'rro;:ni;T rtq ualee aJ spoos oqJ, 'poulloJ JI ro1uT/vr 11 pooJ eprno"rd pu Jeqruoldeg u1 ued1.r r{cTrlllr souoc ur oJ spoos 'rourruns pu JeluT/lr. uT rlloq Surlsau pu Je^oc lue11ecxe sepraoJd 'lr lcog sese8 pu e{otus esnceq rtgrc eq1 uT IIo/K op }ou 11I/V\ 'ser lern.I q pu el1s plulr. aql uT luellecxg uI.{ ilivsTvs 'sprIq ;o selceds 08 ro^o slcrl1 (.{.r.reqc eq1) 11n.ry rleq; 'pooJ roJ lue11ecxfi 'Fu11seu JoJ Je$eq oJ pu uorlcelo.rd eJoru opT,r -o.rd sea.r1 Jeqlo 'olls plTra or{l uT lseq ru.o.r8 pu Ilueruu -ro ool 10N (crr/r^,) asu cNv'gxoHc 'xcvrs-utrgHc

MULBERRY Its graceful, light-green foliage makes it a good tree for ornamental planting and provides good coverage and nesting. fts soft, juicy fruit is eaten during the early summer and the entire nesting season. Attracts over 40 species of birds including cardinals, catbirds, thrushes, and mockingbirds. NORWAY SPRUCE One of the most poputar of the ornamental trees, often planted to provide a wind break. Excellent for nesting and cover. The cones have seeds that are eaten by flnches, grouse, grosbeaks, and other birds.

MUTBERRY

OAK (RED) Excellent for ornamental planting but grows very slowly up to 150 feet tall. Good for nesting and protection. Produces acorns, which are eaten by almost all species of birds. The insects that infect the bark are also eaten by birds. Almost all oaks possess these characteristics. The Northern Red Oak is found from Maine to Minnesota.
RED CEDAR Over 30 species are known and most of them are used extensively for ornamental planting. provides a year-round shelter and is good for nesting. The purple-blue berries ripen in early fall and provide food throughout the entire winter. Attract all the native birds that inhabit the eastern half of the country. SHADBUSH A small tree that has white blossoms in May. Offers only fair cover and nesting facilities. In midsummer it produces red berries that are eaten by over b0 speeies of birds, which makes it a favorite for attracting birds.
SOUR GUM An unusual tree that has briliant colors in fall. Provides good cover and nesting. Its blue berries last well into winter and are eaten by wood ducks, woodpeckers, thrushes, waxwings, blue jays, pheasants, robins, and many other beneficial birds.

RED OAK

WHITE PINE Its fine height makes it excellent for background planting. It provides excellent cover, good nesting for fi.nches, siskins, and warblers, and good. roosting for owls. Its cones provide abundant seed. for food. Attracrs
bobwhites, woodpeckers, pine siskins, nuthatches, warblers, and many other birds.

SPRL'CE

44

WHITE SPRUCE Grows tall and is very beautiful. Has flne landscape value and provides excellent cover and nesting. The cones bear seed that are eaten by crossbills, fi.nches, chickadees, woodpecks, and over 20 other species.

9V

saTJroq pololoc-IJoc er{J 'slt oJJds ro;3u11seu

'spJlq our.8 pu Euos qloq l[q uelo orts aqJl 'ro+uytl r{SnoJql saqcuJq eq} uo fels pue Joururns a1"I uI uadr'r luoilecxe pu roaoc pooE seppro.r4'3u11ue1d sseur roJ euld U1ISST1;UOC

NdoHt"zng

'IIJ o1I uI 1useqd Pue esnor8 Surpnlcur selcads gT rtq uole q 1I 'poJoloc aurg sr +rnJd 'Jelullraplru Ulun qsnq oq? uo e1s pue Jeqolcg u1 uad1.r spaes or{J 'ro^oc rIJ sopT^o.rd 11 'qFq }oeJ 0I 019 tuorJ smo;8 1eq1 edecspuI poo5 y HSng CNIN11SS
lse/ra'prtr

I oqt uT qsnq

's8uynxervr pue's.reqsJq+'seqcug'slusaqd'esno;8 se qcns sprlq eure8 pue Suos rlloq ltq uale sI 1ql 1e; '{pea pu Jeruurns e+I uT +InJJ 4cIq sH 'roloc pue Surlseu poo8 ol rTJ sepT^o.rd pue e8paq poo8 e so>Ttr I NUOH;,XCOS

'spJrqlc pu'saop" -{clqc 'surqoJ 'spJlqenlq 'saeqmol 's4eaqso.r8 s qcns spJTq ;o selceds q? uql eJour JoJ e+IJo^J sI pue r(1uo Jeururns eq1 Sur.rnp eruT+ UorIs ts JoJ elq[^ sI lTnJ1I '1o 4eeds o1 sepllord 'IIJ aql q ezr11ce.r11e elrnb pu enIA edecspuel rIJ sH UUSSST>IC1H XC17TS
3u11seu ou +nq Jeaoc JrJ

'serceds Jer{+o 0g uq+ orour op s'}T 1"4 soqsnJql 's8upnxem 'sre4cedpoolyy rolurr\l eq1 q8no'rqt sts"I 1eq1 ,t.r.raq {cq-anlq sH 'Ja^oc pue Surlseu poo8 sepr^ -o.r4 'sdno.r8 ur ro zt18urs q5rq 1ae; 0Z s/lrorp ^1VH11C17TS 'selceds alllu aql 11 8u1pn1cur 'spJTq yo serceds gZ uql ororu slcJ11v 'rolulr\a eJTlue eq1 q8no.rql slsI qcrq/ta tInJJ sll tlll/ll so+ls uJolse aql uT .recnpo.rd pooJ pJrq lsoq eql sT +I 'Ja^o/!roH 'Jeloc pue 3u11seu JoJ Jr"J rtluo pue esn edecspuI roJ a^Tlcrll ool loN UUSSVA
'sp.r1q8uos reqlo 11 lsoI pue 'sulqoJ 'soeJl^ slc"rllv 'IIJ eql 8u1lnp sp.rrq ric lq8nos .,t.r.req onlq InJT+neq sH 'onl^ pooJ slT roJ u^roq Joiloq sr lr 'sarlrlenb .renoc pue 5u11seu JIJ 1uo q1r6 '8ur
-1ue1d e15urs roJ qsnq.rtunoqs 'aug

V1MT;.gS/y1S

CLL17ISY

'serceds Joqlo 08 uq+ a.Iotu pu 'sp4qenlq 'spJrq+c 'sJo>Icrg slcJllv 'qlnos 5u11e.r31ur sprlq .{q uelee sT +ql 1e; .f1.ree u1 'rt'r'raq enlq E socnpord '.re^oc pue 5u11seu poo8 sepyro.rd pue q51q leeJ 9I o1 dn s.rlrorp '3u11ue1d ssur roJ luollocxg COO/I^'/IAOU11-V

sprlq lculllP lPtll sqnrqs rqndod

DOGWOODS There are many varieties all of which have good landscape value in the flowering season and some of which are very beautiful with their yellow or red stems in the winter. Afford good protection and fair nesting, especially in the wild state. In September a blue-white berry is formed that is available to birds until midwinter. Favored by all birds.

DQGWoOo

ELDERBERRY Good for mass planting and as a wild shrub. Can be seen along country roadsides. Gives good cover and nesting. The juicy black fruit ripens in late summer and early fall and is eaten by over 115 species of birds which makes it a natural for the bird garden.

HIGHBUSH CRANBERRY Has exceptionatly fine flowers, foliage, and fruit and is recommended by the Soil Conservation Service. fts fine growth provides good nesting and excellent cover. The fruit ripens in September and October and lasts through the winter. Eaten by game birds but only a few songbirds.
HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY A thick well-shaped shrub that has excellent fall foliage. It has good cover and fair nesting qualities. The fruit is the market variety of blueberry that ripens in midsummer. The berries are eaten by over g0 species of birds.

ELDERBERRY

HONEYSUCKLE Almost a vine in shape. Provides good cover and nesting. The crimson berry ripens in fall and is available until early winter. It is eaten by birds while migrating. Almost all songbirds feed on the berry.

INKBERRY An evergreen shrub that has fine landscape use. Mass planting provides good cover. Produces a black berry that is the winter food of many birds such as the chickadee, titmouse, bobwhite, bluebird, robin, and catbird.
JAPANESE BARBERRY A widely used ornamental shrub that may be trimmed into hedges. Its sharp thorns provide excellent protection and good nesting for birds. Has a red berry that serves as an emergency food during winter. Eaten by sparrows, juncos, catbirds, thrushes, and many
others.

CRNSERRY

HIGH 8U3h

MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM Excellent for low ma,ss plantings-very popular with nurserymen. Good for ground nesting birds such as grouse. Affords fi.ne cover and produces fruit in fall for winter feeding. Attracts the flicker, robin, grouse, bobwhite, waxwing, bluebird, and others.

L37M5J)JI8

u uo urlaoJ8 ueq^A. sertqnb adcspuI poo8 sH 'pe{cTd sI 'IIe/!r s eq +ou pFoqs pu sor crlqnd uT pelcolord ^Iou esnoq oql q tnq sJoop+no l(luo lou e^TlcJ+l or +tsq+ seIJ -Jeq o8uro-pal qlT.{!t eup JIndod .rt.razr y ISS/$.SUS;;.IS

sprlq lcPrllB lPql sOul,l ruFdod


'sprlq;o selceds
gg JoAo ,tq uelee eJ pue JoluT^{r4. olul +sI soIJJeg 'Jeaoc pue 3u11seu poo8 sopT^oJd 'solJreq paJoIocIJ^ pu sro/v\og e11qm-.moqs qlylr qsnq edecspuI poo8.,t.ren V qOU SH;UI1

AddJgft-Nt14

'sprTq eure8 pue Suos qloq roJ pooJ Irnleu 8ulppo.rd snql relur,{lr oluT IIe^a sor{cuJq otll uo e1s pue reqrueldag u1 uedr.r saIJJeq +alJcs aqtr, 'seTlrlenb .relroc pue 3u11seu qloq seH 'serJJoq lelJcs pu sJellrog eug sq pu q5rq lea; 0T ot g ss.o.r8 :onla edecspuel poo8 se11 UUqSUtr1;NIII1

'spJlq;o selceds 00I ra^o ztq uelee aJ 1q+ sel.r.reqdse.r >IcIq pu poJ oql secnpo.rd .reurruns e1T '3u11seu pu uoTl -ca1o;d JoJ lueilecxo lI o>Itu saulds ,tu.roq1 eql pu qyno.r8
-.rns plT/lr

)tclrll eq; 'anl^ edecspuel pooS aaeq lou soop ls8ulpuno.r ,fffUSSaSVU 11Tl/ll\ uI
tse51

(XCVfg

CN17 11gU)

eql re sarcads 0g re^o 'raluT.{!r ,," seqcutsrq eql ". "Hi: lrnJJ elTrlllr orl 'sertTlenb en11ce1o.rd pue 3u11seu poo5 qlrm sassur u1 3u11ue1d .rep.roq roJ qnrr{s poo8 y UUSS11AONS
'spJTq erue8 pue Suos 1e lsotul JoJ pooJ sapr^oJd 'iflr.raqc o{oqc eql o+ pelI -eJ sT pue lsn8ny u1 suedl.r zt.r.req eld.rnd-pa.r eq;, 'serlrlenb e8e.renoc pue 5u11seu rIJ fluo se11 '11os z{pues s}u/Vyq8lq leeJ g .rerro .,t1preq qsnq 8uyno.r8-mol v uuffHc qNvs

/dgs^NNyN

'sprlq;o selceds 07 eruos q perfotue pue Jolul.rla II eIqIT^e s1 zflr.req por er{J 'spJlq 5u11seu-urlol eruos .rtq pesr-r sr lI 'sprTq roJ uol+celo.rd elqlssod lseq eq1 eppo.rd seuids g11s '8uo.r1s oqJ'spoo,la pu suopre8 pp,r. ur 3ur1ue1d ssur roJ eug sT pu q31q laey I srllorp ESOU SU1;.SVd

'sp.rlq8uos rtueur pu luseqd 'esnor8 roy pooJ relulm e1de1s ottr1 sI lrnJJ sll 'Jeloc pue 3u11sau qloq seplno.rd 11 's8u11ue1d sseru JoJ eug pu seTrroq {cIq pu sre^rou allq1!'\ sH lIugsNNvN
sT

arbor. Has no nesting or cover q-ua'i:e_<:: s:r,*- ot. The berries are an excellent source of birc i::: ,- :a-' a:d well into the winter. Eaten by both song pr-.ci Ja-: :_::s. MATRIMONY VINE When planted i:e -ass:: :: a,s a wall covering, it has good landscape value. i---: --a< strorfg spines which provide excellent protectic: The "-: -=s:rg. scarlet fruit is available in fall and earil- lr-,-::e: is eaten -:: by migrating and local songbirds. GREENBRIER Has litfle landscape vai:e. :-:: ::s thick growth gives it good nesting and cove::ig :-:a-.::es for protecting birds. The fruit is excellent anl ]as:s r:e entire winter well above the snow line. It is eaten b; 1l s:-ies. HALL'S HONEYSUCKLE The flowers are a::ra.::-;e and the vine is used extensivery as a wall coverirs. -{jc:ds good. winter protection since the leaves stay on. -{st provides good nesting. The black berries last weLI i::to rt-inter. such birds as song sparrows, flickers, grouse. and reeaCcw larks

feed on them.

VIRGINIA CREEPER Another popular vine used exten_ sively for decoration. Has briiliant color i:r fail. provides good cover and nesting. The Virginia Creeper is oerhaps the best producer of natural food for birds ana shoula be
planted wherever possible.

attract every species of birds.

WILD GRAPE This prolific vine has no land.scape r-alue for formal planting but it is a must for the wiJd grden. It provides only fair cover and nesting but its grapes are the fall and winter diet of armost all birds. This one vine will

4a

6V

'uoql roJ l+rqq Irnlu e appo.rd pu sprrq go 3u1411eq+ ol elrnb e.re s8ulpunoJJns lJnlu pue q8nog 'spooqroqq8reu IIluaplsoJ ealsnlcxa $Irru qcTr[r\4 qool peJncTuur lq1 1T an13 o1 opru sr 1due11e ou pu +nc lou s1 sse.r8 eq1 'uep.re8 pgm 1ecrd.d1 eq1 u1 'pa1se8Sns e.re sn5e.redse pue 'z(.ro -crqc 'Jls Surzelq 'susng pel(e-4ce1q 'sJels Jo sJelsnlC
'arn+u u1 m,o.r8 eq1 ern eq1 lsnf 'seqcled e3.re1 u1 palueld aq pporls zteql '1cege 1q5r.r eq1 azrr3 oJ 'lI 5uo1e pelueld eq ol lq5no sJe^4.og plTla 'IrJl ernlu e Sulqeur ete nozt y1
's8ur1ue1d qnrqs arll Jo +uorJ u1.ro qled uepre8 eq1 3uo1e sJepJoq JoJ pesn eq uc eseqJ 'IpJI -ge8 pue 'ecelnlrod 'sorusoc 'squ1d 'oulqrunloc 'runrugql -ues.r(.rqc'Jor\ .ogflaq'sJeraoguns'3u1pea1q-soTl-o^ol'JarIlaJ ssecupd opnlcul esodrnd slqt JoJ olqJTsop ztlelcedse e.re 1ql solcads aq1 Jo aruos 'sueu4ceds e13u1s sts +ou 'sJe+snlc sJo/laogr 3u11ue1d uI

ur ureql o+col 'Joaoc puno.r8 s

'spuno.r8 s.Jeuao aql zfgrlneeq osl lnq sp.4q lcrll fluo 1ou sTrroolq +q5Trq JIoqJ 'sprlq roJ pooJ pees apl^ord s.reaaog Jo sprrT{ II +souqv

sroilolt lo Fuguuld rooc punorF