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Lecture 1 Colorimetry

Yi-Pai Huang()

2012 Display Optics

Reference
1. Nonoru Ohta and Alan R. Robertson Colorimetry: Fundamentals and Applications. 2. Peter Kaiser, The Joy of Visual Perception. 3. Roy S. Berns, Principle of Color Technology. 4. Mark D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models.

Outline

1. Thinking About Vision, Color and Displays 2. Fundamentals of Vision and Color
Anatomy of the eye

Mechanism of Color Vision


CIE Color Matching Function Color Difference and Uniform Color Spaces

3. Color in Electronic Displays

Display and Vision

Basic colorimetry
Colorimetry, in its strict sense, is a tool used to making a prediction on whether two lights (visual stimuli) of different spectral power distributions will match in colour for certain given conditions of observation. The prediction is made by determining the tristimulus values of the two visual stimuli. If the tristimulus values of a stimulus are identical to those of the other stimulus, a colour match will be observed by an average observer with normal colour vision. Wyszeckis (1973)

Advanced colorimetry
Colorimetry in its broader sense includes methods of assessing the appearance of colour stimuli presented to the observer in complicated surroundings as they may occur in everyday life. This is considered the ultimate goal of colorimetry, but because of its enormous complexity, this goal is far from being reached. Wyszeckis (1973)

Advanced colorimetry - cont


On the other hand, certain more restricted aspects of the overall problem of predicting colour appearance of stimuli seem somewhat less elusive. The outstanding examples are the measurement of colour differences, whiteness, and chromatic adaptation. Though these problems are still essentially unresolved, the developments in these areas are of considerable interest and practical importance.

Wyszeckis (1973)

Beau Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see


To see is to believe?

U believe what u see.

Human Vision !?
1. Vision is an interpretive, inferential process. 2. Light signals from the physical world are subject to an enormous amount of visual computation 3. Context and experience determine our perceptions of the physical world 4. Physical measurements alone can not predict our visual experience 5. Illusions can help us understand the rules of visual perception and illustrate how our experience departs from physical reality

Human Vision !?

Illusory Blue Square

Count The Black Dots

Color Induction

Figure/Background Decoupling

Illusory Motion
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Mechanism of Human Vision

Lateral geniculate nucleus

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History of Light and Color


History of Light and Color


History of Light and Color

History of Light and Color


History of Light and Color


Light and Color

2.1. Anatomy of the eye


The light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball; sends electrical impulses to the brain.

Major optical components of the eye Optical power of cornea @40 diopters Optical power of lens @20 diopters Accommodative power of lens @6-8 diopterscontrolled by ciliarymuscle Wavelength dependence chromatic aberration

Pupil sets eye aperture


Nominal diameter range 1 to 8 mm Affects retinal illumination & imaging

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Distribution of Rods and Cones

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Distribution of Rods and Cones

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Attribute of Color

Cone Cell: (1)Sensitive to Color(2)Non-sensitive to lightness

Rod Cell: (1)Sensitive to lightness(2)Low resolution for detail(3)Cant distinguish color

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Distribution of Rods and Cones

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Color-defective vision
Missing a kind of cones

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Luminous Efficacy
Spectral luminous efficacy (lm/W)

The retina has four types of photoreceptors separated by morphology into two classes: Rods and Cones (Long, Medium, and Short cones). Relative population L:M:S = 12:6:1 (with reasonable estimated 40:20:1) The rod system mediates vision in dim lighting or night vision (scotopic conditions), rod vision is essentially color blind.
The cone system mediates color in bright or day lighting (photopic conditions), different cone systems correspond to different spectral sensitivity, thus provide color vision. The region between scotopic and photopic vision is mesopic vision.

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Summary of simple human eye model


* Uniform planar source (Lambertian)

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2.2. Mechanism of color vision


Historically, there have been many theories that attempt to explain the function of color vision. A brief look at some of the more modern concepts provides useful insight into current concepts.

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Trichomatic Theory (Helmholtz)


Young and Helmholtz: Three types of cone photoreceptors classified based on wavelength of sensitivity of the photopigments: L-cones M-cones S-cones.

R-absent

G-absent

B-absent
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Trichomatic theory is able to properly explain color deficiency but fails to explain afterimage and reddish green color.

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Opponent-Color Theory
E.H. Hering

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Opponent-Color Theory
Black-White Red-Green Yellow-Blue

Opponent-color theory composed of RGBY (Four-color theory)


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Stage Theory
Adams, Goth ect.
Scotopic vision Photopic vision

CYB

CRG

V1

V2

B Y

Rod

Cone

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Vision

To brain

Software (high-level) Hardware signal processing signal processing

receptor

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Summary
Vision is an interpretive, inferential process Light signals from the physical world are subject to an enormous amount of visual computation. Context and experience determine our perception of the physical world Physical measurement alone cannot predict our visual experience Understanding the difference psychophysics and perception Psychophysics: quantitatively study of the relationship between physical stimuli and sensory experience Perception (Psychology): the processing of selecting, organization and interpreting information gained through the senses

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TWO-COLOR PROJECTION: MEMORY COLOR

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2.3. CIE Color Matching Function


Source and illuminant

Scene Physics BSDF

Color Matching Functions (CMFs)


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Why using psychophysical exp?


Therefore, the main task of colorimetry is to determine the three cone response functions. However, *until the 1980s (Even now a days), it was not technically possible to measure the cone response functions directly from the photoreceptors themselves. Before that the best available method for estimating the cone spectral response functions was the psychophysical color matching experiment which was developed in the 1920s.

CIE (Commission Internationale de lEclairage)


CMFs (color matching functions): CIE1931

*J.L. Schnapf, T.W. Kraft, and D.A. Baylor, Spectral sensitivity of human cone photoreceptors, Nature, 325, 439441, 1987.

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Color Matching Experiment

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Example
The reference stimuli [R], [G] and [B] are monochromatic lights of wavelength R = 700 nm, G = 546.1 nm and B = 435.8 nm, respectively. (CIE 1931) The basic stimulus is the white color stimulus of the equi-energy spectrum. The amounts of reference stimuli [R], [G] and [B], required to match the basic stimulus are in the ratio 1.0000 : 4.5907 : 0.0601 when expressed in photometric units (lm for example) and 72.0966 : 1.3791 : 1.0000 when expressed in radiometric units (watt for example).

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RGB CMFs

[C] + R[R] = G[G] + B[B] [C] = -R[R] + G[G] + B[B] negative value!!

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XYZ CMFs

*transformation between two sets of primaries


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Tristimulus values

reflectance

source

color matching function

perfect reflecting object R() = 1, YMAX = 100 *reference White

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Metamerism

Different R(), but match in color!

color rendering property!

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Chromaticity coordinates
In order to specify the attributes of a color stimulus independent of its radiant power, we would like to define quantities called chromaticity coordinates. Let X, Y, and Z be the tristimulus values of a given color, then its chromaticity coordinates (x, y, z) are defined as:

color reproduction! Chromaticity + Achromaticity (brightness)

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Chromaticity diagram

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Linear addictive color mixing

Linear in mathematics, but not in perception (uniform color space)!

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X10Y10Z10 System

X10Y10Z10 (open circles) XYZ (filled circles)

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Dominant Wavelength and Excitation Purity

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Color Stimulus
Three dimension: (XYZ) (x,y,Y)
with individual CMFs

Two dimension: (x,y) (d,Pe)


normalized and w/o absolute luminance

One dimension: Tc
simple and approximation

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Black Body
A black body is an object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation. No radiation passes through it and none is reflected. These properties make black bodies ideal sources of thermal radiation. That is, the amount and wavelength (color) of electromagnetic radiation they emit is directly related to their temperature K = 273 +T. Black bodies below around 700K (430 C) produce very little radiation at visible wavelengths and appear black (hence the name).

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CIE Standard Illuminants and Sources

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Color Temperature and Correlated CT

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Color Temperature and Correlated CT

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Color Temperature and Correlated CT


The correlated color temperature (Tcp) or CCT is the temperature of the Planckian radiator whose perceived color most closely resembles that of a given stimulus at the same brightness.

determining the nearest point to the Planckian locus on a uniform chromaticity space is current. In 1937, MacAdam suggested a "modified uniform chromaticity scale diagram", based on certain simplifying geometrical considerations:

This (u,v) chromaticity space became the CIE 1960 color space, which is still used to calculate the CCT (even though MacAdam did not devise it with this purpose in mind).Using other chromaticity spaces, such as u'v', leads to non-standard results that may nevertheless be perceptually meaningful. 53

5. Color difference and uniform color spaces

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Uniform Lightness Scale (Munsell Value : V)

Y= 87

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average in luminous reflectance Y


V= 9.4 6.25 3.1

average in Munsell value V

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However, CIE1931 chromaticity diagram is NOT UCS


The CIE 1931 XYZ tristimulus values were not defined with explicit consideration of color differences. Two colors with a small difference in the tristimulus values may look very different or virtually indistinguishable depending on where the two colors are located in the XYZ space.

JND: just noticeable difference

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Uniform color space

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Uniform Chromaticity Scale CIE LUV

CIE 1960

CIE 1976
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CIELUV color space

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Color difference in Euclidean distance

Munsell Colour System


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Chroma

Original image

Chroma increased 50%

CIELAB lightness preserved, with a* and b* stripped

Chroma is the colorfulness relative to the brightness of another color that appears white under similar viewing conditions

Hue
Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically, as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow

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The Birth of CIELAB

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CIELAB color space

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Color difference in Euclidean distance

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Comparing of L*U*V* and L*A*B*

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Comparing of L*U*V* and L*A*B*


CIE LAB and LUV provides a more uniform color different space.
Usually, LAB is using in Image Processing, and LUV is using in Lighting applications

CIE Lab

CIE Luv

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The CIE 1994 color-difference model (CIE94)

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CIE2000 color-difference formula: CIEDE2000

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CIE2000 color-difference formula: CIEDE2000

*Usually, KL, KC, and KH are set as 1 Only for some special applications, they will has different values 71

CIE2000 color-difference formula: CIEDE2000

Target image

Reproduced image

CIEDE2000
min max ave std

30.26

1.78

1.69

S-CIEDE2000 (With Spatial Contrast Sensitivity)


Color image Color separation Lum R/G B/Y

Spatial filter

XYZ
min

S-CIEDE2000
max ave std

CIEDE2000
Ref: G. M. Johnson, Color Research and Appl.03

5.92

0.22

0.17
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Spatial Contrast Sensitivity


Spatial Vision refers to human visual sensitivity to spatial patterns What are the fundamental features and limitations of human spatial vision?

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Spatial Contrast Sensitivity

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Spatial Contrast Sensitivity Campbell-Robson Chart

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Spatial Contrast Sensitivity Campbell-Robson Chart

The Contrast sensitivity curve is not only depended on contrast, but also on luminance

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LUV and LAB Summary

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Transformation flow

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6. Color characterization of LCD

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Step. 1 and 2. Normalization and TRC Transformation


Step 1. Normalization Step 2. TRC Transformation

R ( R0 ) R , G ( G0 ) G , B ( B0 ) B
What is Gamma () ?

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Display Gamma
Our eyes do not perceive light the way cameras do. Camera Linear, Eyes Nonlinear A gamma encoded image has to have "gamma correction" applied when it is viewed which effectively converts it back into light from the original scene. The display gamma is to compensate for a file's gamma

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Display Gamma

LCD Display has similar but slightly different Gamma of RGB colors
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Step. 3. RGB to XYZ Linear Transformation


Step 3. Linear Transformation

: sRGBMsRGBMsRGB-1
sRGB[R][G][B]xy (xR, yR) = (0.6391,0.3392), (xG, yG) = (0.2718, 0.6145), (xB, yB) = (0.1453, 0.0585) 6500Kcd/m280cd/m2 [W]x, y, Y(xW0, yW0, YW0)(0.3127, 0.3290, 80.0) [K]x, y, Y(xK0, yK0, YK0)(0.3127, 0.3290, 0.0)
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Step. 3. RGB to XYZ Linear Transformation

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Step. 4 and 5. Other Transformation


Step 4. Chromaticity Transformation
For different applications, [X Y Z] can be further modified as [x y Y], [L*a*b*], or [L*u*v*]

Step 5.Color Perception Transformation


By knowing [L*a*b*], the value can also be transfer in to [L,c,h] value, for describing human perceptions

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Other Issues in Colorimetry


colorimetric physical/psycho-measurement chromatic adaptation color appearance model color management

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