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INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS

CHAPTER 1
Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT
sabrimesin@gmail.com
+60162931775
Introduction to Material
Learning Objectives:
To define raw materials
To define engineering materials
To classify the engineering materials into different
groups
To explain the semi-finished products
To explain the machining involved to produce Finish
products
To explain the flow of materials to final product
To explain the importance of standards parts.
Introduction to Material
Raw Materials
Unprocessed natural products used in manufacture.
Unfinished good used in the manufacture of a product.
Examples:
Iron Ores
Woods
Crude oil
Coal


Introduction to Material
Raw Material
Engineering
Material
Metals
Ferrous Non-Ferrous
Non-
Metals
Auxiliary
Material
Introduction to Material
Engineering Materials
Raw materials that has been processed into semi-
finished products
Examples:
Spare parts
Cast iron
Etc
Introduction to Material
Metals
Ferrous (presence of iron element inside the material)
Steel
Cast iron
Non-ferrous
Copper
Zinc
Tin

Introduction to Material
Non-metals
Exist naturally or artificially produced (manufactured)
Wood
Rubber
Resin
Polymer
Cotton
Asphalt sheets

Introduction to Material

Materials

Flow of Raw Material to Final Product
RAW
MATERIAL
SEMI FINISHED
PRODUCTS
FINISHED
PRODUCT
FINAL
PRODUCT
AUXILIARY
MATERIAL
Processed into
Machined into
Assembled into
Introduction to Material
Assignment
Find one example of Finished Product and determine
the process flow to manufacture the product from raw
materials.
Example:
Process flow to produce a book from paper and paper from
trees.
11
Engineering materials
Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT
12
Classifications & Specifications of Metallic Materials
Major characteristics of metallic materials are
crystallinity, conductivity to heat and electricity and
relatively high strength & toughness.
Classification: systematic arrangement or division of
materials into group on the basis of some common
characteristic
Generally classified as ferrous and nonferrous
Ferrous materials-iron as the base metal,
range from plain carbon (>98% Fe) to high
alloy steel (<50% alloying elements)
Nonferrous materials consist of the rest of the
metals and alloys
Eg. Aluminum, magnesium, titanium & their
alloys

Metal / Metallic materials

13
Within each group of alloy, classification can be
made according
(a) chemical composition, e.g. carbon content or
alloys content in steels;
(b) finished method, e.g. hot rolled or cold
rolled;
(c) product form, e.g. bar, plate, sheet, tubing,
structural shape;
(d) method of production, e.g. cast, wrought
alloys.

14
Designation: identification of each class by a
number, letter, symbol, name or a combination.
Normally based on chemical composition or
mechanical properties.
Example : Table 2.1 designation systems for steel
System used by AISI & SAE: 4, or 5 digits which
designate the alloy composition.
1
st
two digits indicate Alloy system
Last two or three digits nominal carbon content
in hundredths of a percent





15
16
In most eng. application, selection of metallic is usually
based on the following considerations:
1) Product shape: a) sheet, strip, plate, (b) bar, rod, wire,
(c) tubes, (d) forging (e) casting
2) Mechanical properties-tensile, fatigue, hardness,
creep,impact test
3) Physical & chemical properties-specific gravity, thermal
& electrical conductivity, thermal expansion
4) Metallurgical consideration-anisotrophy of properties,
hardenability of steel, grain size & consistency of
properties
5) Processing castability-castability, formability,
machinability
6) Sales appeal-color, luster
7) Cost & availability


17
Design and selection for metals
One of the major issues for structural components
is deflection under service load.
A function of the applied forces and geometry,
and also stiffness of material.
Stiffness of material is difficult to change,
either shape or the material has to be changed if
order to achieve a large change in the stiffness
of a component.

18
Load carrying capacity of component can be related
to the yield strength, fatigue strength or creep
strength depending on loading & service condition.
All are structure sensitive.
Changed by changing chemical composition of the
alloy, method and condition of manufacturing, as
well as heat treatment
Increasing the strength cause metal ductility &
toughness to decrease which affects the
performance of component.

19
Electrical & thermal conductivities
Thermal conductivity, K
Is measure of the rate at which heat is
transferred through a material
Al & Cu- Manufacture of component where
electrical conductivity is primary
requirement
Corrosion resistance & specific gravity limits
the materials.




20
Manufacturing consideration
Majority of metallic components are wrought or cast
Wrought m/str:
usually stronger and more ductile than cast.
Available in many shapes & size tolerance
Hot worked products:
Tolerance are wider thus difficult for automatic
machining
Poor surface quality, esp. in sheet/wire drawing
Cold worked product:
Narrow tolerance
Residual stress cause unpredictable size change during
machining

21
Weldability a function of material composition.
So structure involve welding of the components
need to consider. Also for other joining means.
Machinability:
Important if large amounts of material have
to be removed
improvement by heat treatment or alloying
elements
Economic aspects:
material able to perform function at lowest
cost
Plain carbon steel & cast iron are the least
expensive

22
Classifications of Polymers
Polymer low density, good thermal & electrical
insulation, high resistance to most chemicals and
ability to take colours and opacities.
But unreinforced bulk polymer are mechanically
weaker, lower elastic moduli & high thermal
expansion coefficients.
Improvement Reinforced variety of fibrous
materials Composites (PMC).
Design for polymer
23
Advantages : ease of manufacturing & versatility.
Can manufacture into complicated shapes in one
step with little need for further processing or
surface treatment.
Versatility : ability to produce accurate
component, with excellent surface finish and
attractive color, at low cost and high speed
Application: automotive, electrical & electronic
products, household appliance, toys, container,
packaging, textiles
Basic manufacturing processes for polymer parts
are extrusion, molding, casting and forming of
sheet.
24
Thermoset & thermoplastic
Differ in the degree of their inter-molecular
bonding
Thermoplastic-litle cross bonding between
polymer, soften when heated & harden when
cooled
Thermoset-strong intermolecular bonding which
prevents fully cured materials from softening
when heated
Rubber are similar to plastic in structure and the
difference is largely based on the degree of
extensibility or stretching.
25
Design consideration for polymer
Structural part/When the parts is to carry load
Should remember the strength and stiffness
of plastics vary with temperature.
T
room
data cannot be used in design calculation
if the part will be used at other temp.
Long term properties cannot be predicted from
short term prop. Eg. Creep behavior
Engineering plastics are britle (notched impact
strength < 5.4 J/cm)
Avoid stress raiser
26
Classification of Ceramic Materials
Ceramics inorganic compounds of one or more metals
with a nonmetallic element. Eg Al
2
O
3
, SiC, Si
2
N
3
.
Crystal structure of ceramic are complex
They accommodate more than one element of
widely different atomic size.
The interatomic forces generally alternate
between ionic & covalent which leave few free
electrons
usually heat & electrical insulators.
Strong ionic & covalent bonds give high hardness,
stiffness & stability (thermal & hostile env.).

Design for ceramics

27
Structure:
(1) Amorphous or glass-short range order, (2)
crystalline (long range order) & (3) crystalline
material bonded by glassy matrix.
Clasiification:
Whitewares, glass, refractories, structural clay
products & enamels.
Characteristics:
Hard & brittleness,
low mechanical & thermal shock
High melting points
Thermal conductivities between metal & polymer

28

Design consideration for ceramics
Britle, low mechanical & thermal shock-need special
consideration
Ratio between tensile strength, modulus of rupture &
compressive strength ~ 1:2:10. In design, load ceramic
parts in compression & avoid tensile loading
Sensitive to stress concentration
Avoid stress raiser during design.
Dimensional change take place during drying and firing,
should be consider
Large flat surface can cause wrapping
Large changes in thickness of product can lead to
nonuniform drying and cracking.
Dimensional tolerances should be generous to avoid
machining



29
Introduction
A composite material can be broadly defined as an
assembly two or more chemically distinct
material, having distinct interface between them
and acting to produce desired set of properties
Composites MMC, PMC & CMC.
The composite constituent divided into two
Matrix
Structural constituent / reinforcement

Design for composite
30
Properties / behavior depends on properties, size
& distribution, volume fraction & shape of the
constituents, & the nature and strength of bond
between constituents.
Mostly developed to improve mechanical
properties i.e strength, stiffness, creep
resistance & toughness.
Three type of composite
(1) Dispersion-strengthened,
(2) Reinforcement continuous & discontinuous
(3) Laminated (consist more than 2 layers
bonded together).
31
32
Designing with composite
A composite materials usually are more expensive on
a cost.
Used when weight saving is possible when the
relevant specific property (property/density) of the
composite is better than conventional material
E.g. specific strength (strength/density), specific
elastic modulus ( elastic modulus/density)
Efficient use of composite can be achieved by
tailoring the material for the application
E.g., to achieve max. strength in one direction in a
fibrous composite, the fibers should be well
aligned in that direction
33
If composite is subjected to tensile loading,
important design criterion is the tensile
strength in the loading direction
Under compression loading, failure by buckling
become important
Fatigue behavior:
Steel- show an endurance limit or a stress
below which fatigue does not occur
Composite-fatigue at low stress level because
fibrous composites may have many crack, which
can be growing simultaneously and propagate
through the matrix

1 STEEL
1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
1.2 Microstructure of steels
1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
1.4 Mechanical properties
1.5 Steels for different applications
1.6 Joints in steel
Definitions
Iron A chemical element (Fe)
Ion A charged particle, e.g. Cl
-
or Fe
++

Iron is an element with the chemical symbol Fe. Steel and cast
iron are described as "ferrous" metals and are made from iron
with different carbon contents.
Carbon contents
Carbon Content Material
0.02% Wrought Iron - no longer
generally available in the UK
0.15% Low carbon steel
0.15-0.25% Mild and high yield steels
0.5-1.5% High carbon and tool steels
3-4% Cast irons

Ironbridge
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH
CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE
Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
Face centred cubic and Body centred cubic
Volume change on heating
steel
The nomenclature is:
FERRITE or oFe: This is the bcc iron which is
formed on slow cooling and may contain up to
0.08% Carbon. Soft, ductile and not particularly
strong.
CEMENTITE: This is iron carbide which contains
about 6.67% Carbon.
PEARLITE: This in the laminar mixture of ferrite
and cementite and has an average carbon content
of about 0.78%. Hard, brittle and strong
AUSTENITE or Fe: This is the fcc iron which is
formed at high temperatures and may contain up
to 2%C
Phase
diagram for
steel
(iron/carbon
)
Strengths and
carbon
contents of
steels
High
carbon
content.
Low
elongation
value.
Low impact
resistance.
Brittle
failure.
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH
CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE
Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying

Movement of dislocation 1
Grain
Boundary
Movement of dislocation 2
Grain
Boundary
Movement of dislocation 3
Grain
Boundary
Effect of ferrite grain size on the ductile/brittle
transition temperature for mild steel
Pore fluid expression die after tensile failure. The
inner core has fractured but the outer shell is a less
brittle steel so there was no explosive failure.
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH
CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE
Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying

Cooling Steel from High
Temperatures
Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size ductile steel
Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains
Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel
Part of iron/carbon phase
diagram
Cooling Steel from High
Temperatures
Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size ductile steel
Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains
Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel
Effect of
carbon
content on
hardness
for
products of
rapid
cooling
(martensite
and
bainite)
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH
CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE
Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying


Early cold worked steel
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH
CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE
Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
Rolling sequence
for steel angle
Rolled steel
sections
RSC Rolled Steel Column
UB Universal Beam

RSA Rolled Steel Angle

RST Rolled steel T


RHS Rolled Hollow Section

The RSJ

The UB has parallel flanges. A limited number of traditional RSJs
(Rolled Steel Joists) with tapered flanges are produced in
smaller section sizes.
Web
Flange
RSJ Flange UB
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
Stress-Strain curves
Stress-Strain curve for steel
Yield
Elastic

0.2%
proof
stress
Stress
Strain
0.2%
Plastic
Failure
Embrittlement at cold temperatures
S-N curves for fatigue
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
The properties required of
structural steels are:

Strength. This is traditionally specified as a characteristic value
for the 0.2% proof stress
Ductility to give impact resistance. Ductility increases with
reducing carbon content.
Weldability. (see below).
Steel
frame (1)
Steel frame (2)
Steel frame (3)
Steel
structure
Light
weight
steel
Steel Framed
housing
Housing
Details
Steel in
masonry
structure
Steel Bridge
Reinforcing Steels
Reinforcing steels are tested for strength and must also
comply with the requirements of a "rebend" test to ensure
that they retain their strength when bent to shape. This limits
the carbon content. High yield bars are cold worked.
Bending Reinforcement
Prestressing steels
Prestressing steels (high tensile steels) are not bent so they
can have higher carbon contents that normal reinforcement
and have higher strengths. This limits the ductility but is
necessary to avoid loss of prestress due to creep
Prestresse
d slabs
Pre-
stressin
g
systems
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
The main methods of welding
are:
Gas welding. In order to produce a hot enough
flame a combustible gas (e.g. acetylene) is burnt
with oxygen. This method is not used for major
welding jobs but has the advantage that the torch
will also cut the metal.
Arc welding. In this method a high electric current
is passed from the electrode (the new metal for
the weld) to the parent metal. The electrode is
coated with a "flux" which helps the weld
formation and prevents contact with air which
would cause oxide and nitride formation.
Inert gas shielded arc welding. This method uses
a supply of inert gas (often argon) to keep the air
off the weld so no flux is needed.
Gas and Arc welding
General points about welding.
Do not look directly at a welding process (especially
electric arc). It may damage your eyes.
Always allow for the effect of heating and
uncontrolled cooling of the parent metal. e.g. if high
yield reinforcing bar is welded the effect of the cold
working will be lost - and with it much of the
strength. This heating will also often cause distortion.
Check the welding rods. If they have become damp
the flux will be damaged. Use the correct rods for the
steel (e.g. stainless).
Remember that the welding process cuts into the
parent metal and, if done incorrectly, may cause
substantial loss of section.
OTHER JOINTING SYSTEMS
Bolted Joints
Rivets
Rivets and bolts
Riveting the Empire State
Building
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Metal Alloys: Structure and
Strengthening by Heat Treatment
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Gear Teeth Cross-section
Figure 4.1 Cross-section of gear teeth showing induction-hardened
surfaces. Source: Courtesy of TOCCO Div., Park-Ohio Industries, Inc.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 4 Topics
Figure 4.2 Outline of topics described in Chapter 4.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Two Phase Systems
Figure 4.3 (a) Schematic illustration of grains, grain boundaries, and particles dispersed
throughout the structure of a two-phase system, such as a lead-copper alloy. The grains
represent lead in solid solution in copper, and the particles are lead as a second phase.
(b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system consisting of two sets of grains: dark
and light. The dark and the light grains have separate compositions and properties.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Cooling of Metals
Figure 4.4 (a) Cooling curve for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing
takes place at a constant temperature; during freezing, the latent heat of
solidification is given off. (b) Change in density during the cooling of pure metals.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Phase Diagram for Nickel-copper Alloy System
Figure 4.5 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained at a slow rate of
solidification. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each has one freezing or
melting temperature. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals.
The second circle shows the formation of dendrites (see Section 10.2). The bottom
circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloys
Figure 4.6 Mechanical properties of copper-nickel and copper-zinc
alloys as a function of their composition. The curves for zinc are short,
because zinc has a maximum solid solubility of 40% in copper.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Lead-tin Phase Diagram
Figure 4.7 The lead-tin phase diagram. Note that the composition of eutectic
point for this alloy is 61.9% Sn 38.1% Pb. A composition either lower or
higher than this ratio will have a higher liquidus temperature.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Iron-iron Carbide Phase Diagram
Figure 4.8 The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Because of
the importance of steel as an engineering material, this
diagram is one of the most important of all phase diagrams.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Unit Cells
Figure 4.9 The unit cells for (a) austenite, (b) ferrite, and (c) martensite. The effect
of percentage of carbon (by weight) on the lattice dimensions for martensite is
shown in (d). Note the interstitial position of the carbon atoms (see Fig. 1.9). Also
note, the increase in dimension c with increasing carbon content: this effect causes
the unit cell of martensite to be in the shape of a rectangular prism.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructures for an Iron-Carbon Alloy
Figure 4.10 Schematic illustration of
the microstructures for an iron-
carbon alloy of eutectoid
composition (0.77% carbon) above
and below the eutectoid temperature
of 727C (1341F).
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure of Steel Formed from Eutectoid Composition
Figure 4.11 Microstructure of pearlite in 1080 steel formed from austenite
of a eutectoid composition. In this lamellar structure, the lighter regions
are ferrite, and the darker regions are carbide. Magnification: 2500x.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram with Graphite
Figure 4.12 Phase diagram for the iron-carbon system with graphite (instead of
cementite) as the stable phase. Note that this figure is an extended version of Fig. 4.8.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure for Cast Irons
Figure 4.13 Microstructure for cast irons. Magnification: 100x. (a) Ferritic gray iron
with graphite flakes. (b) Ferritic ductile iron (nodular iron) with graphite in nodular
form. (c) Ferritic malleable iron. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron with the
carbon present as cementite and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure of Eutectoid Steel
Figure 4.14
Microstructure of eutectoid
steel. Spheroidite is
formed by tempering the
steel at 700C (1292F).
Magnification: 1000x.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Martensite
Figure 4.15 (a) Hardness of martensite as a function of carbon content. (b)
Micrograph of martensite containing 0.8% carbon. The gray plate-like regions are
martensite; they have the same composition as the original austenite (white
regions). Magnification: 1000x.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness of Tempered Martensite
Figure 4.16 Hardness of tempered martensite as a function of
tempering time for the 1080 steel quenched to 65 HRC. Hardness
decreases because the carbide particles coalesce and grow in size,
thereby increasing the interparticle distance of the softer ferrite.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Time-
temperature-
transformation
diagrams
Figure 4.17 (a) Austenite-
to-pearlite transformation
of iron-carbon alloy as a
function of time and
temperature. (b)
Isothermal transformation
diagram obtained from (a)
for a transformation
temperature of 675C
(1274F). (c)
Microstructures obtained
for a eutectoid iron-carbon
alloy as a function of
cooling rate.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness and Toughness in Steel as a Function of Carbide Shape
Figure 4.18 (a) and (b) Hardness and (c) toughness for annealed plain-carbon steel as a
function of a carbide shape. Carbides in the pearlite are lamellar. Fine pearlite is obtained
by increasing the cooling rate. The spheroidite structure has sphere-like carbide particles.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of
Composition and Microstructure
Figure 4.19 Mechanical properties of annealed steels as a function of composition and
microstructure. Note in (a) the increase in hardness and strength and in (b) the decrease
in ductility and toughness with increasing amounts of pearlite and iron carbide.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
End-Quench
Hardenability
Test
Figure 4.20 (a) End-
quench test and cooling
rate. (b) Hardenability
curves for five different
steels, as obtained from the
end-quench test. Small
variations in composition
can change the shape of
these curves. Each curve is
actually a band, and its
exact determination is
important in the heat
treatment of metals for
better control of properties.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Phase Diagram for Aluminum-copper Alloy
and Obtained Microstructures
Figure 4.21 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system.
(b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Effect of Time and Temperature on Yield Stress
Figure 4.22 The effect of again time and temperature on the yield
stress of 2014-T4 aluminum alloy. Note that, for each
temperature, there is an optimal aging time for maximum strength.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Outline of Heat Treatment Processes for Surface Hardening
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Outline of Heat Treatment Processes for Surface Hardening, cont.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Heat-treating Temperature Ranges for Plain-Carbon Steels
Figure 4.23 Heat-treating temperature ranges for plain-carbon
steels, as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness of Steel as a Function of Carbon Content
Figure 4.24 Hardness of steels in the quenched and
normalized conditions as a function of carbon content.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of
Tempering Temperature
Figure 4.25 Mechanical
properties of oil-
quenched 4340 steel as
a function of tempering
temperature.
CAST IRONS
Fe-C Phase Diagram
Stable
Metastable
CAST IRONS
Grey CI
Ductile CI
White CI
Malleable CI
Alloy CI
Good castability C > 2.4%
Malleabilize
Stress concentration
at flake tips avoided
White Cast Iron
All C as Fe
3
C (Cementite)
Microstructure Pearlite + Ledeburite + Cementite
Grey Cast Iron
Fe-C-Si + (Mn, P, S)
Invariant lines become invariant regions in phase diagram
Si e (1.2, 3.5) C as Graphite flakes in microstructure (Ferrite matrix)
< 0.1% retards graphitization; | size of Graphite flakes
< 1.25% Inhibits graphitization
e [2.4% (for good castability), 3.8 (for OK mechanical propeties)]
3 3 3
L ( ) ( )
Ledeburite Pearlite
Fe C Fe C Fe C o + + +
Si decreases Eutectivity
Si promotes graphitization ~ effect as + cooling rate
Solidification over a range of temperatures permits the nucleation and growth of Graphite
flakes
Change in interfacial energy between /L & Graphite/L brought about by Si
Growth of Graphite along a axis
Si
eutectoid
C |
| volume during solidification better castability
Ductile/Spheroidal Cast Iron
Graphite nodules instead of flakes (in 2D section)
Mg, Ce, Ca (or other spheroidizing) elements are added
The elements added to promote spheroidization react with the solute in
the liquid to form heterogenous nucleation sites
The alloying elements are injected into mould before pouring (George-
Fischer container)
It is thought that by the modification of the interfacial energy the c and
a growth direction are made comparable leading to spheroidal graphite
morphology
The graphite phase usually nucleates in the liquid pocket created by the
proeutectic
Ductile Iron/Nodular Iron
With Pearlitic matrix
10 m
With Ferritic Matrix
With (Ferrite + Pearlite) Matrix
Ferrite
Graphite nodules
Ductile Iron/Nodular Iron
Bulls Eye
Ferrite
5 m
Pearlite (grey)
Graphite (black)
Ferrite (White)
Malleable Cast Iron
Malleabilize
To Increase Ductility
White Cast Iron Malleable Cast Iron
48
3
2 stage heat treatment
Fe C (WCI) Graphite Temper Nodules (Malleable Iron)
hrs >

Stage I
B: Graphite nucleation at /Cementite interface
(rate of nucleation increased by C, Si)
(Si + solubility of C in | driving force
for growth of Graphite)
A: Low T structure (Ferrite + Pearlite + Martensite) ( + Cementite)
C: Cementite dissolves C joining growing Graphite plates
(940-960)C (Above eutectoid temperature)
Competed when all Cementite Graphite
Spacing between Cementite and Graphite
+ spacing + time (obtained by faster cooling of liquid)
Si | t +
Time for
Graphitization
in Stage I
Addition of Alloying elements
which increase the nucleation rate of Graphite temper nodules
Stage II
Slow cool to the lower temperature such that does not form Cementite
C diffuses through to Graphite temper nodules
(called Ferritizing Anneal)
Full Anneal in Ferrite + Graphite two phase region
Partial Anneal (Insufficient time in Stage II Graphitization)
Ferrite is partial and the remaining transforms to Pearlite
Pearlite + Ferrite + Graphite
If quench after Stage I Martensite (+ Retained Austenite(RA))
(Graphite temper nodules are present in a matrix of Martensite and RA)
(720-730)C (Below eutectoid temperature)
After complete graphitization in Stage I Further Graphitization
Malleable Iron
Ferritic Matrix
Pearlitic Matrix
Fully Malleabilized Iron
Complete Ferritizing Anneal
10 m
Partially Malleabilized Iron
Incomplete Ferritizing Anneal
Pearlite (grey)
Graphite (black)
Ferrite (White)
Ferrite (White)
Graphite (black)
Growth of Graphite
Growth of Graphite Hunter and Chadwick
Double and Hellawell
Hillert and Lidblom
Growth of Graphite from Screw dislocations

Alloy Cast Irons
Cr, Mn, Si, Ni, Al
| the range of microstructures
Beneficial effect on many properties
| high temperature oxidation resistance
| corrosion resistance in acidic environments
| wear/abaration resistance
Alloy Cast Irons
Graphite bearing
Graphite free
Cr addition (12- 35 wt %)
Excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures
High Cr Cast Irons are of 3 types:
12-28 % Cr matrix of Martensite + dispersed carbide
29-34 % Cr matrix of Ferrite + dispersion of alloy carbides
[(Cr,Fe)
23
C
6
, (Cr,Fe)
7
C
3
]
15-30 % Cr + 10-15 % Ni stable + carbides [(Cr,Fe)
23
C
6
, (Cr,Fe)
7
C
3
]
Ni stabilizes Austenite structure
High Cr
29.3% Cr, 2.95% C
Ni:
Stabilizes Austenitic structure
| Graphitization (suppresses the formation of carbides)
(Cr counteracts this tendency of Ni for graphitization)
+ Carbon content in Eutectic
Moves nose of TTT diagram to higher times easy formation of
Martensite
Carbide formation in presence of Cr increases the hardness of the eutectic
structure Ni Hard Cast Irons (4%Ni, 2-8% Cr, 2.8% C)
Ni-Hard
4%Ni, 2-8% Cr, 2.8% C
Needles of Martensite
Transformation sequence
Crystallization of primary
Eutectic liquid + alloy carbide
Martensite
Good abrasion resistance
Ni Resist Iron: 15-30% Ni + small amount of Cr:
Austenitic Dendrites + Graphite plates/flakes + interdendritic carbides
due to presence of Cr
Resistant to oxidation (used in chemical processing plants, sea water, oil
handling operations)
Ni-resist
Dendrites of
Graphite plates
Silal Iron (trade name): Alloy CI with 5% Si
Si allows solidification to occur over larger temperature range
promotes graphitization
Forms surface film of iron silicate resistant to acid corrosion
CI with 5 % Si
Fe-Ni Phase Diagram
Bulls
Eye
Alloy Cast Irons