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ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

Exercise 1 : Teaching Based on Social Constructivist Learning Theories 1.0 Introduction

Theories of Learning Social Constructivism Social constructivism is a variety of cognitive constructivism that emphasizes the collaborative nature of much learning. Social constructivism was developed by post-revolutionary Soviet psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky was a cognitivist, but rejected the assumption made by cognitivists such as Piaget and Perry that it was possible to separate learning from its social context. He argued that all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions and that learning was not simply the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners; it was the process by which learners were integrated into a knowledge community. According to Vygotsky (1978, 57), Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level and, later on, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.

UNITAR International University

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ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING THEORIES

Subject Class Time Date Enrolment Theme Topic Learning Outcomes

: English Language : 5 Bistari (Intermediate Level) : 8.10 8.40 (40 minutes) : 13 April 2013 : 25 pupils : World of Knowledge : The Ant And The Cricket : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to: 1. Give three out of five short replies in response to teachers questions. 2. Read 7 keywords from the text with correct pronunciation and stress. 3. Match the six words to the each both characters in the story.

Prior Knowledge Teaching Materials

: :

Pupils have read the story before. Slide MS Powerpoint and worksheets.

UNITAR International University

SEMESTER 1

ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

DYNAMIC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (DID) MODEL REKA BENTUK PENGAJARAN Knowing your learner Mengenali Pelajar BUTIR-BUTIR AKTIVITI

The teacher chooses English Language subject for primary Five. The topic is The Ant and The Cricket (Story Time) . Before teaching and learning begins, the teacher should ensure that students recognize the insects around them. A total of 25 students in the class and they will be divided into five groups which each group consists of 5 students.

Stating learning outcomes Mengenalpasti hasil Pembelajaran

Based on the topic, teachers will ensure that students will be able to Give
three out of five short replies in response to teachers questions, read 7 keywords from the text with correct pronunciation and stress and match the six words to the each both characters in the story.

Establishing learning environment Mewujudkan suasana Pembelajaran Identifying teaching and learning strategies

Teacher will ensure that the atmosphere or learning environment is conducive to the teaching process based on aspects such as seating arrangements and a comfortable physical space to facilitate the teaching and learning process to the maximum. In this lesson, students need to sit down in groups. Therefore teachers will ensure that the tables and chairs arranged in groups. A group represented by 6 members. Induction set Teacher shows the picture in the textbooks . Teacher asks 3 questions to the pupils according to the pictures.

Teacher introduces the topic for the day. Mengenalpasti Strategi Pembelajaran Stage 1
Shared Reading

Teacher shows the text on the text book. Teacher carries out Shared Reading with the class. Teacher reads the text once and asks few people to read it continuously. Teacher asks pupils to tell what happen in the story. Teacher shows the keywords and pupils read along with her. Teacher asks question based on the text and the pupils answer three out of
UNITAR International University

SEMESTER 1

ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

five questions orally. Stage 2 Focused Word Work (Teaching Points) Teacher drills the pupils to the pronunciation of highlighted words on the blackboard. Teacher asks pupils to match the words to the characters in the story . Teacher asks pupils to circle words in simple past tense that can be found in the text. Pupils rewrite the root words of each simple past tense that they found. Pupils underline the articles that can be found in the text. Teacher practices the usage of articles with the pupils. Teacher asks pupils to fill in the blank with aricles to complete the phrases in the worksheet.

Identifying and selecting technologies


Mengenalpasti dan memilih teknologi

Instructional technology is a tool used to support teaching and learning strategies designed by the teacher. In this step the teacher should choose the appropriate technology tools for teaching and learning strategies. Teachers will use MS Powerpoint and worksheets.

Planning a summative evaluation


Perancangan penilaian sumatif

The final step in instructional design is to plan for summative evaluation. It is used to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies . In this lesson Plan, students are evaluated in terms of guided Reading /Writing or Independent Work.

Exercise 2 : Teaching Based on Cognitive Learning Theories

UNITAR International University

SEMESTER 1

ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

1.0

Introduction

Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them. Information processing is a commonly used description of the mental process, comparing the human mind to a computer. When we say the word learning, we usually mean to think using the brain. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual. Cognitive Learning Theory implies that the different processes concerning learning can be explained by analyzing the mental processes first. It posits that with effective cognitive processes, learning is easier and new information can be stored in the memory for a long time. On the other hand, ineffective cognitive processes result to learning difficulties that can be seen anytime during the lifetime of an individual.

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY

UNITAR International University

SEMESTER 1

ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

Mathematics Year 5-Daily Lesson Plan

Subject Classs Enrolment Duration Topic Learning Area Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes

: Mathematics : 5 Perdana : 35 pupils : 40 Minutes : Shape and Space : Area of Composite 2-D Shapes : Pupils will be taught to measure and calculate the area of 2-D shapes. : Pupils will be able to : 1. 2. Measure the area of composite 2-D shapes. Calculate the area of composite 2-D shapes.

Previous knowledge Thinking Skills Inculcation of values Teaching Aids

: Pupils had learnt how to measure perimeter of composite 2-D shapes. : To Relate : Be grateful & appreciate the value of coins. : Coins, white flip paper, pieces of manila card,marker, measuring tape, textbook , Power Point presentation, LCD projector.

DYNAMIC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN (DID) MODEL

REKA
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BUTIR-BUTIR AKTIVITI /
SEMESTER 1

ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

BENTUK PENGAJARAN Knowing your learner Mengenali Pelajar

The teacher chooses Mathematic subject for primary Five. The topic is shape and space. Before teaching and learning begins, the teacher should ensure that students recognize the shape and space of any objects around them.. A total of 30 students in the class and they will be divided into five groups which each group consists of 6 students.

Stating learning outcomes Mengenalpasti hasil Pembelajaran

Based on the topic, teachers will ensure that students will be able to measure
the area of composite 2-D shapes and calculate the area of composite 2-D shapes.

Establishing learning environment Mewujudkan suasana Pembelajaran

Teacher will ensure that the atmosphere or learning environment is conducive to the teaching process based on aspects such as seating arrangements and a comfortable physical space to facilitate the teaching and learning process to the maximum. In this lesson, students need to sit down in groups. Therefore teachers will ensure that the tables and chairs arranged in groups. A group represented by 6 members.

Identifying teaching and learning strategies Mengenalpasti Strategi Pembelajaran

Pupils show a 10-sen coin and a 50-sen coin. Pupils point out the whole part of the respective faces of the coins. Pupils are guided to make comparison between both surfaces of the coins and find out which coin has a bigger surface and which coin has a smaller surface.

Repeat the activity above by comparing surface of tables, books, pencil boxes and other things in the class. Based on the activity, pupils are introduced to the concept of area by substituting the word face (or surface) to area so that the pupils can express that: 5 cm

UNITAR International University

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ESEM5123 PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION STHLLAH ONGKING SB1301MD0074

Area is the size of the region or surface of a closed plane figure. 3 cm Teacher shows a triangle that consist a length of 5cm and width of 3cm. Teacher then shows the formulae on how to find the area of a rectangle. AREA: Length x Width 5cm x 3cm = 25cm Teachers then show another questions and let the students to find the answers. 4 cm Find the area of this square? 4cm x 4cm =16cm

Identifying and selecting technologies


Mengenalpasti dan memilih teknologi

Instructional technology is a tool used to support teaching and learning strategies designed by the teacher. In this step the teacher should choose the appropriate technology tools for teaching and learning strategies. Teachers will use 2-D object to assess students' understanding of shapes. Teachers will showing 2-D shapes by using the LCD projector so that students get to know and understand more about 2D shapes. The final step in instructional design is to plan for summative evaluation. It is used to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning strategies . In this lesson Plan, students are evaluated in terms of their ability to calculate the area using arbitrary unit as follows :

Planning a summative evaluation


Perancangan penilaian sumatif

UNITAR International University

SEMESTER 1