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Running head: BUSINESS AND SOCIETY

Business and Society Name Tutor Course College Date

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY Part A A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard Affordable accommodation should be available to any working individual or family that

requires it. However, nobody said that it has to be adjacent to the employer. A Brawl in Mickeys backyard is a case that brings together real zoning idea with an emotional and reasonably priced housing agenda. In this discussion, the study looks at both the market and non-market stakeholders and the likely solutions to the problem. In general, stakeholders refer to organizations or individuals who undertake business deals with another institution (Weber, 2010). With regard to this discussion, primary market stakeholders refer to workers of Disneyland as well as the tourists who visit the park. In 2005, the company employed nearly 20,000 individuals and helped more than 65,000 jobs in the region (Studymode, 2011). Research shows that nearly 15 million people visit the company on a yearly basis. On the other hand, nonmarket stakeholders are groups or individuals who, despite not engaging in direct economic exchange with the organization, are still affected by or can determine its responsibilities (Weber, 2010). In this particular discussion, non market stakeholders would be the people of Anaheim, SunCal, and the city council. The city council has a voting power with regard to the zoning issue. Similarly, the inhabitants of Anaheim can influence the city council and also make use of the $ 225 million revenue generated by Disneyland in the region. SunCal as stakeholder plays the role of being a developer. It aims at building condominiums for a huge profit but also willing to create 15 percent of the income below the market rate (Studymode, 2011).

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY

The main problem why there is a conflict is that non-stakeholders (SunCal) are intending to construct condominiums on the land that has been specifically put aside for the expansion of Disneyland or tourism industries. SunCal decided to offer 225 units of the proposed 1,500 to minimum market rate rental residence. This particular provision by SunCal would be seen as just as a way to get support for their zoning exemption. In addition, their offer brings an emotional reaction from the members of the public and disturbances from the financial realities that potential tourism or expansion would provide. The economic impact of the expansion would surpass that of constructing condominiums. Apparently, affordable accommodation is required in the Disneyland but may not be the perfect use of the land. Once an apartment is constructed, it does not create additional jobs. If Disneyland was to be expanded, it would lead to enhanced tourism activities as well as improved economy (Studymode, 2011).

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY References Studymode, (2011). Brawl in Mickey's Backyard. StudyMode.com. Retrieved from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Brawl-In-Mickey-s-Backyard-718465.html Weber, L. (2010). A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard. New York, Prentice Hall.

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY Part B The Tobacco Industry Section 1: Introduction Finding an effective way to harness the powerful influence of the media in order to curtail the use of tobacco has been a major challenge in the 21st century. This is particularly because the media has expanded beyond the traditional channels such as television, radio, newspaper, magazines to the interactive video and lately to the internet. The internet makes the

problem even more challenging. Both the tobacco industry and tobacco control forces have been using the media to influence behavior and attitudes of the American public. Although there has been a decline of about 50 percent in the smoking prevalence for the past 50 years, more than 4,000 youths smoke their first cigarette daily and about one in every five Americans continue to smoke (Davis et al., 2008). The tremendous growth of mass media was significant towards the speedy expansion of the tobacco industry and use in the 20th century. This has in return influenced the subsequent evolution of successful tobacco control interventions in the 21st century. The understanding in the human health field regarding the relationship can be observed in the paralleled growth of the control efforts for tobacco even though the smoking levels in the US decline by 50 percent since its peak in the 1960s. Contemporary, inventive investigate frameworks have been advancing the study of the use of tobacco and the media at personal, organizational, societal and international levels to create the image of how tobacco advertising and corporate sponsorship influence or is influenced by the primary and secondary stakeholders in the tobacco industry. The stakeholders include tobacco farmers, manufacturers, distributors, smokers, parents, the youth and the government.

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY The amount of financial resources used by tobacco companies in the United States towards advertising tobacco products have been increasing annually. In 2005, the industry spent

$13.5 billion in promotion and advertising. However, the same media that is used by the industry to advertise has been in the center stage in promoting control measures. However, anti-tobacco campaigns sponsored by public health agencies are exceeded by advertising by tobacco companies as well as advertising for product cessation by pharmaceutical companies (Wakefield et al., 2005). Section 2: What does this mean to my family? Smoking remains one of the leading but preventable causes of premature deaths in most countries where smoking is not stringently regulated. The consumption of alcohol is rated as the third cause of preventable mortalities. Drinking and smoking are strongly associated behaviors (Jiang, 2011). Smokers have been identified to be more likely to drink alcohol more frequently and consume the alcohol in larger quantities with more drinks per drinking episode. The advertising of tobacco products influences individuals to smoke the products. Considering the wide range of tobacco manufacturers competing for market share in the industry, advertising has become more intense. In order to gain competitive advantage over competitors in the market, companies are diversifying the avenues to reach the consumer. The companies are using sponsorship to gain the attention of the public. During such campaigns, the adverts encourage the potential consumer to try their products. The targets of these adverts and sponsorships are often the youth and non-smokers. Additionally, the adverts seek to win the loyalty of smokers to switch from smoking a certain brand and start smoking cigarettes offered by the specific promoter.

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY The beneficiaries of the sponsorships by tobacco companies are parties in the society. These include schools and community projects. For example, in 2008, a massive earthquake hit Sichuan province. The Sichuan Tobacco Company funded the building of an elementary school in the area. On the roof of the school stands the sign board Sichuan Tobacco primary School.

There is also an engraved slogan on other boards reading, Tobacco helps your success. (Huan, 2010). This signifies that the continued existence of the school and consequent education for the population around the area will be pegged on the good will of the tobacco company. The company will have to use all means of advertising to realize enough profit to meet its corporate goals and be able to support the school. The practice of sponsoring community development projects by tobacco companies exerts negative social impacts. By sponsoring community projects, these companies pose as though they are pursuing corporate social responsibilities. However, the companies are actively building up a positive image while pursuing immense profits. In actual fact, real charity is not profit-oriented. Sponsorships that are aligned to conditions that the company be allowed to place its name or product brands to capture the attention of the community negatively influence the community and the beneficiaries who perceive tobacco products to be the enablers of their personal success. Such individuals are more likely to smoke than those who do not benefit from such companies. Sponsorships should be done in, more acceptable ways. Public health messages that educate people and encourage them to avoid or quit smoking prevail within the context of cluttered media environment. The public often receive more information from tobacco companies since the companies are financially endowed to fund adverts and sponsorships. The anti-tobacco activists are less funded hence receives less airplay and internet space.

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY Families are hence affected by advertising. The adverts are perceived by younger people

to be a symbol of adulthood and independence. Young people want to try what they hear and see on the media particularly when such adverts involve individuals they consider to be their heroes. They wish to experiment with activities that these heroes engage in. As a result, they smoke for their first time. Since they would want to be associated with these heroes, they make it known to others that they have taken into the steps of the heroes. Consequently, they become addicted. Consequently, they engage in activities such as crime to meet the finances to fund the use of tobacco. This creates conflicts within families. This a direct negative effect of advertising of tobacco products and indirectly linked to sponsorship. These trends that negatively impact the society influence my view regarding sponsorship and advertising. It is my view that advertising and sponsorship from tobacco companies be limited to some areas. Sponsorship should be limited to adults who are able to make informed choices regarding the impacts of tobacco despite the gains they will attain from the sponsorships. Similarly, advertising should be regulated where the advertiser should be required to include warnings regarding the consequences of smoking as opposed to promoting the use. These adverts should be balance in terms of the effects of tobacco and the benefits to the consumer. Section 3: What does this mean to my company? There has been increasing documentation of evidence regarding the impact of tobacco use on the consumer. This has resulted in increased liability that tobacco companies market tobacco products to youths. It has also been claimed that the companies mislead the general public and the consumer regarding the health risks presented by the use of tobacco. There has been a range of campaigns in different places aimed at exposing the misleading and deceptive practices of these companies targeted at youths. These campaigns seek to enlighten the youth

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY

about the harmful effects of the use of tobacco products. These messages are disseminated to the general public or a specific audience through the mass media. In the United States, the American Legacy Foundation is one of the leading anti-tobacco foundations that organized mass media campaign against the use of tobacco. These campaigns seek to create a negative publicity for tobacco companies. The companies are left with the responsibility to redeem their images. The negative publicity not only impact on the profitability of the companies but also impact on the personal image of the individuals who work with the company. The individuals are frowned at by those who are aware that they work with the company. They are viewed as public enemies who do not mind the wellbeing of the society. Managers, employees and consumers increasingly expect tobacco companies to go beyond their traditional responsibilities of creating, manufacturing, packaging and selling of tobacco products. The companies are expected to take responsibility for the consequences that consumers face after prolonged periods of the use of tobacco products. As opposed to other industries where the stakeholders expect the companies to create job opportunities and pay taxes that will benefit the society, companies in the tobacco industry are expected to educate the public about the consequences of use of tobacco products. Paying tax and creating job opportunities is no longer suffices as the only contribution to the society. In order to overcome these challenges as an executive of a tobacco company, I would initiate a socially responsible investment (SRI) product that will help the society to benefit from the activities of tobacco companies. This will include inviting socially responsible investors so that the actual stand of the companys ethical stand known. These include non-profit organizations, individuals, corporations, foundations, pension funds and insurance companies

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY among others. These investors will help in creating a positive aspect of the company. This will

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include the adoption of sound environmental practices, labor and community relations, and fair employment practices among other approaches. The company should then meet its social corporate responsibility without attaching any profitability to the programs the company undertakes. It will hence be imperative to create and develop a well-managed and well-planned philanthropy from sponsoring education plan for the disadvantaged, protecting the environment under social corporate responsibility. The programs and projects will be conducted with the aim of reducing social inequities as opposed to enhancing the companys profitability. The creation and improvement of educational and health care, provide management and vocational training, and enhance cultural activities and quality of leisure. The company will also take responsibility to educate the public about the risks posed by smoking. This will ensure that the individuals who opt to smoke are aware of the consequences as opposed to advertising to attract the business of nave and ignorant individuals. The company will also develop a product that will facilitate quitting for addicted smokers. This will ensure that the company mitigates litigations associated with addiction. Those willing to quit will receive support from the company. The company will also ensure it invests in the effort to improve the image of the company and promotion and development of effective youth smoking prevention programs. This will include regulated advertising and portraying smoking as an adult activity. Section 4: What does this mean to my country? The government plays a significant role in the tobacco industry. Essentially, the tobacco industry is a major contributor towards tax and revenue of the country. The taxes collected from tobacco companies by the government is spend to uplift the lives of the population. This is

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY regardless of whether the beneficiaries are smokers or non-smokers. When the money is allocated for development by the government, it is allocated depending on the need of the targeted community. The government has the role of controlling and regulating tobacco use as effectively as possible through national policies. In order to minimize the harmful effects of tobacco, the government has to educate and legislate. Effective interventions and policies have the potential

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to make a difference to the use of tobacco and the related health outcomes. The combination of comprehensive community-based strategies, tax increase and legislation steadily decrease the consumption of tobacco in many countries. Such legislation have been used in New Zealand and other developed countries. A comprehensive tobacco management policy was adopted by New Zealand in 1990. Within six years of legislation, the per capita consumption of tobacco had dropped by 21 percent among young adults (WHO, 1999). In this regard, the government has there is a wide range of options to ensure that advertising of tobacco products and sponsoring by tobacco companies are regulated. The government can ban all promotions, sponsorships and advertising. To augment this decision, the government may require the tobacco companies to have effectual health warnings on the labels of all tobacco products. This may include the requirement that the companies make detailed reporting of tobacco constituents and tobacco smoke. Further the government can make it public regarding the locations where smoking zones have been established. Any individual who smokes outside these smoking zones should be arrested and prosecuted. Section 5: Media impact Media messages are inherently persuasive and are endemic in the society through television, newspaper, magazines, outdoor advertising, point-of-sale advertising, movies, radio,

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY books and latest through the internet and text messaging. These platforms are used by tobacco companies and anti-tobacco activists and agencies to encourage the avoidance of or quit

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smoking. Mass communication bridge societies around the globe and magnify the impact of the media on global public health. More than 80 percent of over one billion smokers globally live in developing countries. Due to increase in effective communication in these countries, tobacco companies are able to reach to their target markets. Simultaneously, the media is equally powerful to play a central role in influencing policymakers and individuals to the cause of tobacco control in these countries as it has done in developed countries. The media have the capacity to frame conceptual models, impact the evolution of the models in the perception of the public and eventually guide the perceptions toward policy implementation. The media has inherently been intertwined with tobacco control interventions ranging from anti-tobacco announcements broadcast on mass media and tobacco promotion. It has been central in creating and shaping the attitudes towards tobacco. The mass media has previously been sponsored by anti-tobacco public health agencies to spread information aimed at reducing smoking in both the youth and adults. There is evidence that media exposure to tobacco-related issues impacts the prevention and use of tobacco. The public tend to rely on information received through the media more than when such information is received from other quarters. When negative images are created by the mass media regarding the effects of tobacco use, the public tend to move along with the media to shun the use of tobacco products. On the contrary, tobacco companies invest heavily in mass media advertising for their products. In most cases, these adverts are received well by their targets particularly when the adverts are perceive at presenting a smoker as an individual who have self-awareness and not easily swayed by the perceptions of the rest of the people. Movies in particular promote the use

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of tobacco among the young adults who perceive the actions of those they hold in high esteem as the role models engage in smoking. Direct marketing communication by tobacco companies which combines sponsorship, product placement, brand merchandise packaging and brand stretching across a wide range of channels from event marketing to the internet forms a fundamental integrated marketing mass communication strategy for tobacco companies. The media is also used by the government to communicate policies that are targeted at controlling and regulating the use of tobacco to the public. When the government legislate laws related to tobacco use, the public receives this information through the media. The media is also the platform that the government uses to educate the public regarding the risks associated with the use of tobacco. Media communication hence plays a central role in determining the perception of the public regarding the use of tobacco and the shaping the attitude of the consumer towards the use of tobacco.

BUSINESS AND SOCIETY References Huan, (2010). Should Tobacco Sponsorship of Education be Banned? Beijing Review: 42-43. Jiang, N. (2011). Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101(10): 1942-1954. National Cancer Institute, (2008). The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco

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Use. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Vol. 7(6242): 1-655. Wakefield. M. et al. (2005). Mixed Messages on Tobacco: Comparative Exposure to Public Health, Tobacco Company- and Pharmaceutical Company-Sponsored Tobacco-Related Television Campaigns in the United States, 1999-2003. Addiction, Vol. 100: 1875-1883. WHO, (1999). Tobacco What Government can do Legislate and Educate. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact224.html