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'Fire Fly in the Dark' –

also known as Gord 'Cat in the Hat' Zaretzki!)

Find me @ >


The views expressed herein are not entirely the views of the publisher (the clues
are in the links. The links contain the pieces to the puzzle.)

Fire Fly in the Dark' –

Also known as Gord 'Cat in the Hat' Zaretzki!)
Contact Info: Username: Flyer Fly in the Dark@ (Publishers Network Group) (Global Activism Social Network) (Website)


• ISSUE II: CHEMtrails
• ISSUE IV: PLANET X (And more on what to expect for the year 2012)

Office: My Portable Laptop

Location:The Information Highway





Canadian Corruption - Sexual Abuse & Political

& Legal Conspiracy. RCMP Incompetence &
Cover up. Priors Of Grand Bank NFLD Canada
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 17, 2009 at 1:50am
Government Transparency
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 24, 2009 at 3:32am

What makes You Happy

• Added by David Klamph on March 23, 2009 at 4:48pm

Girl Who Silenced the UN For 5 Minutes

• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 23, 2009 at 3:43pm

Cool music
• Added by David Klamph on March 23, 2009 at 9:54am
The Law of ONE
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 21, 2009 at 2:05am

Senator Amy Klobuchar On A.I.G. Bonuses

• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 23, 2009 at 5:29pm

Pink Floyd - Earth Soldier - World Peace Song

2009 - esoldier HD
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 6, 2009 at 4:05am

Why you should buy physical gold/silver, not

paper ETFs - David Morgan
The Brain on Cocaine

These two images of the brain are positron emission tomography (PET) scans of a normal person
(picture on the left) and of a person on cocaine (picture on the right). The PET scan shows brain
function by seeing how the brain uses glucose, the energy source for neurons. In these scans, the red
color shows high use of glucose, yellow shows medium use and blue shows the least use of glucose.
Notice that many areas of the brain of the cocaine user do not use glucose as effectively as the brain of
the normal person. This can be observed by the lower amounts of red in the right PET scan.

Image courtesy of the National Institute on Drug Abuse; used with permission.
By Gord Zaretzki
Look in! Look out!
Look up and Look down!
...Look all around
At the sights and the sounds!

Can you see? Can you hear?

What seemed far is now near
Take it all in. Give it all back.
Make it without but never lack!

For the image remains and will be retained.

If the will to regain is mutually maintained!
Yes together we can make it!
And we'll never need to fake it!

For we have seen and learned

Though we first crashed and burned
So to once again return to a high from a low
We must be certain just where we will go!

Look in! Look out!
Look up and Look down!
...Look all around
At the sights and the sounds!
Breakdown of what will be discussed in this issue of


First of all I would like to introduce the history of what led up to my choosing to publish an issue of
'Issues' dealing with Cocaine... I know that there are a lot of drugs out there. Some are used
medicinally. Others are used recreationally. Some are helpful for certain aspects of life. Others are
nothing but trouble (with a capital 'T'!) The reason I chose to isolate this particular drug is due to my
particular interest in it. Now my interests differ drastically from the way I used to be interested in
cocaine! In the past I was a slave to this stimulant drug – particularly to it's 'offspring', CRACK. It took
me down a 'rabbit hole' the sorts of which left me floundering for air like a fish out of water, as it were,
when I was done with it (or rather.. as it was done with me!!!). I found myself out of sorts, out of place,
out of my 'time' and out of my mind once it took me, partook of me and then forsook me. Sure, I took it
too and embraced it lovingly as I partook of it emphatically until I finally forsook it back. But before I
could accomplish this I had to tumble down the 'rabbit hole' to near death. In fact I feel that I did die...
literally in the emotional and spiritual sense. Then I nearly physically died when my heart stopped – not
once but twice! In between, for many minutes before and many minutes after, as well, my heart was
barely beating – pumping very weakly for only a few feable beats a minute.....

A friend and fellow confrere from this labyrinthal world of chaos (the life and times of crack
enslavement) approached me while I was still working on finishing up the last issue of 'Issues'
expressing his concern over this epidemic inflicting itself on the town that we both grew up in – as we
so often do. I had not spoken much with this friend, Jimmy, since moving from the town that he still
lives in but I moved from (for the 6th or 7th time!). Since speaking last about this we both had made
more positive progress since those dark and deadly days of addiction to one of the world's most
powerful drugs. Both of us now have a few years clean and healing from the devastating effects of such
a life. In addition to staying away from it we have both tried different ways to spread the message of
why it's so vital to stay away from such a course as well as how to break free should one find one's self
enslaved to the evil world enveloping and permeating cocaine/crack addiciton. Currently Jimmy is
taking steps to get into politics in the local community. In so doing he wishes to raise awareness to
crack, cocaine, it's history, impact and how to break free from it. Our home town has been plagued by
gang activity with it's ensuing crimes and moral breakdowns of family and community. Included
among the crimes and moral breakdowns is the impact of the drug on the people there. I will discuss
these details in the next section though along with it's impact world-wide.

My near death experience I will discuss in this section and my path of addiction with relationship to
this very powerful drug as well as the history of cocaine itself. Some of the history will be revealing as
well as surprising. Included in the discussion will be origins (past and present), methods and avenues of
its circulation world-wide and how it has developed through shape and form into the lives of so many
over the years.

After giving you a rundown of how I was run down by cocaine (particularly CRACK)in the last section
I will share with you generally what happens to one when they so decide to take the 'highway to hell' by
enlisting one's soul in this soul devouring course. I will portray the impact of this drug as I have seen it
and experienced it in my personal life, in my home town, on the streets of the cities I have wandered as
well as what is happening around the world with regards to how this drug is effecting the lives of so
many in a devastating and destructive way.

I will take into account it's effects physically, emotionally and spiritually. I will prove that it is not
something to be taken lightly, that it is far different from cannabis and even more harmful to society
then alcohol even though fewer abuse this drug compared to alcohol. In so doing I will compare it's
effects to those of other popular vices such as alcoholism, addiction to 'softer' drugs (like marijuanna,
hash, hash oil etc), other 'hard' drugs (such as heroin, crystal meth, ecstacy, LSD etc), cigarettes,
pharmaceuticals and gambling. While discussing these other drugs and addictions I will maintain focus
on cocaine and crack cocaine because I believe it to be the most popular of the really harmful drugs –
or at least for the illegal drugs. I still feel that the pharma cartel is part and parcel of the overall
pandemic associated with this disease (of addiction and loss of control of one's own life) being inflicted
on society which I will touch on as well.

In addition to the above mentioned impacts I will also discuss it's effects on the legal system, prison
systems and what is being done/should be done politically and socially. This will then introduce us to
the final section... 'The Way Out!'


In the last two sections you will have seen some disturbing histories, horrors, trends and twists of this
mental, physical, emotional and spiritual disease to individuals and society. Now we will see what is
needed to break free from such a way. We will see how one can find the way out of enslavement to
cocaine, crack or whatever other vice is hindering, controlling or even destroying a person.

Though it may seem hopeless and futile it is not! I was there. Now I am not. So I know it is not
hopeless or futile to try and keep trying!!! to break free. There are many others too who know the way
out – probably some are within your very reach! Even if you or some one you know is stuck in a gang,
prostitution or some other 'institution' of chaos there is always a way out and a friend who will help you
out of such a dark, lonely and evil place. No matter who, what, where or when there is always a way!
This 3rd and final section to 'COCAINE – HISTORY AND IMPACT' will discover the ways and means
to a healthy, happy and hopeful life free from such harmful and life endangering vices as cocaine/crack
addiciton! :D

From Coca-Cola® To Crack. Coca has been used for the elevation of
mood, to stimulate tired workers, and to produce euphoria for thousands of
years in Central and South America. In the mid-nineteenth century the US
and Europe took note of it’s seemingly beneficial properties and began to
extract it’s principal active ingredient and made cocaine available as a
water-soluble powder. It was discovered by physicians that the drug had
potential use as an antidepressant, an asthma remedy and as a local
At the same time, many companies
emerged extolling the virtues of several
new tonics that used cocaine
hydrochloride, the active ingredient in the
coca leaf, as an additive. These patented tonics could be bought
without prescription for the relief of many common ailments,
including, of course, chronic fatigue.
The first recognized authority and advocate for this drug was world famous psychologist, Sigmund
Freud. Early in his career, Freud broadly promoted cocaine as a safe and useful tonic that could cure
depression and sexual impotence. Cocaine got a further boost in acceptability when in 1886 John
Pemberton included cocaine as the main ingredient in his new soft drink, Coca-Cola. It was cocaine's
euphoric and energizing effects on the consumer that was mostly responsible for skyrocketing Coca-
Cola into its place as the most popular soft drink in history.
From the 1850's to the early 1900's, cocaine and
opium laced elixirs, tonics and wines were broadly
used by people of all social classes. This is a fact that
is for the most part hidden in American history. The
truth is that at this time there was a large drug culture
affecting a broad sector of American society. Other
famous people that promoted the "miraculous" effects
of cocaine elixirs were Thomas Edison and actress
Sarah Bernhart. Because there were no restrictions
placed on acquiring these drugs in the early 1900's,
narcotics were an acceptable way of life for a large
number of people, many of whom were people of stature. Cocaine was a main stay in the silent film
industry. The pro-drug messages coming out of Hollywood at this time were receiving international
attention which influenced the attitudes of millions of people about cocaine.
From Coca-Cola® To Crack. At the dawn of the twentieth century however, anti-cocaine legislation
grew considerably. People began to see the rise of violence among abusers of the drug in the lower
socioeconomic stratum and a rise in the awareness of cocaine’s harmful physical effects. The first
Federal Legislation regarding cocaine was with the 1906 Pure Food and therein. And in 1914, US
Congress passed the Harrison Act that imposed taxes on transformed the law to prohibit all recreational
use of cocaine.
As legislation and enforcement thereof stiffened so the general use of the drug
decreased, and by 1930 synthetic stimulants like amphetamine became
available and replaced much of the black market for cocaine. The drug began
to be used almost strictly by artists and entertainers and as an occasional
alternative for heroin addicts. However, in the 1960’s we saw an increase in
the use of all drugs, including cocaine and through the 1970’s and 1980’s
cocaine use increased steadily among the younger populations. And as
medically prescribed amphetamine became less available, and the prices of
other drugs like marijuana increased cocaine enjoyed a steep rise in
By the early 80’s the use of freebase cocaine became popular among those searching for the “highest”
high. Freebase is a form of cocaine produced when the resultant alkaloidal cocaine in a solvent, such as
ether and heating it to evaporate the liquid. The result is pure smokable cocaine.
Although this seemed to be a way of getting the most out of cocaine, users were uncomfortable with
the volatile process of cooking down the solvent mixture. Around 1985 the drug dealers got wise to the
idea of a more potent form of cocaine. The conversion process in freebasing was dangerous and time
consuming and was not suitable for mass production. This was when Crack became the option. In the
conversion process of Crack, the drug is similarly cooked down to a smokeable substance, but the risky
process of removing the impurities and hydrochloric acid is taken out. So all that is required is baking
soda, water and a heat source, often a home oven. As this process allowed a person to essentially get
more bang out of their buck, by delivering the drug more efficiently, we saw cocaine become available
to the lower socioeconomic stratum. This gave rise to the “Crack epidemic” and all classes from low to
high became affected by the scourge of cocaine use spreading across the US.

For More Information on Cocaine, use the links below:

History of Cocaine
Cocaine Timeline
Abuse Info
Cocaine FAQ
Addiction Facts
Drug Addiction
For More Information on Crack and other addictive drugs, use the links below:
Crack FAQ |
Abuse Info |
Addiction Models |
Heroin |
Marijuana |
Meth |
Ecstacy |
Rx Drugs|

The above article along with additional links found at:



History of Cocaine Use

Andean Indians have long chewed leaves of the coca plant to decrease hunger and increase their
stamina for work. Chewing the leaves produces no “high.” Cocaine was first extracted from coca in the
19th cent. and was at first hailed as a miracle drug. By the 1880s in the United States it was freely
prescribed by physicians for such maladies as exhaustion, depression, and morphine addiction and was
available in many patent medicines. After users and physicians began to realize its dangers and various
regulations were enacted, its use decreased, and by the 1920s the epidemic had abated.
Another epidemic began in the United States in the 1970s and peaked in the mid-1980s; again the drug
was at first considered harmless. With the latter epidemic and its accompanying crack epidemic
(beginning in 1985 and peaking in 1988) violence in crack-infested neighborhoods increased
dramatically. Young people with few other opportunities were lured by the power and money of being
crack dealers; most carried guns and many were murdered in drug-gang wars that ensued. By the late
1990s the cocaine and crack epidemic had subsided as heroin regained popularity among illicit drug
The Path of Addiction... (PART I)
Perhaps now is as good a time as any to relate my personal experiences with this drug. Here is my
personal history with cocaine and crack cocaine...

Without going into my childhood psychology and reasons for becoming an addict I will simply
outline the path my addiction took me beginning with just a bit of childhood history (because it
was essentially in my childhood that I began to notice – in hind-sight – that I had addictive

The first time I got drunk I was only 2 years old! Yes. You read right and I didn't make a 'type-
O'. I was only 2 years old! It was 1971. (I guess you can figure out how old I am now! :D) My
parents had friends over and were watching some home movies. (on an old projector... film clips
made from a mini movie cam) They were having some wine to accompany the occasion and
seeing that the lights were out to watch the film my parents nor the guests noticed that I was
making my rounds sneaking sips from everybody's wine glasses! Perhaps they noticed but did not
pay attention to the amount that I was consuming. Needless to say, I drank myself unconscious
and was awoken under the kitchen table by my mom! Everybody just thought of it as some cute
antic by a 2 year old but I guess it triggered a reaction within me that would express itself more
openly in later years.

The next example of not having control over a drug was when I was around 6 or 7 and decided to
co-erce my younger brother and myself into opening up grandma's new carton of cigarettes and
act like some people on TV who we seen smoking – shows the influence of television especially on
young minds! By the time we finished playing our TV role game with the smokes we had inhaled
nearly 4 packs from the carton! I think we were only smoking about half a smoke, if that, at a
time but it was enough to literally turn us green with sickness from it. That incident did not
discourage us from smoking even though we were very ill and received severe punishment from
both our grandparents and then later from our parents! In fact despite a strict religious
upbringing and watchful eyes from my parents I managed to sneak smokes quite often as a
youngster. I did not become hooked severely but when the opportunity arose (whether every few
days or every few months) I grabbed hold of a smoke or a pack of smokes!

By the time I was a teen ager I was sneaking around even more to find smokes and now also the
occasional few beers or bottle of hard liquor. I must remind that I was doing this under 'watchful
eyes' so it took some ingenuity on my part to avoid getting caught! This continued throughout
high school but I could not wait until I was graduated and on my own to do as I wish. So upon
graduation I went out on my own and partied hardy! It was in the last year of high school that I
was introduced to marijuanna and not even a year after graduation that I was into hard drugs.
The first hard drug attempted was not cocaine. It was heroin! I smoked some at a party in my
parent's very home when they were away for a weekend and had entrusted the house to my care!
Naturally they did not trust me since that day!

After 'burning a few bridges' at home and with people in my home town due to my drunken
antics, irresponsibility and untrustworthiness between the drinkin' and the druggin' I left my
home town of 7,000 people and headed for the city! I knew that there I could finally 'get away'
with more and thus avoid watchful eyes that seem to be everywhere in a small town. This is when
I moved to Winnipeg from The Pas, Manitoba to search out the life of 'sex, drugs and rock 'n roll'
in its entirety!

Sure enough I hooked up with a band and became a groupie immediately. Later I even had the
chance to become a member. The life was filled with parties, girls, late nights, fights and
temporary delights galore. It was here that I started dabbling in cocaine. It was the late 80's -
when the attitude was foot-loose and fancy free; Economy was good with jobs a-plenty;
Everybody was having a good time – outwardly anyways. It seemed like there was a party every
night – especially being with, then in, a band that had lots of groupies, pretty girls, drugs and
booze in a seemingly endless amount. I met musicians from all over the city and country. I also
met drug dealers from all over too and those with access to anything you were looking for. I
usually stuck to the pot but I also liked the 'cock-tail' medley of drugs too. I tried everything! I
didn't care usually if it was 'pot', hash, oil, acid, cocaine, heroin, uppers or downers. Of course
there was always a case of beer or bottles of hard liquor to wash the 'cock-tails' back with!

Eventually, though, any goals – whether musically, accademically, socially or otherwise did not
come to any real fruition. I started many endeavours (or at least attempted them) just to let the
booze and drugs take priority over anything or anyone else! This went on to varying degrees over
the years from my teen years into my mid twenties without any dire consequence. Of course my
lowly standards did not allow me to see that I was severely holding myself back from any success
personally, financially, socially or in any other way.

It wasn't until I decided to get married to a fine and beautiful christian girl that I realized that
there can be dire consequences to such a life-style – especially once a child enters the picture! I
continued my addictive patterns and wild ways even after getting married – though at first my
wife had managed to 'tone me down' somewhat for a time anyways. But when my business took
me on the road is when I was once again away from 'watchful eyes' so I took my partying to that
'anything goes' level again. I still was not into crack-cocaine but I was smoking and drinking
heavily, smoking lots of 'weed' and snorting cocaine often. This got so out of hand that I would
start 'thinking with the wrong head' and eventually started to cheat on my wife. This obviously
did not go over well with either my wife or myself – especially when we had just had a baby girl
come into our life!!! But I was so hooked on the drinks and the drugs that I could not stop! No
matter how much I wanted to break free and be with my wife and new-born daughter I simply
couldn't find the way to do it! The longer I was there the more impossible it seemed to be able to
remove myself and walk away from it. So by the time our girl was about 3 or 4 years old I had
been kicked out on numerous occasions by my wife. Each time I would go on a few week binge of
drinking. I promised many times that I would stop and stay home this time to be a good husband
and father. But each time I could not. I was back out there in 'no time' doing what I did best –
screwing everything up with my booze and drugs! :[

Eventually my wife filed for a legal seperation. I did not take this very well at all and so when at
this time I was introduced to crack cocaine I embraced it emphatically! I found it to be the best
escape from the pain of my failed life and marriage/family. I had been drinking non-stop for
about 3 weeks when I was offered some one morning upon waking up from about a 4 hour sleep
after drinking myself unconsious. I could smell it's sweet aroma which awoke me. I was at a point
of deep depression and feeling only doom and gloom with my marriage crumbling away and
feeling helpless to doing anything about it. So when it was offered I could not say 'no'. Once
smoking my first piece I would not look back. From that point on any hope of saving my
marriage and family were definitely beyond hope. I headed for a spiral of destruction imminently
and permanently! Almost immediately I sunk to the lowest of lows and to the most sub- standard
of standards morally, ethically and spiritually. I could not think anymore about my wife or child
as this new drug took precedent over any other aspect of my life. I began taking many risks
sexually and physically as well. I had given up on any hopes of being with my wife again so I
started having sex with many women who were also in the mires of addiction. I began selling
crack to support my own habit and it's ensuing lifestyle of sex, parties and fast living. I found
myself in violent and corrupt places more and more. Any attempts to tell me that I was heading
down a path of destruction were to no avail as I refused to allow anybody who was from my life
previous to crack. Very quickly I sunk ever so deeply into this evil world.

It was not long before I was in an entirely different world to the one I had only left behind me
months before. With this drug it does not take long to 'hit bottom'. If a person can survive for 5
years of heavy crack usage they are merely a ghost compared to the person they used to be. Ten
years is practically unheard of. It is not a slow digression as it is with alcoholics but rather like a
black hole that sucks you in instantly.

Eventually I became suicidal. In fact one December only 4 years ago I attempted suicide twice!
The first attempt 'only' got me tasered, arrested, in jail and then the psych ward. I convince the
doctors that I was better and so when discharged immediately began amassing more pills and
crack for a more certain suicide. So about 2 weeks later I tried again. This time I was sure I had
succeeded. In fact I could feel my spirit leaving my body and the ensuing experience was defiitely
a spiritual one!

(to be continued in part 2!)

Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered, hydrochloride salt form of cocaine
can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is cocaine that has not been neutralized by an
acid to make the hydrochloride salt. This form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be heated and
its vapors smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated.

Regardless of how cocaine is used or how frequently, a user can experience acute cardiovascular or
cerebrovascular emergencies, such as a heart attack or stroke, which could result in sudden death.
Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizure followed by respiratory arrest.

Pure cocaine was first used in the 1880s as a local anesthetic in eye, nose, and throat surgeries because of its ability
provide anesthesia as well as to constrict blood vessels and limit bleeding. Cocaine quickly became a stimulant used
many tonics and elixirs developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses.

All information provided by: National Institution of drug abuse - NIDA

Cocaine is one of the oldest known psychoactive drugs. Coca leaves, the source of cocaine, were used
by the Incas and other inhabitants of the Andean region of South America for thousands of years, both
as a stimulant and to depress appetite and combat apoxia (altitude sickness).
Despite the long history of coca leaf use, it was not until the latter part of the nineteenth century that
the active ingredient of the plant, cocaine hydrochloride, was first extracted from those leaves. The new
drug soon became a common ingredient in patent medicines and other popular products (including the
original formula for Coca-Cola). This widespread use quickly raised concerns about the drug's negative
effects. In the early 1900s, several legislative steps were taken to address those concerns; the Harrison
Act of 1914 banned the use of cocaine and other substances in non-prescription products. In the wake
of those actions, cocaine use declined substantially.
The drug culture of the 1960s sparked renewed interest in cocaine. With the advent of crack in the
1980s, use of the drug had once again become a national problem. Cocaine use declined significantly
during the early 1990s, but it remains a significant problem and is on the increase in certain geographic
areas and among certain age groups.
— Peter Gregutt
TSloppy Tradecraft Exposes CIA Drug

More History (with a warning that the following may present cravings for fellow
addicts... Cautiously read if you wish to)

Coca leaf
For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the coca leaf
(Erythroxylon coca), a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids, including
cocaine. The leaf was, and is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities—ancient
Peruvian mummies have been found with the remains of coca leaves, and pottery from the time period
depicts humans, cheeks bulged with the presence of something on which they are chewing.[6] There is
also evidence that these cultures used a mixture of coca leaves and saliva as an anesthetic for the
performance of trepanation.[7]

The coca plant, Erythroxylon coca.

When the Spaniards conquered South America, they at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave
them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil[citation
needed]. But after discovering that these claims were true, they legalized and taxed the leaf, taking 10%
off the value of each crop[citation needed]. In 1569, Nicolás Monardes described the practice of the
natives of chewing a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves to induce "great contentment":
“ [...when they wished to] make themselves drunk and [...] out of judgment [they chewed a
mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which ...] make them go as they were out of their wittes [...] ”
In 1609, Padre Blas Valera wrote:
“ Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce
the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it
from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much
for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those
who eat it? ”

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries,
the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855 . Many scientists had attempted to
isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was
insufficient at the time, and the cocaine was worsened because coca does not grow in Europe and ruins
easily during travel.
The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in 1855. Gaedcke
named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der
In 1856, Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate
sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from
South America. In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler
passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a Ph.D. student at the University of Göttingen in Germany,
who then developed an improved purification process.[10]
Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue
organische Base in den Cocablättern (On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves), which was
published in 1860—it earned him his Ph.D. and is now in the British Library. He wrote of the alkaloid's
“colourless transparent prisms” and said that, “Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste,
promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to
the tongue.” Niemann named the alkaloid “cocaine”—as with other alkaloids its name carried the
“-ine” suffix (from Latin -ina).[10]
The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter
in 1898.[11] The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps.

With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this
In 1879, Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg, devised an experiment to demonstrate the
analgesic properties of the newly-discovered alkaloid. He prepared two separate jars, one containing a
cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into
the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the
legs in several different ways. The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very
differently than the leg that had been immersed in salt water.[12]
Carl Koller (a close associate of Sigmund Freud, who would write about cocaine later) experimented
with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in 1884, he experimented upon himself
by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins. His findings were
presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in 1884, Jellinek demonstrated the effects
of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic. In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block
anesthesia,[13] and James Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.[14] 1898 saw Heinrich Quincke
use cocaine for spinal anaesthesia.
In 2005, researchers from Kyoto University Hospital proposed the use of cocaine in conjunction with
phenylephrine administered in the form of an eye drop as a diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease.[15]

In 1859, an Italian doctor, Paolo Mantegazza, returned from Peru, where he had witnessed first-hand
the use of coca by the natives. He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he
wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine (at the time
they were assumed to be the same) as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of “a furred tongue in
the morning, flatulence, [and] whitening of the teeth.”

Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hipflask of Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold
medal to Angelo Mariani.
A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza’s paper became immediately intrigued with
coca and its economic potential. In 1863, Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani, which
had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine. The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and
extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink’s effect. It contained 6 mg cocaine per
ounce of wine, but Vin Mariani, which was to be exported, contained 7.2 mg per ounce to compete with
the higher cocaine content of similar drinks in the United States. A “pinch of coca leaves” was included
in John Styth Pemberton's original 1886 recipe for Coca-Cola, though the company began using
decocainized leaves in 1906 when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. The actual amount of
cocaine that Coca-Cola contained during the first twenty years of its production is practically
impossible to determine.
In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use
as a local anaesthetic in Germany in 1884, about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work
Über Coca, in which he wrote that cocaine causes:
“ ...exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the
healthy person...You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity
for work....In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the
influence of any drug....Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue...This
result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about
by alcohol....Absolutely no craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even
after repeated taking of the drug... ”

Cocaine, the fast-acting anesthetic.

In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder,
and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user’s veins with the included
needle. The company promised that its cocaine products would “supply the place of food, make the
coward brave, the silent eloquent and... render the sufferer insensitive to pain.”
By the late Victorian era cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature, for example as the cucaine
injected by Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional Sherlock Holmes.
In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee, cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale
Street, costing five or ten cents for a small boxful. Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug
as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers.[16]
In 1909, Ernest Shackleton took “Forced March” brand cocaine tablets to Antarctica, as did Captain
Scott a year later on his ill-fated journey to the South Pole.[17]

By the turn of the twentieth century, the addictive properties of cocaine had become clear, and the
problem of cocaine abuse began to capture public attention in the United States. The dangers of cocaine
abuse became part of a moral panic that was tied to the dominant racial and social anxieties of the day.
In 1903, the American Journal of Pharmacy stressed that most cocaine abusers were “bohemians,
gamblers, high- and low-class prostitutes, night porters, bell boys, burglars, racketeers, pimps, and
casual laborers.” In 1914, Dr. Christopher Koch of Pennsylvania’s State Pharmacy Board made the
racial innuendo explicit, testifying that, “Most of the attacks upon the white women of the South are the
direct result of a cocaine-crazed Negro brain.” Mass media manufactured an epidemic of cocaine use
among African Americans in the Southern United States to play upon racial prejudices of the era,
though there is little evidence that such an epidemic actually took place. In the same year, the Harrison
Narcotics Tax Act outlawed the sale and distribution of cocaine in the United States. This law
incorrectly referred to cocaine as a narcotic, and the misclassification passed into popular culture. As
stated above, cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic. Although technically illegal for purposes of
distribution and use, the distribution, sale and use of cocaine was still legal for registered companies
and individuals. Because of the misclassification of cocaine as a narcotic, the debate is still open on
whether the government actually enforced these laws strictly. Cocaine was not considered a controlled
substance until 1970, when the United States listed it as such in the Controlled Substances Act. Until
that point, the use of cocaine was open and rarely prosecuted in the US due to the moral and physical
debates commonly discussed.

Modern usage
In many countries, cocaine is a popular . In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine
introduced the substance to a recreational drug generally poorer inner-city market. Use of the powder
form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late 1990s and early
2000s in the U.S., and has become much more popular in the last few years in the UK.
Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic,
social, political, religious, and livelihood.
The estimated U.S. cocaine market exceeded $70 billion in street value for the year 2005, exceeding
revenues by corporations such as Starbucks[18][19]. There is a tremendous demand for cocaine in the
U.S. market, particularly among those who are making incomes affording luxury spending, such as
single adults and professionals with discretionary income. Cocaine’s status as a club drug shows its
immense popularity among the “party crowd”.
In 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice
Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest
global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. However, a decision in the World Health Assembly
banned the publication of the study. In the sixth meeting of the B committee the US representative
threatened that "If WHO activities relating to drugs failed to reinforce proven drug control approaches,
funds for the relevant programs should be curtailed". This led to the decision to discontinue
publication. A part of the study has been recuperated.[20] Available are profiles of cocaine use in 20
A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue (rather
than increase euphoria) by long-term users is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds
used in adulteration. Cutting or "stamping on" the drug is commonplace, using compounds which
simulate ingestion effects, such as Novocain (procaine) producing temporary anaesthaesia as many
users believe a strong numbing effect is the result of strong and/or pure cocaine, ephedrine or similar
stimulants that are to produce an increased heart rate. The normal adulterants for profit are inactive
sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of
purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants. The
adulterant of sugars therefore allows the dealer to sell the product for a higher price because of the
illusion of purity and allows to sell more of the product at that higher price, enabling dealers to make a
lot of revenue with little cost of the adulterants. Cocaine trading carries large penalties in most
jurisdictions, so user deception about purity and consequent high profits for dealers are the norm.

A pile of cocaine hydrochloride

A piece of compressed cocaine powder

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt,
typically cocaine hydrochloride (CAS 53-21-4). Street market cocaine is frequently adulterated or “cut”
with various powdery fillers to increase its weight; the substances most commonly used in this process
are baking soda; sugars, such as lactose, dextrose, inositol, and mannitol; and local anesthetics, such as
lidocaine or benzocaine, which mimic or add to cocaine's numbing effect on mucous membranes.
Cocaine may also be "cut" with other stimulants such as methamphetamine.[21] Adulterated cocaine is
often a white, off-white or pinkish powder.
The color of “crack” cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the
method of preparation – with ammonia or baking soda – and the presence of impurities, but will
generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the
adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. It
ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature.

Forms of cocaine

Cocaine sulfate
Cocaine sulfate is produced by macerating coca leaves along with water that has been acidulated with
sulfuric acid, or an aromatic-based solvent, like kerosene or benzene. This is often accomplished by
placing the ingredients into a vat and stomping on them, in a manner similar to the traditional method
for crushing grapes. A more popular method in modern times is to form a makeshift "vat" by spreading
a heavy nylon tarp on the floor of an enclosed area and shred the leaves with a gas-powered weed
trimmer. This method is fast, and not only shreds the leaves, but results in bruising and fragmenting of
the remaining pieces, aiding the extraction process. After the maceration is completed, the water is
evaporated to yield a pasty mass of impure cocaine sulfate. The sulfate salt itself is an intermediate step
to producing cocaine hydrochloride.

Main article: Freebase (chemistry)

As the name implies, “freebase” is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form of cocaine
hydrochloride. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride is extremely soluble in water, cocaine base is insoluble
in water and is therefore not suitable for drinking, snorting or injecting. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride
is not well-suited for smoking because the temperature at which it vaporizes is very high and close to
the temperature at which it burns; cocaine base vaporizes at a much lower temperature, which makes it
suitable for inhalation.
Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system
due to the pyrolysis of the substance (a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does
not create). Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than
other routes of administration[22] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue[23] and liver
Smoking freebase is a popular route of ingestion because the cocaine is absorbed immediately into
blood via the lungs, reaching the brain in about five seconds. The rush is much more intense than
snorting the same amount of cocaine nasally, but the effects do not last as long. The peak of the
freebase rush is over almost as soon as the user exhales the vapor, but the high typically lasts 5–10
minutes afterward. What makes freebasing particularly dangerous is that users typically do not wait that
long for their next hit and will continue to smoke freebase until none is left. These effects are similar to
those that can be achieved by injecting or “slamming” cocaine hydrochloride, but without the risks
associated with intravenous drug use (though there are other serious risks associated with smoking
Freebase cocaine is produced by first dissolving cocaine hydrochloride in water. Once dissolved in
water, cocaine hydrochloride (Coc-HCl) dissociates into the protonated cocaine ion (Coc-H+) and the
chloride ion (Cl−). Any solids that remain suspended in the solution are impurities from the cut and are
removed by filtration. A base, typically ammonia (NH3), is added to the solution. The following net
acid-base reaction takes place:
Coc-H+ + NH3 → Coc + NH4+
As freebase cocaine (Coc) is insoluble in water, it precipitates and the solution becomes cloudy. To
recover the freebase in the "traditional" manner, diethyl ether is added to the solution. Since freebase is
highly soluble in ether, a vigorous shaking of the mixture results in the freebase being dissolved in the
ether. As ether is practically insoluble in water, it can be siphoned off. The ether is then left to
evaporate, leaving behind the nearly pure freebase.
Handling diethyl ether is dangerous because ether is extremely flammable; its vapors are heavier than
air and can "creep" from an open bottle, and in the presence of oxygen it can form peroxides, which
can spontaneously combust. Comedian Richard Pryor performed a skit poking fun at himself for a 1980
incident in which he caused an explosion and ignited himself attempting to smoke "freebase",
presumably while still wet with ether (though his ex-wife Jennifer Lee Pryor said that he poured high-
proof rum over his body and torched himself in a drug psychosis).

Crack cocaine
Main article: Crack cocaine

In its creation process, due to the dangers of using ether to produce pure freebase cocaine, cocaine
producers began to omit the step of removing the freebase cocaine precipitate from the ammonia
mixture. Typically, filtration processes are also omitted. The end result of this process is that the cut, in
addition to the ammonium salt (NH4Cl), remains in the freebase cocaine after the mixture is
evaporated. The “rock” that is thus formed also contains a small amount of water. Sodium bicarbonate
(baking soda) is also preferred in preparing the freebase, for when commonly "cooked" the ratio is
50/50 to 40/60% cocaine/bicarbonate. This acts as a filler which extends the overall profitability of
illicit sales. Crack cocaine may be reprocessed in small quantities with water (users refer to the
resultant product as "cookback"). This removes the residual bicarbonate, and any adulterants or cuts
that have been used in the previous handling of the cocaine and leaves a relatively pure, anhydrous
cocaine base.
When the rock is heated, this water boils, making a crackling sound (hence the onomatopoeic “crack”).
Baking soda is now most often used as a base rather than ammonia for reasons of lowered stench and
toxicity; however, any weak base can be used to make crack cocaine. Strong bases, such as sodium
hydroxide, tend to hydrolyze some of the cocaine into non-psychoactive ecgonine.

Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance (such as lime) and chewed into a wad that is
retained in the mouth between gum and cheek (much in the same as chewing tobacco is chewed) and
sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by
the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and
consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine.
Advocates of the consumption of the coca leaf state that coca leaf consumption should not be
criminalized as it is not actual cocaine, and consequently it is not properly the illicit drug. Because
cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when
ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance (such as lime) can it be absorbed
into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine
is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries
in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which
the drug can be absorbed. Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects
that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Therefore, this is an actual additional form of
administration of cocaine, albeit an inefficient one.
Orally administered cocaine takes approximately 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Typically, only a
third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled
settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are
attained approximately 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion. While the onset of these
effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approximately 60 minutes after their peak is attained.
Contrary to popular belief, both ingestion and insufflation result in approximately the same proportion
of the drug being absorbed: 30 to 60%. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated
cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Snorting cocaine produces maximum
physiological effects within 40 minutes and maximum psychotropic effects within 20 minutes,
however, a more realistic activation period is closer to 5 to 10 minutes, which is similar to ingestion of
cocaine. Physiological and psychotropic effects from nasally insufflated cocaine are sustained for
approximately 40 - 60 minutes after the peak effects are attained.[25]
Mate de coca or coca-leaf infusion is also a traditional method of consumption and is often
recommended in coca producing countries, like Peru and Bolivia, to ameliorate some symptoms of
altitude sickness. This method of consumption has been practiced for many centuries by the native
tribes of South America. One specific purpose of ancient coca leaf consumption was to increase energy
and reduce fatigue in messengers who made multi-day quests to other settlements.
In 1986 an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed that U.S. health food
stores were selling dried coca leaves to be prepared as an infusion as “Health Inca Tea.”[26] While the
packaging claimed it had been “decocainized,” no such process had actually taken place. The article
stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation, increased heart rate, and mood
elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless. Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in
Hawaii, Chicago, Illinois, Georgia, and several locations on the East Coast of the United States, and the
product was removed from the shelves.

Insufflation (known colloquially as "snorting," "sniffing," or "blowing") is the most common method of
ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine in the Western world. The drug coats and is absorbed
through the mucous membranes lining the sinuses. When insufflating cocaine, absorption through the
nasal membranes is approximately 30–60%, with higher doses leading to increased absorption
efficiency. Any material not directly absorbed through the mucous membranes is collected in mucus
and swallowed (this "drip" is considered pleasant by some and unpleasant by others). In a study[27] of
cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 14.6 minutes. Any damage to
the inside of the nose is because cocaine highly constricts blood vessels – and therefore blood and
oxygen/nutrient flow – to that area.
Prior to insufflation, cocaine powder must be divided into very fine particles. Cocaine of high purity
breaks into fine dust very easily, except when it is moist (not well stored) and forms "chunks," which
reduces the efficiency of nasal absorption.
Rolled up banknotes, hollowed-out pens, cut straws, pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long
fingernails, and (clean) tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. Such devices are often
called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface (such as a mirror, CD
case or book) and divided into "bumps", "lines" or "rails", and then insufflated.[28] As tolerance builds
rapidly in the short-term (hours), many lines are often snorted to produce greater effects.
A study by Bonkovsky and Mehta published in Am Acad Dermatol (2001 Feb;44(2):159-82) reported
that, just like shared needles, the sharing of straws used to "snort" cocaine can spread blood diseases
such as Hepatitis C.[29]
In the United States, as far back as 1992 many of the people sentenced by federal authorities for
charges related to powder cocaine were Hispanic; more Hispanics than White and Black people
received sentences for crimes related to powder cocaine.[30]
Drug injection provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. Subjective
effects not commonly shared with other methods of administration include a ringing in the ears
moments after injection (usually when in excess of 120 milligrams) lasting 2 to 5 minutes including
tinnitus & audio distortion. This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer".[31] In a study[27] of
cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3.1 minutes. The euphoria
passes quickly. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from
the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substances, there is
a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or
An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin, known as “speedball” is a particularly popular and
dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may
also mask the symptoms of an overdose. It has been responsible for numerous deaths, including
celebrities such as John Belushi, Chris Farley, Mitch Hedberg, River Phoenix, and Layne Staley.
Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the
mechanisms of cocaine addiction.[32]

See also: Crack cocaine above.

This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please improve the article by adding references. See the talk page
( details. (November 2007)
Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass
tube, often taken from "Love roses," small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic
gifts. These are sometimes called "stems", "horns", "blasters" and "straight shooters". A small piece of
clean heavy copper or occasionally stainless steel scouring pad– often called a "brillo" (actual Brillo
pads contain soap, and are not used), or "chore", named for Chore Boy brand copper scouring pads,–
serves as a reduction base and flow modulator in which the "rock" can be melted and boiled to vapor.
In a pinch, crack smokers sometimes smoke though a soda can with small holes in the bottom instead
of a crack pipe. Also, the bottoms of small glass liquor bottles can be removed, and the bottles neck can
then be stuffed with chore to use as a makeshift crack pipe.
Crack is smoked by placing it at the end of the pipe; a flame held close to it produces vapor, which is
then inhaled by the smoker. The effects, felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense and do
not last long– usually five to fifteen minutes. In a study[27] performed on crack cocaine users, the
average time taken for them to reach their peak subjective "high" was 1.4 minutes. Most (especially
frequent) users crave more immediately after the peak. "Crack houses" depend on these cravings by
providing a place for smoking crack to its users, and a ready supply of small bags for sale.
When smoked, cocaine is sometimes combined with other drugs, such as cannabis, often rolled into a
joint or blunt. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the
chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on marijuana.
The language referring to paraphernalia and practices of smoking cocaine vary across the United
States, as do the packaging methods in the street level sale.
Coca leaf infusions
Coca herbal infusion (also referred to as Coca tea) is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any
herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried
coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the
governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers. Visitors to the
city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions
(prepared in tea pots with whole coca leaves) purportedly to help the newly-arrived traveler overcome
the malaise of high altitude sickness. The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood
lift. It does not produce any significant numbing of the mouth nor does it give a rush like snorting
cocaine. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven
concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary
alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.
It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial
study, coca leaf infusion was used -in addition to counseling- to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in
Lima, Peru. Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to
one during the treatment. The duration of abstinence increased from an average of 32 days prior to
treatment to 217 days during treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf
infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for
cocaine addiction.[33] Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary
pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary
The cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine can be detected in the urine of people a few hours after
drinking one cup of coca leaf infusion.

Cocaine has been used medically and informally as an oral anesthetic. Many users rub the
powder along the gum line, or onto a cigarette filter which is then smoked (called a "hoolie"),
which numbs the gums and teeth - hence the colloquial names of "numbies", "gummers" or
"cocoa puffs" for this type of administration. This is mostly done with the small amounts of
cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation. Another oral method is to wrap up some
cocaine in rolling paper and swallow it. This is sometimes called a "snow bomb."


Cocaine Addiction Treatment

Cocaine treatment is probably the addiction treatment with the most history...

Health Hazards due to Cocaine use
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that interferes with the re-absorption process of
dopamine, a chemical messenger associated with pleasure and movement. The buildup of dopamine
causes continuous stimulation of receiving neurons, which is associated with the euphoria commonly
reported by cocaine abusers.

Physical effects of cocaine use include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased
temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. The duration of cocaine's immediate euphoric effects,
which include hyperstimulation, reduced fatigue, and mental alertness, depends on the route of
administration. The faster the absorption, the more intense the high. On the other hand, the faster the
absorption, the shorter the duration of action. The high from snorting may last 15 to 30 minutes, while
that from smoking may last 5 to 10 minutes. Increased use can reduce the period of time a user feels
high and increases the risk of addiction.

Effects of Cocaine Use

Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. A tolerance to the high
may develop - many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from
their first exposure. Some users will increase their doses to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects.
While tolerance to the high can occur, users can also become more sensitive to cocaine's anesthetic and
convulsant effects without increasing the dose taken. This increased sensitivity may explain some
deaths occurring after apparently low doses of cocaine.

Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses,
may lead to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia. This can result in a period of
full-blown paranoid psychosis, in which the user loses touch with reality and experiences auditory

Other complications associated with cocaine use include disturbances in heart rhythm and heart attacks,
chest pain and respiratory failure, strokes, seizures and headaches, and gastrointestinal complications
such as abdominal pain and nausea. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease appetite, many chronic
users can become malnourished.

Methods of Administering Cocaine

Different means of taking cocaine can produce different adverse effects. Regularly snorting cocaine, for
example, can lead to loss of the sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and
a chronically runny nose. Ingesting cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene due to reduced blood
flow. People who inject cocaine can experience severe allergic reactions and, as with all injecting drug
users, are at increased risk for contracting HIV and other blood-borne diseases. Snorting is the process
of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the
nasal tissues. Injecting is the use of a needle to release the drug directly into the bloodstream - any
needle use increases a user's risk of contracting HIV and other blood-borne infections. Smoking
involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs, where absorption into the bloodstream is as
rapid as by injection.

Added Danger: Cocaethylene - When people mix cocaine and alcohol consumption, they are
compounding the danger each drug poses and unknowingly forming a complex chemical experiment
within their bodies. National Institute on Drug Abuse funded researchers have found that the human
liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies
cocaine's euphoric effects, while potentially increasing the risk of sudden death.

CIA Torture Jet crashed with 4 Tons of

• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 28, 2009 at 5:37pm

How cocaine affects the brain

Once cocaine reaches the brain, dopamine is released by a neuron into the synapse, where it can bind
with dopamine receptors on neighboring neurons. Normally, dopamine is then recycled back into the
transmitting neuron by a specialized protein called the dopamine transporter. If cocaine is present, it
attaches to the dopamine transporter and blocks the normal recycling process, resulting in a buildup of
dopamine in the synapse, which contributes to the pleasurable effects of cocaine.
A great amount of research has been devoted to understanding the way cocaine produces its pleasurable
effects, and the reasons it is so addictive. One mechanism is through its effects on structures deep in the
brain. Scientists have discovered regions within the brain that are stimulated by rewards. One neural
system that appears to be most affected by cocaine originates in a region located deep within the brain
called the ventral tegmental area (VTA).

Nerve cells originating in the VTA extend to the region of the brain known as the nucleus acumens, one
of the brain’s key areas involved in reward. In studies using animals, for example, all types of
rewarding stimuli, such as food, water, sex, and many drugs of abuse, cause increased activity in the
nucleus acumens. Researchers have discovered when a rewarding event is occurs, it is accompanied by
a large increase in the amounts of dopamine released in the nucleus acumens by neurons originating in
the VTA. In the normal communication process, dopamine is released by a neuron into the synapse (the
small gap between two neurons), where it binds with specialized proteins, called dopamine receptors,
on the neighboring neuron, thereby sending a signal to that neuron. Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine,
are able to interfere with this normal communication process. For example, scientists have discovered
that cocaine blocks the removal of dopamine from the synapse, resulting in an accumulation of
dopamine. This buildup of dopamine causes continuous stimulation of receiving neurons, which is
associated with the euphoria commonly reported by cocaine abusers.

Stroke Related To Cocaine Use

Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders
Faith (the person in the experience below) is 'one in a million' with a similar story who relates!
My Name is Faith.

I love someone who is an addict of crack.

It all started 5 yrs ago. My long time boyfriend and I broke up and I met a guy. I fell in-love with him so fast.
He was tall and seemed so full of himself. He had this air around him that would make people draw close to
him. He told me at first that he use to have a drug and alcohol problem and we would talk for hours about
the mistakes he had made and the job he lost. The house he lost, and the wife that left him. After about 6
wks, he did not come home one night. I found out that he went to go get high. I asked around and found out
where it was and took my butt after him. I dragged him out of there at 6 in the morning. It became a daily
thing. But early on I had gotten it in my head that "I COULD BE THE ONE TO PULL HIM THROUGH!" After 2
1/2 months i found out i was pregnant. I told him and it seemed like it made a change in him. Then one night
he did not come home again. I went to go get him and they told me that he left for Florida. I waited for days
by the phone with my heart falling out of the front of me feeling complete devastation. Then the phone rang
and he said he went to Florida to get himself away from all the people that he knew and he loved me and
that we had a baby on the way and that he wanted me to come there to be with him. A week later I never
heard from him again!

The Path of Addiction... (Part II)

This is what happened while the rest of my world was twisting and fading from view upon
downing over 100 strong anti psychotics and smoking a few grams of crack within about an

I 'felt' nothing. I was drifting in a sense. All I was conscious of was my own true inner self without
my 'world'. I could not think of my life or those in it. I could not even sense one physical element.
I could see nothing but darkness. My body did not exist 'here'. I searched within this void (as I
call it) for 'something' other than the awareness of myself. I found nothing. After some time
though I became aware of 'something' on the horizons of this place. But try as I might I could not
reach those outer limits. Outside the walls of my spiritual void I was aware of other spirits or
'something(s)' or 'personage(s)'. It was almost as if I could hear them. (Perhaps they were the
people surrounding me in the E.R. (?) But at this time I only thought I was dead or dieing so I
believed I was in a zone between life and death).

Time did not seem to be of any relevancy or importance here. It could have been days I was
drifting around or seconds. I really could not tell. However after some 'time' I discovered a small
pinpoint of light. Naturally I focussed in on the light. As I did so I began to go to it or be drawn to
it. When I arrived closer I could see that it was a sphere of sorts covered in mirrors. What light it
was reflecting at this point I could not conceive. I found an opening so in I went...

Within this 'chamber of mirrors' I found my self sourrounded by mirrors! Each one reflected
nothing but myself surrounded in white light. I looked around quickly at first then slowed my
gaze. I then focussed on one of the many mirrors in front of me. As soon as I fixed my gaze on my
face in the mirror I suddenly became pulled 'into' the mirror yet remained looking in. I can't
explain it other than that my face grew bigger as if I were actually walking closer to a mirror and
putting my face up to it.

I could see my face then clearly. This is the first time I could see myself. I looked exactly as I did
at the time – shaved head, trimmed beard. Then I noticed my hair growing and then events
happening behind me (in the mirror) yet in front of my peering 'eyes' or view (before the mirror).
As these events literally raced by so fast I could not keep track I noticed myself in the mirror
getting older! I then perceived that I was looking into my future!

I tried hard to focus on some of the scenes flying by. This was more difficult than I could ever
imagine for I was constantly getting distracted by my own face ever so quickly changing too. My
hair continued to grow. I developed (have developed) a grey streak of hair down the left side of
my head. Anyways I still tried to focus on what was happening so rapidly. I seen people, places,
travels... highways, cities, towns, countrysides, mountains, many rooms and houses, certain ones
repeatedly enough to recall or at least recall when I do see them in my day to day life now (the
people and places) nearly every day or every change in my life at least (now). While I was gazing
at this in awe I noticed how I was really aging and going grey. My hair went from long to short to
long again (back and forth). My beard kept changing too.

I ended up in a big house with a big window upstairs. The last thing I seen was being in this loft
with paintings and old furniture. There was one big window looking out over a big beautiful yard
and garden surrounded by trees. I do not recall very many people with me up in this room. Of
those that came and went perhaps I will recognize them as I and they get older. I know a woman
with long dark hair was important to me. (So perhaps I will remarry)

Within this room I found myself busy on a computer suspended from the ceiling as if just floating
there. It was completely clear with no keyboard. The screen contained all the commands to
operate the computer by touch. On the screen were many symbols or icons depicting various
programs, e-books, documents and research. Some of the work was originally published work of
my own but most was others' works saved for 'evidence' and/or information. It was either the
computer or the window my focus was put upon within this room. The last thing I was doing was
looking out that big window (about 6 feet wide by 7 or 8 feet high). I was quite old at this point –
at least 80 – but still walking with relative ease. The view was always breath-taking and was my
way to find peace and tranquility when I was too wrapped up on the computer. As I looked out on
the garden and the forest surrounding the huge yard, then to the sky and horizon, I noticed what
I thought at first was the rising or setting sun. Suddenly it became a bright flash!

And then nothing...


Then silence... And in a flash I was back in the chamber of mirrors looking around at my many
repeated reflections again.

I tried to find that one mirror again that I was in last but could not find it so I looked at another
in the same vicinity of the first. Upon focussing on one mirror I could not look around any more.
Once again I was 'sucked in' to this mirror that I fixed my focus on. Here too I was back where I
was the first time – just the way I was at the time this all happened - with shaved head and
trimmed beard, young again.
Again the events behind/in front of me whizzed by very quickly and my face changed as I was
growing older into the future. My face was different though. The events around me were different
too this time. They did not last as long either... But the events were far more dramatic and
noticable – at least parts of them. I recall many more travels, overseas, mountains many times,
many cities. I remember watching cities grow and change very quickly and lots of people –
important people with power and money. I was a part of that but it was all crooked. I even
remember being at the white house in Washington D.C. 2 or 3 times! Money, big time drug
dealing and money laundering were among the hi-lites this time. Fast pace, big adventure and
risk, high times, tough, scary times, fun mixed with fear, and trauma at times too.

This fork in the road of my life (the choice of choices within each choice – hence the meaning of
the mirrors – so I figured out after)... This road did not last for many years as my face was still
fairly young with only a little grey in my hair.

In one scene I found myself walking in the downtown of some city in a familiar neighbourhood. I
think it might have been either Hong Kong or Vancouver. There were the passenger rail cars
going overhead as I had seen 'before' (in this mirror-vision 'moments' earlier) with the hustle of
the downtown below. This particular spot was in a rundown 'slum' part of the city where the old
ground-level rail yard used to be. It was merely a salvage yard and compound for freight and
passenger cars, engines, parts, metal... It seemed to be a meeting place of sorts for 'business
deals'. I recall seeing people and places overlap at times so there seemed to be people but there
most likely weren't actually – besides me and some other guy making a deal.

This time however the guy was concealing a knife with a long, sharp blade which he removed
craftily as I was near to him to do the discreet exchange of drugs for cash. Instead of receiving the
expected package I was greeted with a sharp blade piercing through my abdomen and so I died. I
could not have even been 50 years of age in this scene.

Then there was nothing again for a shorter time now. After this I begin to remember my previous
life (current life – from birth to a few years ago when this happened) along with the memories
attached to it but not very much of it still. I feel very 'twisted' and confused at this point, lost,
scared, angry, emotional and demented...

Apparently I was still alive in this world or life (obvious now!) and continued in and out of a
coma for several days – 10 perhaps 20? I had partial amnesia when I 'came to' again enough for
my cognitive mind to recall at this time. Periods of 'consciousness' I was unaware even happened.
Some of which I am probably glad I do not recall because I returned somehow with some evil
spirit as well (probably through journeying into the last peek at one of my possible futures). In
the last path of life I lived a very criminal, sinfully crafty and evil life really. So it is not surprising
that I returned with a 'companion' from the elements of the evil I was engaging in down this last
path. I do not believe it came from my first choice path of life – as this course was more peaceful
and seemd like the 'right way'. Besides it was the first choice. This was the last thing that

I see what happened now as a vision – a vision intended for me to see in order to find out what
matters most! To me what matters most is actually each and every moment in the current frame
of time for I do not know at which moment I will make a decision that could totally change the
direction or focus of my life – positively or negatively! Therefore now I try not to be rash about
anything. I try not to get overly excited either about what happens or is offered. This is why I
research so much now in order to find out the important things that concern each and everyone
of us as physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual beings!

I do not want to make a major choice that could jeopordise everything I have accounted for in
regards to healthy growth since that time. Since then I battled to get off of crack cocaine and
booze. No, I could not quit miraculously even after an experience like that though I was
convinced about a month or so after (when I had my mental faculties together somewhat) that I
could not possibly do hard drugs ever again. My mistake in thinking was that I neglected to
realize the need to stay away from other negative triggers that push me in that direction – like
booze and promiscuous women who also lead a life of debauchery. Once I did that I succeeded
and it will be 3 years clean for me off of crack cocaine on 4/20 (April 20th)! I call it 4/20 because it
was on a provincial (later to be national) 'hippy' annular holiday where we camp out on the
grounds of our parliament buildings for the day and smoke marijuanna – which is proven to be
an effective means of getting and staying off of crack cocaine for many! I finished my last session
with crack just before dawn of that day 3 years ago. By noon or shortly thereafter I was with my
former 'hippy' type friends joining in celebrating nature, peace and love! :D

Since that day I only smoked the herb – no hard drugs! This gives testimony to myself that this
method works very similar to the methadone program to break free from heroin addiction.
(Although, now, I have not smoked anything since January of this year. I have even quit
cigarettes!) I did not totally quit drinking at first but never got drunk so that I did not know what
I was doing. I did gradually just became sick of drinking though and gave up totally on this drug
as well – seeing how it made people idiots when intoxicated on this stupefying liquid! I don't hate
booze like I hate crack now but it is still repulsive to me because it makes people vulnerable and
sometimes stupid so that some will attempt foolish and dangerous things like smoking crack
cocaine or some other hard and destructive drug.

Well that is basically what happened. I will leave it at that for you to ask questions and I can fill
you in on more as I can remember about that time as well as how it has changed me. One more
point to add though: I found out afterwards from my mental health worker at the time that the
doctors and nurses did not want to tell me, but my heart had stopped twice! Once for close to a
minute; the second time for about 25 to 30 seconds. In between my pulse was only 5 to 10 beats a
minute with a very weak blood pressure. This explains why I left the 'chamber of mirrors ' to re-
appear after a 'flash'! In between the health professionals had managed to bring me back for a
short time before I 'wandered off again for another look' at what lies beyond this world!

Please feel free to ask me more about this experience as space and the topic does not allow me to
fully tell all the details here.

Now back to some more educational and statistical data...

Cocaine – Passively Reviewed...
Medical Encyclopedia: Cocaine
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Cocaine is a highly addictive central nervous system stimulant extracted from the leaves of the coca
plant, Erythroxylon coca.
In its most common form, cocaine is a whitish crystalline powder that produces feelings of euphoria
when ingested.
Now classified as a Schedule II drug, cocaine has legitimate medical uses as well as a long history of
recreational abuse. Administered by a licensed physician, the drug can be used as a local anesthetic for
certain eye and ear problems and in some kinds of surgery.
Forms of the drug
In powder form, cocaine is known by such street names as "coke," "blow," "C," "flake," "snow" and
"toot." It is most commonly inhaled or "snorted." It may also be dissolved in water and injected.
Crack is a smokable form of cocaine that produces an immediate and more intense high. It comes in
off-white chunks or chips called "rocks." Little crumbs of crack are sometimes called "kibbles & bits."
In addition to their stand-alone use, both cocaine and crack are often mixed with other substances.
Cocaine may be mixed with methcathinone (a more recent drug of abuse, known as "cat," that is similar
to methamphetamine) to create a "wildcat." A hollowed-out cigar filled with a mixture of crack and
marijuana is known as a "woolah." And either cocaine or crack used in conjunction with heroin is
called a "speedball." Cocaine used together with alcohol represents the most common fatal two-drug

Related Video: cocaine

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Dictionary: co·caine (kō-kān', kō'kān')
A colorless or white crystalline alkaloid, C17H21NO4, extracted from coca leaves, sometimes used in
medicine as a local anesthetic especially for the eyes, nose, or throat and widely used as an illicit drug
for its euphoric and stimulating effects.
[French cocaïne, from coca, coca, from Spanish. See coca. (]

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Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Cocaine

The principal alkaloid of coca leaves, a topical anesthetic and stimulant, and popular illicit drug. In
1884 C. Koller demonstrated cocaine's efficacy as an anesthetic in eye surgery, introducing the age of
local anesthesia. For the next decade cocaine enjoyed the status of a wonder drug and panacea. It fell
into disfavor with increasing reports of acute toxicity and long-term dependence. Today it is used as a
topical anesthetic in the eye, nose, mouth, and throat; for injection anesthesia it has been replaced by
synthetic drugs with fewer central nervous system effects. See also Coca.
Cocaine increases heart rate and blood pressure and causes feelings of alertness and euphoria. It does
not produce physical dependence, as alcohol and opiates do, but many people find it hard to use in a
stable and moderate fashion if they have access to it in quantity. Although it is quite active orally, most
users of illicit cocaine take it intranasally by snuffing; few inject it intravenously. Aside from local
irritation of the nasal membranes, moderate users suffer few adverse effects. The soluble hydrochloride
salt is the common form. Insoluble cocaine free base may be smoked, a practice that may be more
harmful. See also Alkaloid.
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An addictive drug that acts as a powerful stimulant on the central nervous system. Cocaine is an
alkaloid derived from the leaves of the coca plant, Erythroxylon coca, which grows in the Andes.
Because of the dangers inherent in administering the drug, there are no controlled experiments of
cocaine's effects on athletic performance. Nevertheless, some athletes do take cocaine in the belief that
it enhances performance. The drug makes them feel more euphoric, more alert, and physically less
tired. Although speed of reflexes may be increased, cocaine abuse disturbs muscular coordination and
distorts the athlete's perception of his or her ability. Other more serious side-effects include
irregularities of heartbeat, high blood pressure, blockage of the coronary arteries, and mental seizures.
Cocaine abuse is potentially fatal and is believed to have contributed to the deaths of several prominent
American athletes, including the basketball star Len Bias and professional footballer Don Rogers in
1986, and the footballer Dave Waymer in 1993.

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Drug Info: Cocaine

Chemical formula:

Drug Forms:
• Cocaine topical solution or spray (below)
• Cocaine Hydrochloride Topical solution
• Solución o aerosol tópico de cocaína
• Clorhidrato de cocaína, Solución tópica

Cocaine topical solution or spray

What is cocaine topical solution or spray?
COCAINE is a local anesthetic that causes loss of feeling when applied as a solution or spray to areas
inside the mouth or nose. Cocaine also constricts blood vessels, which reduces swelling and bleeding in
the area. The effects of cocaine begin within 1 minute and last for about 30 minutes. Cocaine has a high
abuse potential and is classified as a schedule II controlled substance. Federal law prohibits the transfer
of this medication to any person other than the patient for whom it was prescribed It is banned and
tested for use in athletes by the International Olympic Committee. Generic cocaine topical solution is
What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?
They need to know if you have any of the following conditions:
• blood vessel disease
• heart disease or irregular heart beat
• infection
• liver disease
• seizures
• thyroid problems
• Tourette's syndrome
• an unusual or allergic reaction to cocaine, other medicines, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), foods,
dyes, or preservatives
• pregnant or trying to get pregnant
• breast-feeding.
How should I use this medicine?
Cocaine solution or spray is only for application in the mouth or nasal cavity. It is applied by a trained
health-care professional before surgery or diagnostic procedures. It is only for use in a hospital or clinic
Contact your pediatrician or health care professional regarding the use of this medicine in children.
Special care may be needed.
What if I miss a dose?
This does not apply.
What drug(s) may interact with cocaine?
• bromocriptine
• cyclophosphamide
• disulfiram
• dobutamine
• dopamine
• ephedra, ma huang (found in herbal or dietary supplements)
• ephedrine
• epinephrine
• furazolidone
• levodopa
• linezolid
• medicines for chest pain
• medicines for colds and breathing difficulties
• medicines for depression, especially drugs known as MAOIs (examples: isocarboxazid, phenelzine,
• medicines for heart disease or high blood pressure
• medicines that improve muscle strength or tone, for conditions like myasthenia gravis
• methyldopa
• pimozide
• procarbazine
• selegiline
• sulfa drugs (examples: sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine)
• thyroid hormones, such as levothyroxine
• tramadol
Tell your prescriber or health care professional about all other medicines you are taking, including non-
prescription medicines, nutritional supplements, or herbal products. Also tell your prescriber or health
care professional if you are a frequent user of drinks with caffeine or alcohol, if you smoke, or if you
use illegal drugs. These may affect the way your medicine works. Check with your health care
professional before stopping or starting any of your medicines.
What do I need to watch for after I use cocaine?
Let your prescriber or health care professional know if the feeling of numbness that cocaine causes
does not wear off within a few hours, or if you find it hard to open your mouth.
After application of cocaine the area will be numb for some time and you will not be aware of pain. Try
to avoid injury to the area. If cocaine was applied in your mouth, do not chew gum or food until the
numbness wears off. You could bite your tongue or the inside of your cheeks.
Cocaine can affect the safety of many anesthesia medications and increases the risk of dangerous
increases in body temperature during or after surgery. Tell your prescriber or health care professional if
you have recently used cocaine before having surgery.
Do not get this cocaine solution in the eye.
NOTE: If you are scheduled for routine blood or urine testing for possible drug abuse, cocaine will be
present in the blood and urine for several days after use.
Repeated use of cocaine in the nose can cause tissue damage and, ultimately, perforation of the nasal
septum (eating away of the tissue that separates the nostrils).
What side effects may I notice from using cocaine?
Side effects that you should report to your prescriber or health care professional as soon as possible:
• agitation, excitability, irritability, nervousness, or restlessness
• confusion or hallucinations (seeing and hearing things that are not really there)
• difficulty passing urine or urinary incontinence
• dilated (enlarged) pupils
• dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting spells
• fast or irregular heartbeat
• headache
• increased sweating
• mood swings or other mental changes
• nasal pain (when used in the nose)
• nausea, vomiting
• nervous tics or rapid speech
• numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or arms
• seizures (convulsions)
• stomach pain
• tremor
• troubled breathing (hyperventilation)
• unusual muscle weakness
Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your prescriber or health care
professional if they continue or are bothersome):
• loss of taste or sense of smell
• sneezing, sniffling, or stuffy nose (when used in the nose)

Where can I keep my medicine?

This medication will only be given in a hospital or clinic. You will not keep this medicine at home.
Last updated: 7/1/2002
Important Disclaimer: The drug information provided here is for educational purposes only. It is intended to supplement,
not substitute for, the diagnosis, treatment and advice of a medical professional. This drug information does not cover all
possible uses, precautions, side effects and interactions. It should not be construed to indicate that this or any drug is safe for
you. Consult your medical professional for guidance before using any prescription or over the counter drugs.
(By the way, I did not really want to paste the above part to this article but the disclaimer makes
clear that it in NOT intended for recreational use. In certain cases it may be prescibed. However I do
not advocate the pharma cartel over the street drug cartel. I will go into further details about the
pharma cartel later in this issue. For an in depth look at pharmaceuticals please refer yourself to the
February issue of 'Issues' -

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Encyclopedia of Public Health: Cocaine and Crack Cocaine

Cocaine, extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca), is the most potent naturally
occurring central nervous system stimulant. Cocaine is classified as a Schedule II drug due to its high
potential for abuse (U.S. Controlled Substance Act 21 U.S.C., Section 802 [1996]), but it can be
administered by a doctor for legitimate medical reasons, such as a local anesthetic for some eye, ear,
and throat surgeries. There are two primary forms of chemical cocaine: the hydrochloride salt form, a
powdered form of cocaine that is approximately 99 percent pure cocaine, and the "freebase" form.
Hydrochloride salt dissolves in water and can be taken intravenously or intranasally. The freebase form
of cocaine has not been neutralized by an acid to make a hydrochloride salt and can be smoked. It is
processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water, and heated to remove the
Crack cocaine, or simply "crack," is essentially the same end product as freebase cocaine, but the result
of a cheaper and safer chemical method of preparing a smokable form of cocaine. The term "crack"
refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is heated or smoked.
Distribution and Effects
Illicit cocaine is generally distributed on the street as a fine, white, crystalline powder or as an off-white
chunky material. Street dealers most often dilute it with inert substances such as sugar, cornstarch,
and/or talcum powder; or with other active drugs, including local anesthetics such as lidocaine or
procaine, or other stimulants such as amphetamines. The primary routes of cocaine administration are
oral, intranasal, intravenous, and inhalation. However, there is no safe way to use cocaine, and any
route of administration can lead to absorption of toxic amounts of cocaine, resulting in acute
cardiovascular or cerebrovascular emergencies that sometimes result in death. Cocaine-related
deaths are commonly the result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.
Small amounts of cocaine may make the user feel euphoric, energetic, talkative, and mentally alert,
especially to sensations of sight, sound, and touch. The duration of these effects depends upon the route
of administration. The faster the absorption, the more intense the high—but the shorter the duration of
action. Short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and
increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. Longer-term effects of cocaine use include
tolerance and addiction, irritability and mood disorders, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory
hallucinations. The most frequent medical consequences of cocaine use are cardiovascular effects,
including disturbed heart rhythms and heart attacks; respiratory effects, including chest pain and
respiratory failures; neurological effects, such as strokes, seizures, and headaches; and gastrointestinal
complications, including abdominal pain and nausea.
The combination of cocaine and alcohol is especially potent and dangerous. When taken in
combination, the body converts the two into cocaethylene, which has a longer duration of action in the
brain and is more toxic than either drug alone. The combination of alcohol and cocaine is the most
common two-drug combination that results in drug-related deaths.
Cocaine Use
The United States witnessed a dramatic increase in cocaine use during the 1980s when, due to its high
cost, it was glamorized as a symbol of status and material success by celebrities, the entertainment
industry, and the media. The problem was further complicated when crack cocaine was introduced in
1985. A smokable and cheaper form of the drug, crack extended the problems of cocaine dependence to
urban ghettos and to members of society who might not have been able to afford cocaine itself. Cocaine
use in the United States peaked between 1982 and 1985, at which time between 5.7 and 10.4 million
Americans (3 to 5.6 percent of the population) reported cocaine use. Since then, it has decreased, but
remains a significant problem. According to the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
(NHSDA), there were 14.8 million illicit drug users in the United States in 1998. Of these 14.8 million,
approximately 1.5 million people were using cocaine (0.7 percent of the household population over
twelve years of age), and 413,000 people were using crack. According to the Office of National Drug
Control Policy, by including data from additional sources that take into account users underrepresented
by the NHSDA, the number of chronic cocaine users has recently been estimated at 3.6 million. The
annual number of new users of any form of cocaine increased from 1994 to 1998, and data from both
the NHSDA and the 1999 Monitoring the Future survey indicated increases in the rate of cocaine
initiation among youths ages twelve to seventeen in particular.
Information about cocaine use outside the United States is less readily available, although the United
Nations Drug Control Program estimates that approximately 13 million people worldwide abuse
cocaine. Abuse remains highest in the United States, despite declines since the mid-1980s peak and
increased levels of both cocaine and "bazuco" (coca paste) abuse in Latin American countries.
Cocaine, along with other coca-derived substances, is the second most widely abused illicit drug in the
Americas, and accounts for a majority of the demand for treatment. Data from the Report of the
International Narcotics Control Board for 1999 showed increased cocaine seizures in Europe, largely in
Spain and the Netherlands. While an upward trend is apparent across nearly all of Europe, it is
especially pronounced in Spain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
Cocaine Production
Columbia, Peru, and Bolivia are the first, second, and third largest illicit coca producing countries in
the world, respectively. The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention estimates
that they collectively account for more than 90 percent of illicit coca. Interpol data suggests there was
an increase in coca production in 1999, despite increased efforts of national drug services to break
down and disable drug trafficking organizations. Interpol statistics indicate that nearly 50 percent of
the cocaine seized in 1999 occurred in Central and South America and the Caribbean, approximately
40 percent in North America, and the remaining 10 percent in Europe.
Cocaine Control Programs
The primary strategy for controlling the cocaine problem is a global effort to reduce the illicit drug
supply, and thereby illicit drug demand, including cocaine. Coordinated by the United Nations Office
for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, the three components of the drug supply strategy include law
enforcement, alternative development, and crop monitoring. Regional and national law enforcement
agencies each have their own legislative, administrative, and social measures to address illicit drug
production, possession, and distribution. International organizations such as the UN and Interpol unify
these national efforts to address the global issues of drug demand and supply.
Another tactic aimed at reducing drug supply is alternative development. As defined by the United
Nations Drug Control Program, alternative development is "a process to prevent and eliminate the
illicit cultivation of plants containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances through specifically
designed rural development measures in the context of sustained national economic growth and
sustainable development efforts in countries taking action against drugs, recognizing the particular
sociocultural characteristics of the target communities and groups, within the framework of a
comprehensive and permanent solution to the problem of illicit drugs" (UN 1998). These programs
focus on local knowledge, skills, interests, and needs to replace drug-crop cultivation with licit,
sustainable, and profitable crops, offering farmers and communities an alternative means of survival.
The third component of the UN strategy is a global monitoring program of illicit crops. This program
combines aerial surveillance, on-the-ground assessment, and satellite sensing, enabling governments to
better target and assess the impact of programs directed at crop reduction, and provide feedback to the
international community. The objective of the program is to apply the feedback internationally in order
to gain insight and develop new strategies on how to curb the flow of drugs from region to region.
(SEE ALSO: Addiction and Habituation (; Substance Abuse,
Definition of

Levinthal, C. F. (1999). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (1999). Cocaine Abuse
and Addiction. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
—— (2000). Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use, 1999. Bethesda, MD:
National Institute on Drug Abuse.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration (2000). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Bethesda, MD: Office of Applied
U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (2001). Cocaine. Available at
United Nations (1998). Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly: An Action Plan Against Illicit
Manufacture, Trafficking and Abuse of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Their Precursors. Available
United Nations Publications, Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (1999). Report of the
International Narcotics Control Board for 1999. Vienna, Austria: International Narcotics Control
—— (2001). Who Is Using Drugs? Available at

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: cocaine

Heterocyclic compound (C17H21NO4), an alkaloid obtained from coca leaves. It has legal uses in
medicine and dentistry as a local anesthetic but far more is used illegally, usually as the hydrochloride.
When sniffed in small amounts, cocaine produces feelings of well-being and euphoria, decreased
appetite, relief from fatigue, and increased mental alertness. Larger amounts or prolonged use can
damage the heart and nasal structures and cause seizures. In altered, more potent, cheaper forms
(freebase, crack), cocaine is injected or smoked and is extremely addictive (see drug addiction) and
detrimental to health. Prolonged or compulsive use of any form of purified cocaine can cause severe
personality disturbances, inability to sleep, appetite loss, and paranoid psychosis.
For more information on cocaine, visit
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Sports Science and Medicine: cocaine

A highly addictive drug that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. It is on the World Anti-Doping
Agency's 2005 Prohibited List. Cocaine is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of the coca plant,
Erythroxylon coca, which grows in the Andes. Most athletes who have been tested positive for cocaine
abuse, took it for recreational use, but some took it as an ergogenic aid. Users report that it increases
alertness, and causes feelings of euphoria and increased mental power. Scientific studies of the effects
of cocaine on human performance are rare because of ethical considerations and the results have been
contradictory. However, studies of its effects on animals indicate that, although cocaine has mood-
enhancing properties, it probably has performance-inhibiting effects, at least for endurance activities.
Harmful side-effects include serious cardiovascular problems, such as arrhythmia, tachycardia, and
hypertension. Cocaine abuse has been linked to the deaths of several athletes, including, in 2004, that
of Marco Patani, the last cyclist to have won the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia in the same year

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Columbia Encyclopedia: cocaine

cocaine (kōkān', kō'kān) , alkaloid drug derived from the leaves of the coca shrub. A commonly abused
illegal drug, cocaine has limited medical uses, most often in surgical applications that take advantage of
the fact that, in addition to its anesthetic effect, it constricts small arteries, lessening bleeding. There are
many street names for cocaine, including coke, C, toot, flake, and snow.
Effects and Addictive Nature
Cocaine blocks pain sensation and stimulates the central nervous system, producing a sudden increase
in heart rate, temperature, and blood pressure. In the brain, it blocks the synaptic reabsorption of certain
neurotransmitters (in particular dopamine). The resultant buildup of neurotransmitters causes
pleasurable sensations to be passed along the neural pathways over and over again, creating a feeling of
profound well-being, self-confidence, and alertness. It is accompanied by lack of hunger. The effect
lasts for 10 to 30 minutes, and the user begins to crave more immediately as the neurotransmitter
supply is exhausted. This pattern has led to cocaine's being described as “neuropsychologically
addicting” in recognition that traditional definitions of physical vs. psychological addiction do not
neatly fit in this case. Most cocaine addicts in treatment report some control over their use for the first
two to four years, giving them the illusion that addiction will not develop.
Addiction is characterized by binges (usually of 4 to 24 hours, one to seven times per week), movement
to intravenous use or smoking, extreme euphoria, and disregard for anything other than the drug,
including food, sleep, sex, family, and survival. The behavior is limited only by the high cost of the
drug and its limited availability. Abstinence after a cocaine binge leads to crashing (anxiety,
depression, suspiciousness, sleep craving) and withdrawal (absence of pleasure in all things, lack of
motivation, and boredom). Many users take other drugs (alcohol, marijuana, heroin) to attenuate these
effects. A dangerous combination of cocaine and heroin, known as a “speedball,” is used by some.
Withdrawal usually results in further use, often spurred by a conditioned cue such as a specific smell or
location linked with cocaine use. If the drug is not taken again there is a gradual lessening of the
craving, although conditioned cues may exert an effect years afterward. Long-term use can result in
digestive disorders, weight loss, general physical deterioration, and marked deterioration of the
nervous system. Most drug-related emergency room visits are cocaine-related.
Modes of Administration; “Crack” Cocaine
Cocaine is either snorted (sniffed), swallowed, injected, or smoked. Habitual snorting can result in
serious damage to the nasal mucous membranes; shared needles put the user at increased risk of HIV
infection. The street drug comes in the form of a white powder, cocaine hydrochloride. The
hydrochloride salt and the cutting agents are removed to create the pure base product “freebase.”
Freebase is smoked and reaches the brain in seconds. “Crack” cocaine, also called “rock,” is a form of
freebase that comes in small lumps and makes a crackling sound when heated. It is relatively
inexpensive, but must be repeated often.
Crack cocaine magnifies the effects of cocaine and is considered to be more highly and more quickly
addictive than snorted cocaine. It causes a very abrupt increase in heart rate and blood pressure that can
lead to heart attack and stroke even in young people with no history of vascular disease, sometimes the
first time the drug is used. It also crosses the placental barrier; babies born to crack-addicted mothers
go through withdrawal and are at a higher risk of stroke, cerebral palsy, and other birth defects.
Treatment focuses on disruption of the addict's pattern of binges, followed by prevention of relapses.
Counseling combined with treatments such as acupuncture and administration of antidepressants (e.g.,
desipramine) has met with some success. Treatment is often complicated by underlying social
problems, mental illness, and the use of multiple drugs.
Production and Distribution
Most coca is grown in Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. The farmers, for whom it is a relatively well-
paying crop, harvest and dry the leaves, which are then processed into coca paste. Cocaine base is
extracted from the paste in informal laboratories, usually in Peru or Bolivia. Further processing
continues in Colombia, where the white powder, cocaine hydrochloride, is produced for export. Once
in the United States, the cocaine is cut (diluted) with ingredients such as lactose, and sold or further
processed into crack.
Import and production have been controlled by enormously powerful cartels such as the Medellín and
Cali cartels in Colombia; the highly armed cartels have infiltrated governments and corrupted officials
and have been held responsible for assassinations of public officials. Drug trafficking reached the
highest levels of government and was at least in part responsible for the U.S. invasion of Panama in
1989 and the arrest and subsequent conviction of Panama's de facto leader, Manuel Noriega.
See publications of the Drugs & Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, the Bureau of Justice Statistics
Clearinghouse, and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.
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Health Dictionary: cocaine

A drug derived from the leaves of a shrub in South America that has an intoxicating effect on the body
and can result in dependency if frequently used. Cocaine is used medically as a local anesthetic.
• Cocaine use constitutes a major drug problem in the United States.

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Veterinary Dictionary: cocaine

An alkaloid obtained from the leaves of various species of Erythroxylon (coca plants) or produced
synthetically; used as an indirect-acting sympathomimetic and as a short-acting topical anesthetic for
surgery of mucous membranes. Called also coca. Almost entirely replaced by synthetic analgesics
because of the problems that arise through human addiction to cocaine. It is a controlled substance of
the highest priority in most countries.

IN BRIEF: A bitter habit forming drug made from leaves of a certain plant.

Cocaine is an addictive illegal drug.

Wikipedia: Cocaine
Cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a crystalline tropane
alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca
plant.[5] The name comes from "coca" in addition to the
alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is both a stimulant
of the central nervous system and an appetite suppressant.
Specifically, it is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, a
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and a serotonin reuptake
inhibitor which mediates functionality of such as an
exogenous DAT ligand. Because of the way it affects the
mesolimbic reward pathway, cocaine is addictive.
Nevertheless, cocaine is used in medicine as a topical
anesthetic, even in children, specifically in eye, nose and
throat surgery.
Its possession, cultivation, and distribution are illegal for
non-medicinal and non-government sanctioned purposes in Systematic (IUPAC) name
methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3- (benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-
virtually all parts of the world. Although its free azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate
commercialization is illegal and has been severely
penalized in virtually all countries, its use worldwide
remains widespread in many social, cultural, and personal CAS number 50-36-2
settings. N01BC01 R02AD03,
ATC code
S01HA01, S02DA02
High PubChem 5760
Topical, Oral, DrugBank APRD00080
Routes ChemSpider 5557
Insufflation, IV, PO
Chemical data
Formula C17H21NO4
Mol. mass 303.353 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Physical data
Melt. point 195 °C (383 °F)
Solubility in
1800 mg/mL (20 °C)
Pharmacokinetic data
Oral: 33%[1]
Insufflated: 60[2]–80%[3]
Nasal Spray: 25[4]–
Metabolism Hepatic CYP3A4
Half life 1 hour
Renal (benzoylecgonine
and ecgonine methyl ester)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.
Controlled (S8)(AU)
Schedule I(CA) Class
Legal status
Physical mechanisms

The difference between cocaine & amphetamine with regard to DAT1 receptor reuptake blocking.
Cocaine binds directly to the DAT1 transporter, whereas amphetamines phosphorylate and invert the
transporter causing it to internalize.
The pharmacodynamics of cocaine involve the complex relationships of neurotransmitters (inhibiting
monoamine uptake in rats with ratios of about: serotonin:dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine =
2:5[34]) The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade
of the dopamine transporter protein. Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally
recycled via the transporter; i.e., the transporter binds the transmitter and pumps it out of the synaptic
cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, where it is taken up into storage vesicles. Cocaine binds tightly
at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function. The dopamine
transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic
cleft. This results in an enhanced and prolonged postsynaptic effect of dopaminergic signaling at
dopamine receptors on the receiving neuron. Prolonged exposure to cocaine, as occurs with habitual
use, leads to homeostatic dysregulation of normal (i.e. without cocaine) dopaminergic signaling via
down-regulation of dopamine receptors and enhanced signal transduction. The decreased dopaminergic
signaling after chronic cocaine use may contribute to depressive mood disorders and sensitize this
important brain reward circuit to the reinforcing effects of cocaine (e.g. enhanced dopaminergic
signalling only when cocaine is self-administered). This sensitization contributes to the intractable
nature of addiction and relapse.
Dopamine-rich brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal
cortex are frequent targets of cocaine addiction research. Of particular interest is the pathway consisting
of dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area that terminate in the nucleus
accumbens. This projection may function as a "reward center", in that it seems to show activation in
response to drugs of abuse like cocaine in addition to natural rewards like food or sex.[35] While the
precise role of dopamine in the subjective experience of reward is highly controversial among
neuroscientists, the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is widely considered to be at least
partially responsible for cocaine's rewarding effects. This hypothesis is largely based on laboratory data
involving rats that are trained to self-administer cocaine. If dopamine antagonists are infused directly
into the nucleus accumbens, well-trained rats self-administering cocaine will undergo extinction (i.e.
initially increase responding only to stop completely) thereby indicating that cocaine is no longer
reinforcing (i.e. rewarding) the drug-seeking behavior.
Cocaine's effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) show across multiple serotonin receptors,
and is shown to inhibit the re-uptake of 5-HT3 specifically as an important contributor to the effects of
cocaine. The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however
the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.[36] The 5-HT2 receptor (particularly the subtypes
5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR and 5-HT2CR) show influence in the evocation of hyperactivity displayed in
cocaine use.[37]
Sigma receptors are effected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist.[38] Further
specific receptors it has been demonstrated to function on are NMDA and the D1 dopamine
Cocaine also blocks sodium channels, thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials;
thus, like lignocaine and novocaine, it acts as a local anesthetic. Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction,
thus reducing bleeding during minor surgical procedures. The locomotor enhancing properties of
cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.
Recent research points to an important role of circadian mechanisms[40] and clock genes[41] in
behavioral actions of cocaine.
Because nicotine increases the levels of dopamine in the brain, many cocaine users find that
consumption of tobacco products during cocaine use enhances the euphoria. This, however, may have
undesirable consequences, such as uncontrollable chain smoking during cocaine use (even users who
do not normally smoke cigarettes have been known to chain smoke when using cocaine), in addition to
the detrimental health effects and the additional strain on the cardiovascular system caused by tobacco.
In addition to irritability, mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations,
cocaine use can cause several dangerous physical conditions. It can lead to disturbances in heart
rhythm and heart attacks, as well as chest pains or even respiratory failure. In addition, strokes,
seizures and headaches are common in heavy users.
Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can
experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.

Metabolism and excretion

Cocaine is extensively metabolized, primarily in the liver, with only about 1% excreted unchanged in
the urine. The metabolism is dominated by hydrolytic ester cleavage, so the eliminated metabolites
consist mostly of benzoylecgonine, the major metabolite, and in lesser amounts ecgonine methyl ester
and ecgonine.
Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Benzoylecgonine
can be detected in urine within four hours after cocaine intake and remains detectable in concentrations
greater than 150 ng/ml typically for up to eight days after cocaine is used. Detection of accumulation of
cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are
cut or fall out.
If consumed with alcohol, cocaine combines with alcohol in the liver to form cocaethylene. Studies
have suggested cocaethylene is both more euphorigenic, and has a higher cardiovascular toxicity than
cocaine by itself.[42][43][44]
Effects and health issues


Data from The Lancet shows Cocaine to be the 2nd most dependent and 2nd most harmful of 20
drugs.[45] GO TO:
harm_and_mean_dependence).svg (for more charts)
Cocaine is a potent central nervous system stimulant. Its effects can last from 20 minutes to several
hours, depending upon the dosage of cocaine taken, purity, and method of administration.
The initial signs of stimulation are hyperactivity, restlessness, increased blood pressure, increased heart
rate and euphoria. The euphoria is sometimes followed by feelings of discomfort and depression and a
craving to experience the drug again. Sexual interest and pleasure can be amplified. Side effects can
include twitching, paranoia, and impotence, which usually increases with frequent usage.
With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid
delusions. Overdoses cause tachyarrhythmias and a marked elevation of blood pressure. These can be
life-threatening, especially if the user has existing cardiac problems. The LD50 of cocaine when
administered to mice is 95.1 mg/kg.[46] Toxicity results in seizures, followed by respiratory and
circulatory depression of medullar origin. This may lead to death from respiratory failure, stroke,
cerebral hemorrhage, or heart-failure. Cocaine is also highly pyrogenic, because the stimulation and
increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. Heat loss is inhibited by the intense
vasoconstriction. Cocaine-induced hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction and myoglobinuria
resulting in renal failure. Emergency treatment often consists of administering a benzodiazepine
sedation agent, such as diazepam (Valium) to decrease the elevated heart rate and blood pressure.
Physical cooling (ice, cold blankets, etc...) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be used to treat
hyperthermia, while specific treatments are then developed for any further complications.[47] There is
no officially approved specific antidote for cocaine overdose, and although some drugs such as
dexmedetomidine and rimcazole have been found to be useful for treating cocaine overdose in animal
studies, no formal human trials have been carried out.
In cases where a patient is unable or unwilling to seek medical attention, cocaine overdoses resulting in
mild-moderate tachycardia (i.e.: a resting pulse greater than 120 bpm), may be initially treated with 20
mg of orally administered diazepam or equivalent benzodiazepine (eg: 2mg lorazepam).
Acetaminophen and physical cooling may likewise be used to reduce mild hyperthermia (<39 C).
However, a history of high blood pressure or cardiac problems puts the patient at high risk of cardiac
arrest or stroke, and requires immediate medical treatment. Similarly, if benzodiazepine sedation fails
to reduce heart rate or body temperatures fails to lower, professional intervention is
Cocaine's primary acute effect on brain chemistry is to raise the amount of dopamine and serotonin in
the nucleus accumbens (the pleasure center in the brain); this effect ceases, due to metabolism of
cocaine to inactive compounds and particularly due to the depletion of the transmitter resources
(tachyphylaxis). This can be experienced acutely as feelings of depression, as a "crash" after the initial
high. Further mechanisms occur in chronic cocaine use. The "crash" is accompanied with muscle
spasms throughout the body, also known as the "jitters", muscle weakness, headaches, dizziness, and
suicidal thoughts. Not all users will experience these, but most tend to experience some or all of these
Studies have shown that cocaine usage during pregnancy triggers premature labor[51] and may lead
to abruptio placentae.[52]
Cocaine can cause coronary artery spasms which lead to a myocardial infarction. This effect can
happen randomly to any user. The coronary artery spasms can occur on the user's first usage or any
other usage after. The coronary spasms cause the ectopic ventricular foci of the heart to become
hypoxic and the extreme irritability can trigger life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

Chronic cocaine intake causes brain cells to adapt functionally to strong imbalances of transmitter
levels in order to compensate extremes. Thus, receptors disappear from the cell surface or reappear on
it, resulting more or less in an "off" or "working mode" respectively, or they change their susceptibility
for binding partners (ligands) – mechanisms called down-/upregulation. Chronic cocaine use leads to a
DATS upregulation,[verification needed] further contributing to depressed mood states. However,
studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal DAT sites, suggesting
cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.[53] Physical withdrawal is not
dangerous, and is in fact restorative. The experience of insatiable hunger, aches, insomnia/oversleeping,
lethargy, and persistent runny nose are often described as very unpleasant. Depression with suicidal
ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters,
neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of
dopamine neurons.
All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect.
The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and
depression felt after the initial high. The diagnostic criteria for cocaine withdrawal are characterized by
a dysphoric mood, fatigue, unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, erectile dysfunction,
increased appetite, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and anxiety.
Cocaine abuse also has multiple physical health consequences.[54]
Side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pruritus, fever,
diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophiliachest, pain, lung
trauma, shortness of breath, sore throat, asthma, hoarse voice, dyspnea, and an aching, flu-like
syndrome. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth
enamel and causes tooth decay. However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known
as bruxism, which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.[55]
Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils (the septum nasi), leading
eventually to its complete disappearance. Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine
hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.[56]
Cocaine may also greatly increase this risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue
diseases such as lupus, Goodpasture's disease, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, Stevens-Johnson
syndrome and other diseases.[57][58][59][60] It can also cause a wide array of kidney diseases and
renal failure.[61][62] While these conditions are normally found in chronic use they can also be caused
by short term exposure in susceptible individuals.
Cocaine abuse doubles both the risks of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes.[63]
Years after the abuse has ended, many ex-abusers report a noticeably reduced attention span.

Cocaine as a local anesthetic

Cocaine was historically useful as a topical anesthetic in eye and nasal surgery, although it is now
predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery. The major disadvantages of this use are
cocaine's intense vasoconstrictor activity and potential for cardiovascular toxicity. Cocaine has since
been largely replaced in Western medicine by synthetic local anaesthetics such as benzocaine,
proparacaine, lignocaine/xylocaine/lidocaine, and tetracaine though it remains available for use if
specified. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure (as it reduces bleeding), the anesthetic is
combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine. In Australia it is currently
prescribed for use as a local anesthetic for conditions such as mouth and lung ulcers. Some ENT
specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal
cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, which is placed in
the nostril for the 10-15 minutes immediately prior to the procedure, thus performing the dual role of
both numbing the area to be cauterized and also vasoconstriction. Even when used this way, some of
the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.

The word "cocaine" was made from "coca" + the suffix "-ine"; from its use as a local anaesthetic a
suffix "-caine" was extracted and used to form names of synthetic local anaesthetics.

Current Prohibition
Main article: Legal status of cocaine

The production, distribution and sale of cocaine products is restricted (and illegal in most contexts) in
most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the United Nations
Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. In the United States
the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine is additionally regulated by the
1970 Controlled Substances Act.
Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional
consumption by the local indigenous population, but nevertheless prohibit the production, sale and
consumption of cocaine.
Some parts of Europe and Australia allow processed cocaine for medicinal uses only.

In 2004, according to the United Nations, 589 metric tons of cocaine were seized globally by law
enforcement authorities. Colombia seized 188 tons, the United States 166 tons, Europe 79 tons, Peru 14
tons, Bolivia 9 tons, and the rest of the world 133 tons.[64]

Illicit trade

Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is commonly transported.

Because of the extensive processing it undergoes during preparation, cocaine is generally treated as a
'hard drug', with severe penalties for possession and trafficking. Demand remains high, and
consequently black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves, are
occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to
conceal and smuggle it in powdered form. The scale of the market is immense: 770 tonnes times $100
per gram retail = up to $77 billion.
By 1999, Colombia had become the world's leading producer of cocaine, and has remained the leader
past 2005.[65] Due to Colombia's 1994 legalization of small amounts of cocaine for personal use, while
sale of cocaine was still prohibited, the result was the spread of local coca crops, partly justified by the
local demand.[65]
Three-quarters of the world's annual yield of cocaine has been produced in Colombia, both from
cocaine base imported from Peru (primarily the Huallaga Valley) and Bolivia, and from locally grown
coca. There was a 28% increase from the amount of potentially harvestable coca plants which were
grown in Colombia in 1998 . This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia
the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mid-1990s. Coca grown for
traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by
Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for
the illegal drug trade.
Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming
economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that
are more resistant or immune to their use. Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of
human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously
grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine. Although
production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded as numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than
the larger plantations.
The cultivation of coca has become an attractive, and in some cases even necessary, economic decision
on the part of many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the persistence of
worldwide demand, the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative
crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, and the
spread of new strains of the coca plant.
Estimated Andean Region Coca Cultivation and Potential Pure Cocaine Production, 2000–2004.[66]
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Net Cultivation (km²) 1875 2218 2007.5 1663 1662
Potential Pure Cocaine Production (tonnes) 770 925 830 680 645

Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry, as it would eliminate the high
visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with
clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine. However, natural
cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine.
Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done. Formation of inactive enantiomers and synthetic by-
products limits the yield and purity.
Note, names like 'synthetic cocaine' and 'new cocaine' have been misapplied to phencyclidine (PCP)
and various designer drugs.

Trafficking and distribution

Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. Most cocaine is grown
and processed in South America, particularly in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and smuggled into the United
States and Europe, the United States being the worlds largest consumer of Cocaine[67], where it is sold
at huge markups; usually in the US at $50-$75 for 1 gram (or a "fitty rock"), and $125-200 for 3.5
grams (1/8th of an ounce, or an "eight ball").
Cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America are generally
moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico. The cocaine is then broken down into
smaller loads for smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border. The primary cocaine importation points in
the United States are in Arizona, southern California, southern Florida, and Texas. Typically, land
vehicles are driven across the U.S.-Mexico border. Sixty Five percent of cocaine enters the United
States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.[68]
Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as
“mules” (or “mulas”), who cross a border either legally, e.g. through a port or airport, or illegally
through undesignated points along the border. The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden
in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most
of the profits. If he or she is caught however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand
trial for trafficking by him/herself.
Cocaine traffickers from Colombia, and recently Mexico, have also established a labyrinth of
smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida. They often
hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug. The traffickers use a
variety of smuggling techniques to transfer their drug to U.S. markets. These include airdrops of 500–
700 kg in the Bahama Islands or off the coast of Puerto Rico, mid-ocean boat-to-boat transfers of 500–
2,000 kg, and the commercial shipment of tonnes of cocaine through the port of Miami.
Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean–Gulf of
Mexico area. These vessels are typically 150–250-foot (50–80 m) coastal freighters that carry an
average cocaine load of approximately 2.5 tonnes. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for
smuggling operations. In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types
of vessels, such as go-fast boats, as those used by the local populations.
Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia,
it was reported on March 20, 2008. Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the
drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than
earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.[69]

Sales to consumers
Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas. According to the Summer 1998
Pulse Check, published by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy, cocaine use had stabilized
across the country, with a few increases reported in San Diego, Bridgeport, Miami, and Boston. In the
West, cocaine usage was lower, which was thought to be due to a switch to methamphetamine among
some users; methamphetamine is cheaper and provides a longer-lasting high. Numbers of cocaine users
are still very large, with a concentration among urban youth.
In addition to the amounts previously mentioned, cocaine can be sold in "bill sizes": for example, $10
might purchase a "dime bag," a very small amount (0.1–0.15 g) of cocaine. Twenty dollars might
purchase .15–.3 g. However, in lower Texas, it's sold cheaper due to it being easier to receive: a dime
for $10 is .4g, a 20 is .8-1.0 gram and a 8-ball (3.5g) is sold for $60 to $80 dollars, depending on the
quality and dealer. These amounts and prices are very popular among young people because they are
inexpensive and easily concealed on one's body. Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on
supply and demand, and on geographic region.[70]
However, UK prices are astronomical compared to those in the USA, with £40 (typically $80) getting 1
gram of cocaine (compared to $20-$40 in the USA).
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that the typical retail price of
cocaine varied between 50€ and 75€ per gram in most European countries, although Cyprus, Romania,
Sweden and Turkey reported much higher values.[71]

Wraps of cocaine. Wraps are used to distribute cocaine by street-level dealers.

World annual cocaine consumption currently stands at around 600 metric tons, with the United States
consuming around 300 metric tons, 50% of the total, Europe about 150 metric tons, 25% of the total,
and the rest of the world the remaining 150 metric tons or 25%.[72]
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006 World Drug Report, the United
States has the world's greatest rate of cocaine consumption by people aged 15 to 64, 2.8%. It is closely
followed by Spain with 2.7%, and England & Wales with 2.4%. Most Western European countries have
a consumption rate between 1% and 2%.[73]

Cocaine adulturants
Cocaine is "cut" with many substances such as:
• Lidocaine
• Benzocaine
• Procaine
Other stimulants:
• Caffeine
• Ephedrine
• Methamphetamine
Inert powder:
• Baking soda
• Inositol
The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of
the subject.
Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page. (
According to a 2007 United Nations report, Spain is the country with the highest rate of cocaine usage
(3.0% of adults in the previous year).[74] Other countries where the usage rate meets or exceeds 1.5%
are the United States (2.8%), England and Wales (2.4%), Canada (2.3%), Italy (2.1%), Bolivia (1.9%),
Chile (1.8%), and Scotland (1.5%).[74]

In the United States

General usage
Cocaine has become the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the U.S. (behind
marijuana)[75] and the U.S. is the world's largest consumer of cocaine[67]. Cocaine is commonly used
in middle to upper class communities. It is also popular amongst college students, to aid in studying
and as a party drug. Its users span over different ages, races, and professions. In the 1970s and 80's, the
drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular
in many discos such as Studio 54.
The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) reported in 1999 that cocaine was used by
3.7 million Americans, or 1.7% of the household population age 12 and older. Estimates of the current
number of those who use cocaine regularly (at least once per month) vary, but 1.5 million is a widely
accepted figure within the research community.
Although cocaine use had not significantly changed over the six years prior to 1999, the number of
first-time users went up from 574,000 in 1991, to 934,000 in 1998 – an increase of 63%. While these
numbers indicated that cocaine is still widely present in the United States, cocaine use was significantly
less prevalent than it was during the early 1980s.

Usage among youth

The 1999 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey found the proportion of American students reporting
use of powdered cocaine rose during the 1990s. In 1991, 2.3% of eighth-graders stated that they had
used cocaine in their lifetime. This figure rose to 4.7% in 1999. For the older grades, increases began in
1992 and continued through the beginning of 1999. Between those years, lifetime use of cocaine went
from 3.3% to 7.7% for tenth-graders and from 6.1% to 9.8% for high school seniors. Lifetime use of
crack cocaine, according to MTF, also increased among eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-graders, from an
average of 2% in 1991 to 3.9% in 1999.
Perceived risk and disapproval of cocaine and crack use both decreased during the 1990s at all three
grade levels. The 1999 NHSDA found the highest rate of monthly cocaine use was for those aged 18–
25 at 1.7%, an increase from 1.2% in 1997. Rates declined between 1996 and 1998 for ages 26–34,
while rates slightly increased for the 12–17 and 35+ age groups. Studies also show people are
experimenting with cocaine at younger ages. NHSDA found a steady decline in the mean age of first
use from 23.6 years in 1992 to 20.6 years in 1998.
Main article: Cocaine dependence

Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of
cocaine. It can result in physiological damage, lethargy, psychosis, depression, or a potentially fatal

See also
• Black cocaine
• Coca
• Coca eradication
• Coca Museum
• Crack baby
• Crack lung
• Crack Epidemic ?
• Cuscohygrine
• Drug addiction
• Drug injection
• Drugs and prostitution
• Ecgonine benzoate
• Entomotoxicology
• The Great Binge
• Hydroxytropacocaine
• Hygrine
• List of cocaine analogues
• Methylecgonine cinnamate
• Norcocaine
• Psychoactive drug
• Take a Whiff On Me
• Vanoxerine

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External links
• Cocaine in Egyptian Mummies
• EMCDDA drugs profile: Cocaine(2007)
• Erowid -> Cocaine Information — A collection of data about cocaine including dose, effects,
chemistry, legal status, images and more.
• Slang Dictionary for Cocaine.
• Cocaine content of plants http://sun.ars-
• Cocaine - The History and the Risks at h2g2
• Cocaine Frequently Asked Questions

This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been
reviewed by professional editors.

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Cocaine: Causes and symptoms

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Crack Cocaine Sentencing Reform



End Crack and Powder Cocaine Sentencing Disparities

Americans believe in a system of justice where all individuals are treated fairly under the law. But mandatory
minimum sentencing laws prohibit judges from considering all the facts in a criminal case when determining
sentences. The result is one-size-fits-all justice that ignores defendants' life circumstances, criminal history and
role in the offense.

The 1986 and 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Acts established excessive mandatory penalties for crack cocaine that were
the harshest ever adopted for low-level drug offenses and created drastically different penalty structures for
crack cocaine compared to powder cocaine, which are pharmacologically identical substances. The law has
diverted precious resources away from prevention and treatment for drug users and devastated communities
ripped apart by incarceration.

Today a new consciousness about the unfairness and ineffectiveness of harsh crack cocaine mandatory
sentences has emerged among advocates, policymakers, judges and the United States Sentencing Commission.
Explore this site to learn more about crack cocaine sentencing reform and how to end the sentencing disparity.

Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
Legislative Lunch Briefing on Crack Cocaine Sentencing March 13

On Friday, March 13, a legislative lunch briefing on crack cocaine sentencing will be hosted by the “Crack the Disparity” Working
Group of the Justice Roundtable at the Rayburn House Office Building, Room 2237 from noon to 1:15. The 100-to-1 disparity
between crack and powder cocaine harshly punishes low-level offenders and has a disparate impact on African Americans. Join
this briefing and bring questions panelists will discuss the history and impact of this lopsided law, dispel unsupported myths, and
describe current legislative initiatives.

Two defendants appear before a federal judge on drug charges. One is charged with possession of five grams of crack cocaine; the other is
charged with trafficking 500 grams of powder cocaine. Neither person has any prior convictions. Who gets the longer sentence, the crack
cocaine addict or the powder cocaine trafficker? The most likely answer is that both will get the same mandatory five-year sentence,
despite the fact that the cocaine seller had 100 times more cocaine than the crack cocaine user.

Speakers include:

Kara Gotsch - Advocacy Director, The Sentencing Project

Bruce Nicholson – Legislative Counsel, American Bar Association

Hilary Shelton - Director, NAACP Washington Bureau

Jasmine Tyler – Deputy Director for National Affairs, Drug Policy Alliance

Special Guest – Lawrence Garrison, recently released pursuant to the U.S. Sentencing Commission's crack cocaine guideline reduction

Moderator – Nkechi Taifa, Senior Policy Analyst, OpenSocietyPolicyCenter

Please RSVP to

Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
End the Rockefeller Drug Laws

“After 35 years of filling the state's prisons with drug offenders who needed treatment and disproportionately punishing poor
and minority offenders, New York is on the verge of dismantling its infamous Rockefeller drug laws,” states a New York Times
editorial on a recent Assembly vote to restore judicial discretion and curtail mandatory sentencing for many nonviolent, low-level
drug crimes. “Once the measure becomes law, courts would be able to sentence many addicts to treatment instead of cramming
them into prisons where addiction generally goes untreated.”


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial
Disparity (, Drug Policy
State(s): New York (

New look at sentencing guidelines for cocaine

In a retrospective of crack cocaine sentencing over the past two decades, the San Francisco Chronicle published a feature article
about the individuals affected by harsh sentencing laws nationally. Reporting on policymakers' haste in creating crack sentences
which targeted black communities, the article states: “Cracking down on kingpins was the idea all along. But Congress got it
wrong in every way. As the U.S. Sentencing Commission reported in 1995, "the stereotype of a drug-crazed addict committing
heinous crimes" was simply fiction. And the crack laws shifted the focus to drug quantities that a neighborhood pusher might
carry, not a national or international trafficker.”


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial
Disparity (, Drug Policy

Rectifying a 'mistake' in drug sentencing

Commenting on recently released reports on incarceration, Boston Globe columnist, Derrick Jackson, challenged the Obama
administration in tackling the United States' prison problems – particularly the disparity rates caused by harsh drug laws.
Jackson writes: “The big question is whether the Obama administration can rebalance the scales at home, where the corrosive
underbelly of injustice is quiet terrorism. Consider the prison boom that accompanied Draconian federal and state laws, laws
that became racist in their application.”


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
House Crack Cocaine Legislation

A comparison of the current law against three House Bills introduced to reform sentencing policy on crack cocaine. One of these
bills lowers the quantities for powder cocaine that trigger mandatory minimum sentences, making them equal to the current
quantities of crack cocaine. Another bill effectively equalize the trigger quantities for crack and powder cocaine by raising the
triggers for crack cocaine, while the third bill eliminates mandatory minimums for any cocaine offense. 1 page


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy

A Need for Mercy

A Washington Post editorial urges that President Obama not repeat former President Bush's track record on presidential pardons
– which included only 189 pardons and 11 commutations over two terms. Making mention of the crack cocaine sentencing
disparity, the Post stated, “Mr. Bush failed to offer even a mild corrective for the dramatic racial disparities that have resulted
from mandatory minimum sentences for those apprehended with minuscule amounts of crack cocaine. He seems not to have
taken seriously the unique constitutional power bestowed on presidents to bring a measure of mercy to those who failed to find
justice through more conventional means.”



Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
State inmates convicted on crack cocaine charges are successful at getting years pared from sentences

Two-thirds of Alabama federal inmates who have petitioned the court for a sentence reduction following a crack cocaine
sentencing guideline amendment change were successful, according to a recent U.S. Sentencing Commission analysis. According
to the report, 402 of the 602 applications filed in Alabama federal courts have been approved. Nationally, 17,168 applications
have been filed; 70 percent had been granted through Dec. 8, The Birmingham News reported. Furthermore, the report found
that petitioners nationwide are getting an average reduction of 2 1/2 years. Sen. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) plans to reintroduce a bill
that would require 20 grams of crack, instead of five grams, to get a mandatory five-year sentence. "As a federal prosecutor,
Senator Sessions saw firsthand the unfair effects of the current disparity in the law," Sessions' spokesman Stephen Boyd said.
"Promoting legislation that restores some equity to the system by treating similar drugs similarly has been a priority for the
senator over the last several years."


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
State(s): Alabama (

Former, current chief justices urge president-elect Obama to address federal sentencing guidelines, prison racial

In a letter addressed to president-elect Obama and his transition team, Missouri Supreme Court Justice Michael A. Wolff and
Oregon Chief Justice Paul J. De Muniz requested a “major change” in federal sentencing. “Sentencing in the United States affects
the lives of millions of Americans, usually adversely,” they wrote. “We imprison a higher percentage of citizens than any other
country, while spawning avoidable victimizations because we fail to embrace data-driven practices. Minorities bear a
disproportionate brunt of this dysfunction as inmates and as victims. We urge your attention to this archaic dysfunction to the
benefit of all citizens.” The letter continues on to advocate for evidence-based practices and expansion of community-based
sentencing options.


Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
New Sentencing Guidelines For Crack, New Challenges

The U.S. Sentencing Commission's amended sentencing guidelines for non-violent, crack cocaine offenders have already
resulted in 12,000 cases being handled by federal judges, the Washington Post reported. In many instances defense lawyers
and prosecutors have reached agreement on sentence reductions for the mostly African-American men serving harsh crack
sentences, but in others prosecutors have been resistant to requests for release.

Issue Area(s): Sentencing Policy (, Racial

Disparity (, Drug Policy
( Next >>


Treatment of addiction
The widespread abuse of cocaine has stimulated extensive efforts to develop treatment programs for
this type of drug abuse.

One of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's top research priorities is to find a medication to block or
greatly reduce the effects of cocaine, to be used as one part of a comprehensive treatment program. The
National Institute on Drug Abuse funded researchers are also looking at medications that help alleviate
the severe craving that people in treatment for cocaine addiction often experience. Several medications
are currently being investigated for their safety and efficacy in treating cocaine addiction.

In addition to treatment medications, behavioral interventions - particularly cognitive behavioral

therapy - can be effective in decreasing drug use by patients in treatment for cocaine abuse. Providing
the optimal combination of treatment and services for each individual is critical to successful outcomes.

Crack Cocaine Treatment

Are you losing a loved one to drug or alcohol addiction? Get help now.
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Cocaine Addiction Treatment
Get the information you need here. Don't let addiction ruin your life!
Cocaine Addiction Treatment
Get the information you need here. Don't let addiction ruin your life!

Cocaine Abuse Info

Rehab, statistics, types, and more! Get info on cocaine addiction.
Cocaine dependence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cocaine dependence (or addiction) is physical and psychological dependency on the regular use of
cocaine. It can result in severe physiological damage, psychosis, schizophrenia, lethargy, depression, or
a potentially fatal overdose.

The immediate craving of the addict for more soon after use is due to the short-lived high that usually
subsides within an hour, leading to prolonged, multi-dose binge use. When administration stops after
binge use, it is followed by a "crash" (also known as a "come down"), the onset of severely dysphoric
mood with escalating exhaustion until sleep is achieved, which is sometimes accomplished by taking
sleeping medications, or sedatives, a popular one being Seroquel, or by combination use of alcohol and
cannabis. Resumption of use may occur upon awakening or may not occur for several days, but the
intense euphoria of such use can, as it has in many users, produce intense craving and develop rather
quickly into addiction. The risk[1] of becoming cocaine-dependent within 2 years of first use (recent-
onset) is 5-6%; after 10 years, it's 15-16%. These are the aggregate rates for all types of use considered,
i.e., smoking, snorting, injecting. Among recent-onset users, the relative rates are higher for smoking
(3.4 times) and much higher for injecting. They also vary, based on other characteristics, such as sex:
among recent-onset users, women are 3.3 times more likely to become addicted, compared to men; age:
among recent-onset users, those who started using at ages 12 or 13 were 4 times as likely to become
addicted, compared to those who started between ages 18 and 20; and race: among recent-onset users,
non-Hispanic Blacks are 7 times as likely to become addicted, compared to non-Hispanic
Whites.[citation needed] Many habitual abusers develop a transient manic-like condition similar to
amphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia, whose symptoms include aggression, severe paranoia, and
tactile hallucinations (including the feeling of insects under the skin, or "coke bugs") during binges.[2]
Cocaine has positive reinforcement effects, which refers to the effect that certain stimuli have on
behavior. Good feelings become associated with the drug, causing a frequent user to take the drug as a
response to bad news or mild depression. This activation strengthens the response that was just made. If
the drug was taken by a fast acting route such as injection or inhalation, the response will be the act of
taking more cocaine, so the response will be reinforced. Powder cocaine, being a club drug, is mostly
consumed in the evening and night hours. Because cocaine is a stimulant, a user will often drink large
amounts of alcohol during and after usage or smoke cannabis to dull "crash" or "come down" effects
and hasten slumber. Benzodiazepines (e.g., Restoril, Rohypnol Xanax, Klonopin) are also used for this
purpose. Other drugs such as heroin and various pharmaceuticals are often used to amplify
reinforcement or to minimize such negative effects, further increasing addiction potential and

Mechanism of Dependence

Positron Emission Tomography scans showing the average level of dopamine receptors in six primates'
brains. Red is high- and blue is low-concentration of dopamine receptors. The higher the level of
dopamine, the fewer receptors there will be.
It is speculated that cocaine's intense addictive properties stem partially from its DAT-blocking effects
(in particular, increasing the dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area neurons).
However, a study has shown that mice with no dopamine transporters still exhibit the rewarding effects
of cocaine administration.[3] Later work demonstrated that a combined DAT/SERT knockout
eliminated the rewarding effects.[4] The rewarding effects of cocaine are influenced by circadian
rhythms,[5] possibly by involving a set of genes termed "clock genes".[6]
However, chronic cocaine addiction is not solely due to cocaine reward. Chronic repeated use is needed
to produce cocaine-induced changes in brain reward centers and consequent chronic dysphoria
(described above under Effects and Health Issues - Chronic). Dysphoria magnifies craving for cocaine
because cocaine reward rapidly, albeit transiently, improves mood. This contributes to continued use
and a self-perpetuating, worsening condition, since those addicted usually cannot appreciate that long-
term effects are opposite those occurring immediately after use.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) combined with Motivational Therapy (MT) have proven to be
effective to treat drug and alcohol addictions. Cocaine vaccines are on trial that will stop desirable
effects from the drug."Baylor Doctors are Working on Cocaine Vaccine". January 17,
2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-11. The National Institutes
of Health of US, particularly National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is researching modafinil, a
narcolepsy drug and mild stimulant, as a potential cocaine treatment. Twelve-step programs such as
Cocaine Anonymous (modeled on Alcoholics Anonymous) are claimed by participants to be helpful in
achieving long-term abstinence; however, the 12 step based programs have no statistically-measurable
effect and does not release any quantifiable measure of its success rates. Cocaine addiction continues to
be the most difficult to manage, and according to some scientists, addiction to cocaine may be almost
impossible to stop. Relapse rates among cocaine users is in the range of 94-99%, the highest among all
common drugs of abuse.[6]
A study published in May, 2008, in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, detailed the effect of long-term
cocaine intake on the amount and activity of thousands of proteins in monkeys. The researchers used
“proteomic” technology, which enables the simultaneous analysis of thousands of proteins, to compare
the “proteome” (all proteins expressed at a given time) between a group of monkeys that self-
administered cocaine and a group that did not receive the drug. The study provides a comprehensive
assessment of biochemical changes occurring in the cocaine-addicted brain. The profound changes in
structure, metabolism and signaling of neurons may explain why relapse occurs and why it is difficult
to reverse these changes after the drug use is discontinued. [7]
Side effects may include anxiety, panic attacks, sleeplessness, delusional thinking which mirrors
paranoid schizophrenia, visual hallucinations including snowlights (bright spots of lights which delude
the user into believing their existence, or trails of light which the user views in an anxiety ridden state,
or a state close to overdose), irritability, frustration, depression following comedown, depression when
cocaine has been cut (composed of chemicals other than cocaine), depression when the desired high is
not achieved, convoluted thinking, and a possible unpleasant feeling of disassociation with oneself
(Novick, Robyne M., Cocaine and the Common User, Phelps and Duringer Weekly, 2007).

See also
• SB-277011-A - a dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, used in the study of cocaine addiction.
Where cocaine reduces the threshold for brain electrical self-stimulation in rats, an indication of
cocaine's rewarding effects, SB-277011-A completely reverses this effect.

1. ^ O'Brien MS, Anthony JC (2005). "Risk of becoming cocaine dependent: epidemiological
estimates for the United States, 2000–2001.". Neuropsychopharmacology 30: 1006–1018.
(Tables pasted below from this article) doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300681. PMID 15785780.
2. ^ Gawin. FH. (1991). "Cocaine addiction: Psychology and neurophysiology". Science 251:
1580–1586. doi:10.1126/science.2011738. PMID 2011738.
3. ^ Sora, et al. (June 23, 1998). "Cocaine reward models: Conditioned place preference can be
established in dopamine- and in serotonin-transporter knockout mice". PNAS 95 (13): 7600–
7704. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.13.7699. PMID 9636213.
4. ^ Sora, et al. (April 24, 2001). "Molecular mechanisms of cocaine reward: Combined dopamine
and serotonin transporter knockouts eliminate cocaine place preference". PNAS 98 (9): 5300–
5305. doi:10.1073/pnas.091039298. PMID 11320258.
5. ^ Kurtuncu et al. (April 12, 2004). "Involvement of the pineal gland in diurnal cocaine reward
in mice". European Journal of Pharmacology 489 (3): 203–205.
6. ^ a b Yuferov V, Butelman ER, Kreek MJ (2005). "Biological clock: biological clocks may
modulate drug addiction". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 13 (10): 1101–3. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201483.
PMID 16094306. This one is pasted below on page ...
7. ^ Newswise: Research Reveals Molecular Fingerprint of Cocaine Addiction
Each of the above hyperlinks should be looked at as this is a vital topic and certainly an issue that
matters most due to it's impact on individuals and on society as whole! If you cannot click the links in
blue then please go to the web page and check them out!


Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological

Estimates for the United States, 2000–2001
Megan S O'Brien and James C Anthony

Table 2. Selected Drug Use Characteristics of all Persons, all

Recently-Active Cocaine Users, and the Subset of Recent-Onset
Cocaine Users
past-onset users of Recent onset users
All persons cocainea of cocaineb
n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd%
All persons 114 241 100.0 100.0 1980 100.0 100.0 1081 100.0 100.0
Occurrence of DSM-IV cocaine-dependence syndrome
Yes, 3+ clinical features 395 0.4 0.3 329 16.6 20.5 64 5.9 5.4
No 113 846 99.7 99.7 1651 83.4 79.5 1017 94.1 94.1
past-onset users of Recent onset users
All persons cocainea of cocaineb
n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd%
past-onset users of Recent onset users
All persons cocainea of cocaineb
n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd%
Occasions of cocaine use (all forms) in past 12 months
past-onset users of Recent onset users
All persons cocainea of cocaineb
n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd%
1–2 days 744 0.7 0.4 365 18.4 17.3 379 35.1 35.0
3–11 days 833 0.7 0.5 545 27.5 25.6 286 26.5 25.5
12–100 days 933 0.8 0.6 752 38.0 39.0 180 16.7 16.0
101 or more days 357 0.3 0.3 318 16.1 18.1 39 3.6 2.8
Never/not in past year/dk/ref 111 374 97.5 98.3 0 0.0 0.0 197 18.2 20.7

Occasions of crack use in past 12 months

1–2 days 143 0.1 0.07 93 4.7 4.2 50 4.6 3.7
3–11 days 126 0.1 0.08 95 4.8 5.0 30 2.8 2.0
12–100 days 200 0.2 0.15 170 8.6 10.6 30 2.8 2.2
101 or more days 101 0.1 0.08 95 4.8 6.2 6 0.6 0.4
Never/not in past year/dk/ref 113 671 99.5 99.6 1527 77.1 74.0 965 89.3 91.5

Crack use in lifetime

Yes 2619 2.3 2.6 843 42.6 46.0 154 14.3 12.2
No 111 622 97.7 97.4 1137 57.4 54.0 927 85.8 87.8

Ever used needle to inject

Yes 585 0.5 0.8 172 8.7 13.8 16 1.5 0.9
No 113 656 99.5 99.2 1808 91.3 86.2 1065 98.5 99.1

Number of drugs used by age 11

0 100 799 88.2 88.9 1354 68.4 72.8 820 75.9 76.4
1 10 594 9.3 9.2 379 19.1 16.7 165 15.3 15.8
2 2220 1.9 1.5 148 7.5 6.9 70 6.5 6.2
3 628 0.6 0.4 99 5.0 3.6 26 2.4 1.6
aRecently active use in the past 12 months, but with onset 2+ years before survey assessment date.
bWithin 24 months of the survey assessment date.
Note: 'wtd' indicates weighted data with Taylor series linearization.
Note: values may not sum to 100 due to rounding error.
Data from 2000–2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.


Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological

Estimates for the United States, 2000–2001
Megan S O'Brien and James C Anthony

Table 3. Relative Risk Estimates for Becoming Cocaine

Dependent among Recent-Onset Cocaine Users, without
Statistical Adjustments
Unweighteda Weightedb
Number of Estimated risk of becoming Estimated risk of
Number of cocaine- dependent becoming dependent
recent onset dependence 95% p- 95% p-
cocaine users cases % CI value CI value
All persons 1081 64 5.9 — — — 5.4 — —
Male (ref) 580 21 3.6 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
Female 501 43 8.6 2.5 1.5– 0.001 3.3 1.7– <0.001
4.3 6.3

Age at interview (in years) c

26 46 3 6.5 1.0 0.3– 0.981 0.6 0.1– 0.437
3.4 2.4
21–25 279 8 2.9 0.4 0.2– 0.035 0.4 0.1– 0.032
0.9 0.9
18–20 (ref) 378 25 6.6 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
16–17 256 15 5.9 0.9 0.5– 0.702 0.7 0.3– 0.373
1.7 1.5
14–15 106 11 10.41.6 0.8– 0.196 1.7 0.7– 0.221
3.4 4.1
12–13 16 2 12.52.0 0.4– 0.371 4.0 0.8– 0.101
9.4 21.5

Non-Hispanic 848 42 5.0 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
White (ref)
Non-Hispanic 33 5 15.23.4 1.3– 0.016 7.0 2.3– 0.001
Black 9.3 20.9
Hispanic 136 8 5.9 1.2 0.6– 0.647 0.9 0.4– 0.833
2.6 2.2
Other 64 9 14.13.1 1.4– 0.004 4.1 1.6– 0.004
6.8 10.6

Education c
College senior 66 3 4.5 0.6 0.2– 0.388 0.6 0.1– 0.472
or graduate 2.0 2.4
Some college 242 7 2.9 0.4 0.2– 0.017 0.2 0.1– 0.003
0.8 0.6
High school 252 15 6.0 0.8 0.4– 0.434 0.8 0.4– 0.506
graduate 1.4 1.6
Less than high 521 39 7.5 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
graduate (ref)

Family income
0 to $19 999 315 19 6.0 1.1 0.6– 0.834 1.6 0.8– 0.228
2.0 3.3
Unweighteda Weightedb
Number of Estimated risk of becoming Estimated risk of
Number of cocaine- dependent becoming dependent
recent onset dependence 95% p- 95% p-
cocaine users cases % CI value CI value
All persons 1081 64 5.9 — — — 5.4 — —
$20 000–49 441 25 5.7 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
000 (ref)
$50 000–$74 145 9 6.2 1.1 0.5– 0.810 1.2 0.5– 0.697
999 2.4 3.3
$75 000+ 180 11 6.1 1.1 0.5– 0.831 1.1 0.5– 0.862
2.3 2.6

Population density
MSA of 1 378 14 3.7 0.5 0.3– 0.047 0.6 0.3– 0.186
million+ 1.0 1.3
MSA <1 418 29 6.9 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
million (ref)
Segment not 285 31 10.91.1 0.6– 0.827 1.0 0.5– 0.974
in MSA 1.9 2.1

Crack use in lifetime

No (ref) 154 44 28.61.0 — — 1.0 — —
Yes 927 20 2.2 3.0 1.7– <0.001 3.4 1.7– <0.001
5.2 6.6

Ever used needle to inject cocaine

Yes 16 9 56.323.6 8.5– <0.001 31.0 7.9– <0.001
65.8 120.6
No (ref) 1065 55 5.2 1.0 — — 1.0 — —

Number of drugs used by age 11 years

0 (ref) 820 45 5.5 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
1 165 13 7.9 1.5 0.8– 0.236 1.6 0.7– 0.230
2.8 3.3
2 70 5 7.1 1.3 0.5– 0.565 1.5 0.4– 0.505
3.5 5.5
3 26 1 3.8 0.7 0.1– 0.718 0.4 0.1– 0.386
5.2 3.1
a Estimates based on logistic regression, with statistical adjustment for covariates.

b Data based on variance estimates via Taylor Series linearization with statistical adjustment for
c Reflect values at the time of interview.
Note: Because schooling, crack-smoking, and cocaine-injecting are quite apt to be endogenous
covariates, these estimates should be interpreted as odds ratios to gauge the strength of association,
rather than as relative risk estimates.
Data from 2000–2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.


Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological

Estimates for the United States, 2000–2001
Megan S O'Brien and James C Anthony

Table 4. Relative Risk Estimates for Becoming Cocaine

Dependent among Recent-Onset Cocaine Users, with Statistical
Adjustment for all Listed Covariates

Unweighteda Weightedb

95% CI p-value 95% CI p-value

Recent onset users n=1081

Male (ref) 21 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
Female 43 2.3 1.3–4.1 0.003 3.2 1.6–6.3 0.001

Age group (in years) c

26 3 0.9 0.3–3.3 0.896 0.6 0.2–1.9 0.349
21–25 8 0.4 0.2–0.9 0.023 0.3 0.1–0.7 0.008
18–20 (ref) 25 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
16–17 15 0.9 0.4–1.7 0.667 0.7 0.3–1.8 0.523
14–15 11 1.4 0.6–3.1 0.417 1.6 0.6–4.2 0.353
12–13 2 1.6 0.3–8.3 0.566 4.0 0.5–30.0 0.171

Non-Hispanic White (ref) 42 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
Non-Hispanic Black 5 4.3 1.5–12.5 0.007 9.3 2.9–29.4 <0.001
Hispanic 8 1.3 0.6–2.9 0.559 0.9 0.4–2.2 0.847
Other 9 2.9 1.3–6.4 0.009 3.5 1.2–10.6 0.023

Family income
0–$19 999 19 1.1 0.6–2.1 0.781 1.6 0.8–3.2 0.224
$20 000–49 000 (ref) 25 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
$50 000–$74 999 9 1.1 0.5–2.5 0.787 1.2 0.4–3.3 0.765
$75 000+ 11 1.1 0.5–2.4 0.791 1.1 0.4–2.5 0.898

Number of drugs used by age 11 years

0 820 1.0 — — 1.0 — —
Unweighteda Weightedb

95% CI p-value 95% CI p-value

1 165 1.4 0.7–2.7 0.366 1.7 0.7–4.1 0.200
2 70 1.3 0.5–3.6 0.637 1.5 0.4–5.1 0.562
3 26 0.4 0.1–3.4 0.413 0.1 0.0–1.9 0.134
a Estimates based on logistic regression, with statistical adjustment for covariates.

b Data based on variance estimates via Taylor Series linearization with statistical adjustment for
c Reflect values at the time of interview.
Data from 2000–2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.


Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological

Estimates for the United States, 2000–2001
Megan S O'Brien and James C Anthony

Table 1. Selected Sociodemographic Characteristics of all

Persons, all Recently-Active Past-Onset Cocaine Users, and the
Subset of Recent-Onset Cocaine Users
past-onset users of Recent onset users
All persons cocainea of cocaineb
n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd% n unwtd% wtd%
All persons 114 241 100.0 100.0 1980 100.0 100.0 1081 100.0 100.0
Male 54 753 47.9 48.1 1245 62.9 67.4 580 53.7 56.2
Female 59 488 52.1 51.9 735 37.1 32.6 501 46.4 43.8

Age at interview (in years) c

12–13 12 417 10.9 3.4 17 0.9 0.3 16 1.5 1.0
14–15 12 655 11.1 3.6 66 3.3 1.4 106 9.8 7.4
16–17 11 787 10.3 3.4 169 8.5 3.8 256 23.7 17.2
18–20 13 964 12.2 5.4 446 22.5 13.3 378 35.0 35.4
21–25 21 560 18.9 7.7 743 37.5 20.4 279 25.8 25.4
26–34 14 835 13.0 14.6 292 14.8 23.7 39 3.6 11.6
35 and older 27 023 23.7 61.9 247 12.5 37.1 7 0.7 2.0

Non-Hispanic White 79 927 70.0 72.8 1461 73.8 72.5 848 78.5 78.8
Non-Hispanic Black/African 13 449 11.8 11.3 132 6.7 10.9 33 3.1 3.9
Hispanic 14 168 12.4 10.8 289 14.6 12.8 136 12.6 13.5
Other 6697 5.9 5.1 98 5.0 3.7 64 5.9 3.8

Education c
College senior or graduate 16 073 14.1 22.4 196 9.9 13.7 66 6.1 11.2
Some college 21 432 18.8 22.0 468 23.6 21.9 242 22.4 24.9
High school graduate 27 211 23.8 29.6 652 32.9 35.6 252 23.3 23.7
Less than high school graduate 49 525 43.4 25.9 664 33.5 28.7 521 48.2 40.2

Family income
0 to $19 999 25 799 22.6 20.0 631 31.9 30.0 315 29.1 29.7
$20 000–$49 000 45 873 40.2 39.1 800 40.4 40.4 441 40.8 39.6
$50 000–$74 999 20 546 18.0 18.7 279 14.1 16.1 145 13.4 11.2
$75 000+ 22 023 19.3 22.2 270 13.6 13.6 180 16.7 19.5

Size of metropolitan statistical area

MSA of 1 million+ 41 880 36.7 43.9 735 37.1 48.5 378 35.0 45.4
MSA <1 million 41 684 36.5 33.5 785 39.7 35.3 418 38.7 34.4
Segment not in MSA 30 677 26.9 22.6 460 23.2 16.2 285 26.4 20.2
a Recently active use in the past 12 months, but with onset 2+ years before survey assessment date.

b Within 24 months of the survey assessment date.

c Reflect values at the time of interview.
Note: 'wtd' indicates weighted data with Taylor series linearization.
Note: values may not sum to 100% due to rounding error.
Data from 2000–2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
The following originates from the Rockefeller University (certainly not a fan of
the Rockefellers but it's true that their money can and does fund education - so
we get what we can get where we can get it from. Besides I have to remember
that it is the message and not the messenger. Those that do evil deeds are also
capable of something useful. For example a thief may also be skilled at other
hand-crafts. You just have to keep an eye on his hands!).
This article will be included in Issues that Matter Most! (Issue V) for April 15,
European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 1101–1103.
doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201483; published online 10 August 2005

Biological clock: Biological clocks may modulate

drug addiction
Vadim Yuferov1, Eduardo R Butelman1 and Mary J Kreek1
Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. E-mail:
A recent study by McClung's group (2005),1 expanding on an earlier report,2
provides mechanistic insight to the timekeeper gene, Clock, which may regulate
dopaminergic transmission and cocaine reward. This work provides further
evidence that cocaine-induced effects have circadian influences.
McClung and colleagues studied Clock/Clock mutant mice,3 with a single-
nucleotide transversion that inactivates the CLOCK protein, and found that they
have an increased level of locomotor activity with a circadian activity pattern.
Consistent with the observed hyperactivity, Clock/Clock mutant mice displayed
increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine
synthesis) in ventral tegmental area (VTA) cells, as well as increased bursting
and firing activity. TH-positive cells in the VTA were also positive for CLOCK
protein, indicating potential local regulation of TH by CLOCK. Microarray studies
in these mutants revealed that several target genes of CLOCK were
downregulated in VTA (notably Per1 and Per2). Intriguingly, other genes involved
in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (ie glutamatergic or GABAergic)
were also regulated in these mutant mice. Several groups have shown that
expression of timekeeper genes in rodents or flies increases after exposure to
cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol and morphine.
McClung et al1 found that Clock/Clock mutants exhibited robust sensitization to
the locomotor-stimulating effects of repeated cocaine, indicating that functional
CLOCK protein is not necessary for this form of cocaine-induced plasticity. These
mutant mice also displayed modestly increased cocaine-induced place preference,
a model for the rewarding effects of this psychostimulant.
Recent studies clarified the core molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock in
the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which consists of
autoregulatory transcription–translation loops with a periodicity of about 24 h.
The positive loop is constituted by transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 that
activate transcription of Per1, Per2 and Cry genes. The PER and CRY proteins
assist in the negative feedback by attenuation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 transcription,
thus inhibiting their own activation.4 Timekeeper genes, as transcription factors,
may have an impact on the expression of target genes with E-box sequences in
their promoter regions, such as dopamine and glutamate transporters, D1
dopamine receptor.
Based on previous studies and this report, it seems that changes in function or
expression of different members of the timekeeper gene family may lead to
alterations in one or another aspect of drug-induced behaviors. The earliest
studies, which were performed by Hirsch and colleagues in Drosophila,5 showed,
in sharp contrast to the report herein, that deletion of four different timekeeper
genes (Clock, Per, Cycle and Doubletime, but not Time-less) resulted in the
complete elimination of sensitization to repeated cocaine administration. A study
by Abarca's group6 showed differential roles of Per1 and Per2 genes in cocaine-
induced behaviors in mice. Our microarray study showed that Per1 mRNA
expression is increased in the caudate–putamen of rats by acute 'binge' cocaine,
whereas Per2 mRNA is upregulated only after repeated binge cocaine.7 Per1
knockout mice did not exhibit behavioral sensitization to repeated cocaine
administration, whereas Per2 knockout mice displayed more potent cocaine-
induced place preference. Also, Per2 knockout mice showed a higher rate of
alcohol consumption.8 In addition, mice with inactivated Per1 mRNA did not
display morphine-induced place preference.9 Interestingly, chronic morphine-
induced increases in the expression of Per2 gene in the rat frontal cortex
persisted after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.10 These data implicate
timekeeper genes in common mechanisms of drug abuse-related behaviors
(Figure 1) – Next page.
Figure 1.

Central and basal forebrain molecular circadian clock. *Timekeeper genes

identified to date in four brain regions involved in processes related to drug
addiction, including dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic/mesocortical (a) and
nigrostriatal (b) dopaminergic systems. Circadian genes: Bmal1, ARNT-like
protein 1; Clock, Clock; Cry2, Cryptochrome 2; Per1, Period 1; Per2, Period 2;
TIM, Timeless.

The various timekeeper genes, which may have different effects in different parts
of the brain and periphery, have been studied to a limited extent, with respect to
the genetic basis for specific human disorders. In contrast to numerous single-
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in other human timekeeper genes such
as Per1, Per2, only two variants have been found in the Clock gene: one in the
5'-UTR (101 bp upstream of ATG codon) and 3111 T>C in the 3'-UTR regions.11 A
number of studies demonstrated an association of the 3111 T>C SNP with major
depression, as well as insomnia and mood disorders. Per2 gene polymorphisms
have been associated with bipolar disorders, and the Per3 gene has been
associated with delayed sleep phase syndrome, and extreme diurnal preference.
This may be relevant for patients with addictive diseases, who frequently adopt
abnormal sleep–wake patterns with drug self-administration, of especially
alcohol, cocaine and other stimulants. Such self-administration occurs primarily in
the early and late evening hours (and sometimes through the night). In contrast,
heroin (or other short-acting opiate) addicts usually space their self-
administration during regular intervals in daytime and evening, although they
may shift their sleep period later than normal, and wake up in the morning in
opiate withdrawal.
To date, only one of these genes has been studied for an association with
addictive diseases. Spanagel and colleagues reported a study of Per2 gene in 215
alcohol-dependent subjects with low or high alcohol intake, and identified a
haplotype of four gene variants associated with low alcohol intake.8 With rodent
studies included in the same report, Spanagel et al8 found that Per2 mutant mice
drank more alcohol than controls. Also, the brain of mutant mice contained
excess levels of glutamate, a situation associated with both cocaine and other
stimulant exposure, as well as alcoholism. This finding may be related to the
reduction in astrocyte-expressed transporter EAAT1, coupled with a modest
increase in a second transporter, EAAT2.8
Further studies of relationships of polymorphisms or haplotypes in timekeeper-
related genes in specific addictive diseases would be of interest. Studies from our
laboratory12 have identified a functional polymorphism of MOR (mu opioid
receptor); we then hypothesized, and other laboratories subsequently have
identified, that one copy of this SNP alters critical hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
(HPA) responsivity to stress. Much earlier, our group and others have shown that
the MOR plays a major role in the HPA axis, which is normally under circadian
control. We have recently shown a very significant association of this A118G
variant of the MOR with both heroin addiction and alcoholism (reviewed in Kreek
et al, 2005).13 Therefore, it would be of great interest to determine if
polymorphisms of one or more of the timekeeper genes are associated with
specific addictive diseases, and possibly with alterations in the stress-responsive
circadian HPA axis. This axis has been shown, in laboratory and human studies,
to contribute to the acquisition, continuation and relapse to specific addictions
1. McClung CA, Sidiropoulou K & Vitaterna M et al. Regulation of dopaminergic transmission and cocaine 
reward by the Clock gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 9377−9381.|Article|PubMed|ChemPort|
2. Sidiropoulou K, Cooper DC & Baker L et al. Basal hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine in 
clock mutant mice. Soc Neurosci Abstr 2000; 26: 525.
3. King DP, Zhao Y & Sangoram AM et al. Positional cloning of the mouse circadian clock gene. Cell 1997; 89: 
4. YoungMW & KaySA. Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks. Nat Rev Genet 2001; 2: 
5. Andretic R, Chaney S & HirshJ. Requirement of circadian genes for cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. 
Science 1999; 285: 1066−1068.|Article|PubMed|ISI|ChemPort|
6. Abarca C, Albrecht U & Spanagel R. Cocaine sensitization and reward are under the influence of circadian 
genes and rhythm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 9026−9030.|Article|PubMed|ChemPort|
7. Yuferov V, Kroslak T & Laforge KS et al. Differential gene expression in the rat caudate putamen after 'binge' 
cocaine administration: advantage of triplicate microarray analysis. Synapse 2003; 48: 157−169.|Article|
8. Spanagel R, Pendyala G & Abarca C et al. The clock gene Per2 influences the glutamatergic system and 
modulates alcohol consumption. Nat Med 2005; 11: 35−42.|Article|PubMed|ChemPort|
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These links to content published by NPG are automatically generated


Clock reset for alcoholism
Nature Medicine News and Views (01 Jan 2005)
Dark side of drug dependence
Nature News and Views (08 Sep 1994)
Cocaine Abuse
Last updated: 15 Nov 2007

Drug Use: Cocaine - Crack

Pictures of Cocaine and Crack Cocaine How Much Do YOU

• Cocaine and Crack

COCAINE: Questions and Answers

• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 28, 2009 at 9:54pm

Drug Information Editorials @

Marijuana Myths

In Search
Of The Big Bang

What is Crack Cocaine?


• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 28, 2009 at 10:16pm


Injections Of Licorice Ingredient Show Promise

As Treatment For Cocaine Addiction

Cocaine And Alcohol Combined Are More

Damaging To Mental Ability Than Either Drug
Researchers Find That After Stopping Cocaine
Use, Drug Craving Gets Stronger Over Time

Trauma And Stress In Early Life Increases

Vulnerability To Cocaine Addiction In
Adulthood, Yale Researchers Find

Highs And Lows Of Drug Cravings

ScienceDaily (Oct. 11, 2007) — The anticipation of a cocaine fix and the actual craving to abuse the
drug are two closely related phenomena, according to new evidence published in the journal Substance
Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.

(Now for) The Pharma Cartel

I promised to touch on the impact of the pharma cartel as well. For starters I will refer you to the issue
of 'Issues that Matter Most!' on 'POISONS'. In this issue I focused on many of the poisons that we are
not aware of. Cocaine, crack cocaine, crystal meth, heroin (etc) are obvious poisons to our minds,
bodies and spirits. But there are many chemicals we digest, ingest, breathe in or are exposed to on a
daily basis in our foods, cleaning supplies, personal care products, in the air we breathe etc that we may
not be aware of but are just as harmful as hard drugs. I will refer you first of all to the URL of this issue
to lay the ground work for this topic. The first section of the emag is on this subject of the harms to be
found in pharmaceuticals and the corruption to be found in the pharma cartel. Please check this out:
Issues that Matter MOST! - third edition (published for February - '09)

In addition to this documentary I have posted quite a bit on my network

( on this issue of great importance. Please also review what
follows on the next page.

In Lies We Trust: The CIA, Hollywood and

Bioterrorism - Official Release - 2:30:38 - Nov
23, 2007
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 17, 2009 at 2:41am

Tetrahedron Films -

This feature length documentary about medical madness, cloaked in bioterrorism preparedness, will
awaken the brain dead. It exposes health officials, directed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),
for conducting a “War of Terror” that is killing millions of unwitting Americans. This urgent life-saving
DVD comes without copyright restrictions. Every viewer is encouraged to reproduce and distribute
copies to others. Donations to Tetrahedron Films to cover costs and produce more films like this are
greatly appreciated online at or by calling toll free 1-888-508-4787.
You can screen the film on behalf of local charities. It was produced by award-winning humanitarian,
Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz (, a world-renowned authority in public
health education, covert intelligence agency operations, and emerging diseases investigations. He is the
author of three American bestsellers, including Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola—Nature, Accident or
Intentional? and Healing Codes for the Biological Apocalypse. (Tetrahedron Press; 1-888-508-4787)
This monumental film exposes the agents and agencies behind: Hollywood films and the media
creating a profitable culture of bioterror; the “War on Terrorism” used to control populations; the most
lucrative war in history—the “War on Cancer;” the onslaught of dozens of new immunological diseases
and deadly flus; the “War on AIDS” triggered by contaminated vaccines; the anthrax mailings resulting
in restricted freedoms, and sales of toxic drugs, deadly vaccines, and more. Documents displayed in
film may be viewed online at For over 400 of the top Critically important
videos see -- Much more at the site. Wake up, get involved, Save the Republic
- Your kids, grand kids and your life will depend on what you do from now on. Key words:
propaganda, war, terrorism, vaccinations, immunizations, cancer, biological warfare, weapons of mass
destruction, pharmaceuticals, AIDS, anthrax, healthcare, Hollywood, CIA, CDC, and FDA

Fluoride Is A Toxic Poison

• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 10, 2009 at 5:12pm

97% of western Europe has chosen fluoride-free water . This includes: Austria, Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway,
Scotland, Sweden, and Switzerland. (While some European countries add fluoride to salt, the majority
do not.) Thus, rather than mandating fluoride treatment for the whole population, western Europe
allows individuals the right to choose, or refuse, fluoride.

Adolf Hitler sought a means to make people docile and suggestible. He discovered that odorless
sodium fluoride slowly poisons and makes dormant the small tissue in the brain's left rear occipital lobe
that normally helps a person resist domination. Fluoride allows muscles to move one way, but not
relax. In large doses fluoride causes paralysis and death

Codex Alimentarius
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 7, 2009 at 7:44pm
Having spent the past twelve months investigating Codex Alimentarius, I am deeply disturbed by the
almost total lack of awareness (or even interest) with regard to the implications of this pernicious
global Commission, particularly amongst those most affected by the excesses of this restrictive
legislation. In the words of the National Health Federation[i], the aims and objectives of Codex
Alimentarius are as follows: * Only low-potency, “me too” supplements available that will do nothing
for your health. * All or most foods genetically-modified. * Beneficial supplements unavailable or sold
by prescription only. For many people, this agenda is so outrageous, they cannot believe such goals are
achievable; yet this may well be the reality as soon as 31st December 2009, if the Codex Alimentarius
Commission continues to disregard input from those who offer a counter perspective to the combined
forces of Big Farmer & Big Pharma.«

Nutricide - Criminalizing Natural Health,

Vitamins, and HerbsDetailsCommentsMore
from userNutricide - Criminalizing Natural
Health, Vitamins, and Herbs - 40:07 - Sep 2,
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on March 3, 2009 at 6:36am
Codex Alimentarius Discussion
Between Me and Alan H

Alan H:

The Codex Alimentarius is a threat to the freedom of people to choose natural healing and alternative
medicine and nutrition. Ratified by the World Health Organization, and going into Law in the United
States in 2009, the threat to health freedom has never been greater. This is the first part of a series of
talks by Dr. Rima Laibow MD, available on DVD from the Natural Solutions Foundation, an non-profit
organization dedicated to educating people about how to stop Codex Alimentarius from taking away
our right to freely choose nutritional health

March 2 at 5:24pm
Hi all!

On the group page, Gord Z. began a discussion thread regarding Codex Alimentarius.

If you're interested in natural healing, and alternative medicines, and alternative nutrition options,
please watch this forty minute lecture about Codex Alimentarius:
Codex Alimentarius is basically a way how the governments (throughout the world) are trying to create
obstacles between you and your chosen methods of healing, nutrition, etc.
Please watch that lecture, and then participate in the discussion on the group page!

And let's continue to race to a million members so we can conduct our main intention experiment :)

This link should take you to where you can invite more members:
- Peace.
Continuing the above discussion omitting some:
......... There is so much in the way of natural cures out there. If they were promoted even half as much
as the pharma corps brainwash us into disease promoting drugs there would be no such thing as any
It would be so nice to see this group stay going and to see people posting the cures and helpful holistic
medicines for cancer. I know the pharmaceutical companies do not wish for there to be cures to disease
as then they would be out of billions of dollars a year! I believe facebook is in kahoots with them and
many other orgs that should be criminalized and removed from the scene as the causes of evil that they

Simpleton's Guide: The Food and Drug Administration

Codex Alimentarius P1

Codex Alimentarius P2

Skidmarks Disease in the Town of Allopath

The group this discussion came from on facebook is:

Back to Intention Experiment -- One Million Members To Cure Cancer

Topic: Keeping the Codex Alimentarius out of this group!

I will leave it at that as far as the pharma cartel goes. This is already running on 103 pages and counting
so I better close this up! If you looked at the links you will see why I put no faith in the
pharmaceuticals. I do not even trust doctors much anymore for these very facts because they are part
and parcel of the problem too, having been 'bought' by these 'merchants of death'. If you wish to know
more please contact me via my email or on the network to share

I hope this issue has proved informative and interesting to you.

By the wayside...

Please help my friend Byron battling the government of Canada for vile corruptions against his
family - including the molesting and raping of the children in his family! You can help by
forwarding this in any way possible!
I will give you both the pdf version and the text document for this special edition of 'Issues' -






Byron: I hope you don't mind my initiative here... :D

8-> Fire Fly in the Dark!
Sound of healing (Monaural sound)
• Added by Fire Fly in the Dark on April 1, 2009 at 4:37am

Issues that Matter Most!

Free to share because we care!! :D
Something Very Fishy

Bloomberg Finance L.P. is the fastest-growing real-time financial information network in the


Welcome to

Looking Glass News - Tracking the Stories Ignored by the Corporate Media

In light of what I published in the special edition (HOW THE SYSTEM COVERS UP FOR
corruption eminating from our governments I would like to devote an article to what's
at the root of this corruption along with it's ensuing brain-washing/mind control
tactics. I have touched on this in past issues but by isolating this issue perhaps we can
get a bigger picture of how this works. I think I will call our next issue of 'Issues' =>
'MEDIA EXPLOITS AND BRAINWASHING' – an easy title to think of as I am just copying
what I named one of my folders on my pc! I will also get into the structuring of the
Illuminati and New World Order as well as touch on some new information I have been
noticing on a group or two large enough and powerful enough to be a formidably
menacing enemy of the Illuminati – which will result in the 3rd World War moving
beyond a psychological world war to world war as we are more familiar with.
If you wish to receive a subscription to Issues that Matter MOST! Monthly online e-mag
please email me to let me know.
The views expressed herein are not entirely the views of the publisher (the clues are in the links.
The links contain the pieces to the puzzle.)
Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it.

• Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumoured by many.

• Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your religious
• Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and elders.
• Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many
• But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason
and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to

- Gautama Buddha

Fire Fly in the Dark' –

Also known as Gord 'Cat in the Hat' Zaretzki!)
Contact Info: Type my Username: Flyer Fly in the Dark@
Global Activism