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Absorption Water Chillers

A Trane Air Conditioning Clinic

American Standard Inc. 2000

Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

ChilledWater System

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Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

absorption

centrifugal

helical-rotary
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Absorption Water Chillers


period one

Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

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Vapor-Compression Cycle
reject heat D condenser expansion device evaporator absorb heat C compressor energy in A B

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Absorption Refrigeration Cycle


reject heat D condenser C heat energy in generator pump

expansion device A
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evaporator B absorb heat

absorber

reject heat

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Refrigerant

Distilled water
Stable Nontoxic Low

cost available friendly

Readily

Environmentally High

latent heat of vaporization

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Absorbent

Lithium Bromide (LiBr)


High In

affinity for water (refrigerant) solution, higher boiling point than water

Nontoxic

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Solution Concentration

dilute solution
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intermediate solution

concentrated solution
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Absorption Refrigeration Cycle


steam or hot water generator condens er cooling water

evaporator

chilled water

heat exchang er absorber


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Boiling Point of Water


115F temperatur e
[46.1C]

45F 0.15 psia


[1.034 kPa]

[7.2C]

1.5 psia
[10.34 kPa]

pressure
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Generator
steam or hot water generator refrigera nt vapor

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dilute solutio n

concentrate d solution
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Condenser
refrigera nt vapor condens er cooling water liquid refrigera nt

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Expansion Device
evaporat or liquid refrigera nt

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expansio n device

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Evaporator
refrigera nt vapor evaporat or

chilled water

absorber

liquid refrigera nt evaporato r spray

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Absorber
refrigera nt vapor absorber intermedia te solution concentrat ed solution

absorber spray pump cooling water

dilute solution

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Heat Exchanger

concentrat ed solution

heat exchanger dilute solution


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generator pump

Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Equilibrium Chart
15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

A C B
100F
[37.8C]

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

50F
[10C]
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150F
[65.6C]

200F
[93.3C]

solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Absorption Refrigeration Cycle


steam or hot water generator D evaporator B heat exchang er absorber
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condens er cooling water C chilled water expansio n device


Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Absorption Refrigeration Cycle


15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

1.5 psia
[10.3 kPa]

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

A
50F
[10C]

E
150F
[65.6C]

100F
[37.8C]

200F
[93.3C]

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solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Absorption Water Chillers


period two

Absorption Chiller Types

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Single-Effect Chiller
condens er evaporator generator

absorber

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Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Single-Effect Chiller
steam or hot water generator condens er cooling water

evaporator heat exchang er absorber absorber spray pump


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chilled water expansio n device evaporator spray pump generator pump

Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Double-Effect Chiller
lowtemperature generator condens er evaporator hightemperature generator

absorber

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Double-Effect Chiller
hightemperature generator steam or hot water refrigera nt vapor refrigera nt vapor condens ed refrigera nt

to absorber
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lowtemperature generator

condens er
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Double-Effect Chiller
lowtemperature generator evaporator lowtemperature heat absorber exchanger absorber spray pump
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condens cooling er water

chilled water expansio n device evaporator spray pump low-temperature generator pump

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Double-Effect Chiller
steam-fired hightemperature generator hightemperature generator pump

condensat e heat exchanger hightemperature heat

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Reverse-Series Solution Flow


hightemperature generator lowtemperature generator

hightemperature generator pump absorber


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low-temperature generator

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Series Solution Flow


hightemperature generator lowtemperature generator

absorber

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generator pump

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Parallel Solution Flow


hightemperature generator lowtemperature generator

absorber

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generator pump

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Direct-Fired Chiller
condens er evaporator lowtemperature generator

absorber high-temperature generator

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Direct-Fired Chiller
hightemperatu re generator refrigerant vapor refrigera nt vapor lowtemperature generator condens ed refrigera nt condens er

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Direct-Fired Chiller
lowtemperature generator evaporator lowtemperature heat absorber exchanger absorber spray pump
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condens er cooling water

chilled water expansio n device evaporator spray pump low-temperature generator pump

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Direct-Fired Chiller
hightemperature generator hightemperature generator pump

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hightemperature heat h

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Chiller/Heater
refrigera nt vapor hot water auxiliary heating bundle hightemperature generator
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Chiller/Heater Operating Modes


Cooling only Heating only Simultaneous cooling/heating cooling priority Simultaneous heating/cooling heating priority

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Chiller/Heater
changeov er valve refrigera nt vapor hot water evaporat or hightemperature generator absorber
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Higher-Effect Chillers

Higher COPs Difficulties with implementation include:


Problems Increased More

with solution stability risk of corrosion problems

expensive pressure vessel design requirements first cost due to added components physical size

Greater Larger

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Absorption Water Chillers


period three

Capacity Control

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Equilibrium Chart
15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

A C B
100F
[37.8C]

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

50F
[10C]
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150F
[65.6C]

200F
[93.3C]

solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Part-Load Operation
15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

B A A F E

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

50F
[10C]
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100F
[37.8C]

150F
[65.6C]

200F
[93.3C]

solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Vary Solution Flow to Generator

adjustablefrequency drive absorber spray pump


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generator pump

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Vary Heat Input to Generator


energy valve generator

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Crystallization
15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

123F
[50.6 C]

crystallizati on line
200F
[93.3C]

50F
[10C]
American Standard Inc. 2000

100F
[37.8C]

150F
[65.6C]

solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Crystallization
15 psia

e r u ss 5 psia e r rp o [34.5 kPa] p a v


1 psia
[6.9 kPa]

[103.4 kPa]

40

50 55

concentrati on
60 65

B A

0.1 psia
[0.69 kPa]

crystallizati on line
150F
[65.6C]

50F
[10C]
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100F
[37.8C]

200F
[93.3C]

solution

LiBr solution
Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

Causes of Crystallization

Air and noncondensables leaking into the chiller Cooling water that is too cold or fluctuates in temperature too rapidly Electric power failure

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Air Leaking Into the Chiller


Increases evaporator pressure and temperature Decreases chiller capacity Increases heat input Increases concentration Especially under high-load conditions, could cause crystallization

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Cooling Water That is Too Cold

Lower cooling water temperature combined with high load...


Decreases Results

temperature of dilute solution traveling to generator in lower temperature of concentrated solution returning to absorber concentrated solution inside heat exchanger to crystallize
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Causes

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Electric Power Failure

Normal shutdown allows for dilution cycle, which reduces the concentration throughout the chiller Electric power failure does not allow dilution cycle Chiller could experience crystallization as it cools off

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Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN

De-Crystallization
generator heat exchanger bypass heat exchanger absorber
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evaporator

Low-Load Controls

evaporator pan

refrigerant storage tank


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Purge System
purge

condens er

vacuum pump
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Purge Operation
isolation valve vacuum pump purge evaporator coil refrigerant vapor from chiller condenser liquid refrigerant returning to chiller d
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purge tank

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Absorption Water Chillers


period four

Maintenance Considerations

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Operating Log

Chilled water inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures Cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures Absorber inlet and outlet solution temperatures and concentrations Absorber spray solution temperature Generator inlet and outlet solution temperatures Evaporator refrigerant temperature Condenser refrigerant temperature

Crystallization margin Purge pump-out activity Gas supply pressure (directfired)

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Mechanical Components

Recommended maintenance
Pump

teardown and inspection every 5 to 10 years no maintenance or calibration required inspect overall unit safety controls and electrical components

Controls: Visually Inspect

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Purge System

Weekly maintenance
Check Check

level of liquid refrigerant in purge condensing unit vacuum pump oil

Semiannual maintenance
Inspect

purge condensing coil and clean as necessary vacuum pump oil as needed

Change

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Direct-Fired Burner

Daily maintenance
Verify

proper operation

Seasonal maintenance
Inspect

burner firing rate, blower, linkage, and safety controls run with alternate fuel, if dual-fuel burner

Test

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Heat Transfer Surfaces

Recommended maintenance
Use

a qualified water treatment specialist absorber and condenser tubes as needed waterside strainers tubes every 3 years

Clean

Clean Test

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Corrosion Inhibitors

Absorbent solution analysis


Conduct Verifies Verifies

annually or semiannually corrosion inhibitor levels performance additive

levels

Refrigerant analysis
Conduct

annually

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Absorption Water Chillers


period five

Application Considerations

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Cooling-Water Temperature Limitations

cooling tower bypass diverting valve

condenser
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Combination Chiller Plants


operate absorption chiller cooling load operate electric chiller operate electric chiller

9 10 11 12 1

9 10 11 12

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on -peak on-peak period

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Combination Chiller Plants


absorption chiller electric chiller

58F
[14.4C]

50F
[10C]

42F
[5.6C]

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Direct-Fired Chiller Considerations


cooling tower flue stack exhaust duct

direct -fired direct-fired absorption chiller


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ASHRAE Standard 151994

Open-flame devices
Combustion Refrigerant

air ducted from outside the machinery room vapor detector to shut down combustion process in the event of a refrigerant leak

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Equipment Rating Standards

Purpose
Establish

definitions, testing, and rating requirements and double-effect absorption chillers and direct-fired absorption chillers bromide solution

Scope
Single-

Indirect-

Water-and-lithium

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Absorption Water Chillers


period six

Review

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ReviewPeriod One
steam or hot water generator condens er

evaporator

chilled water expansio n device cooling water

heat exchanger absorber


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ReviewPeriod Two

single-effect

double-effect

direct-fired
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ReviewPeriod Three

Part-load capacity control


Vary Vary

solution flow to generator heat input to generator construction controls devices

Crystallization prevention
High-quality Microelectronic Automatic

purge systems

De-crystallization

Purge system
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ReviewPeriod Four

Maintenance considerations
Operating

log components

Mechanical Heat

transfer surfaces

Absorbent

solution analysis (corrosion inhibitor and performance additive levels)

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ReviewPeriod Five

Application considerations
Cooling-water Combination Special

temperature limitations

gas-and-electric chiller plants

considerations for direct-fired chillers rating standards

Equipment

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Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC011-EN