Anda di halaman 1dari 20

Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 160, 2003, pp. 117136. Printed in Great Britain.

Superposed deformations and their hybrid effects: the Rhoscolyn Anticline unravelled
S U S A N H . T R E AG U S , JAC K E . T R E AG U S & G I L E S T. R . D RO O P Department of Earth Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK (e-mail: s.treagus@man.ac.uk)
Abstract: This study of the controversial structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline suggests a different result of two-phase coaxial deformation from Ramsays Type 3 interference fold patterns. From detailed eld observations of the sequence of bedded quartzites, psammites, pelites and oblique quartz veins, with their strong competence contrasts, we conclude that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an original tight, upright F1 anticline that has undergone modication and distortion in a second deformation (D2 ). This second deformation is an oblique, but near-vertical, pure shear, with a quantiable strain ratio ( R 3) that altered the Rhoscolyn Anticline and its minor structures into a more open, SE-overturned antiform, with c. 260 m hinge migration. Refolded folds are rare, but hybrid F1 F2 minor folds and their fabrics, especially in the region between old and new hinges, provide clues to the two-stage history. Oblique distortion of originally NWverging F1 minor folds has resulted in their apparent neutral vergence in the present-day hinge of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. We regard the structures and fabrics in quartzites and psammites as more reliable indicators of the regions deformation history than those in pelites or quartz veins, and this may prove true for other regions of polyphase deformation. Keywords: Anglesey, polyphase processes, superposed deformation, folds.

Observations of geological structures such as folded fabrics, crenulation cleavages and folded folds, lead to the conclusion that a region has undergone polyphase deformation. The nature of this polyphase deformation can be understood from the 3D geometry of refolded folds and their sectional interference patterns (Ramsay 1962; 1967, p. 531; Ramsay & Huber 1987, p. 492), and from the geometry of multiple deformation fabrics in the eld or thin section, such as crenulation cleavages (Passchier & Trouw 1996, pp. 8488) or folded lineations (Ramsay & Huber 1987, pp. 481484). In this paper, we consider an area of polyphase deformation whose structures have led to the emergence of many different interpretations, with signicant implications for the tectonic history of the region. Our study focuses on the Rhoscolyn Anticline located on Holy Island, Anglesey (Ynys Mo n), a 2 km2 coastal area of Monian Supergroup rocks that is a popular place for teaching elementary mapping of distinct lithologies around a major fold structure, but is equally useful for investigating the structures of polyphase deformation from the large to small scale. The area was chosen by Price & Cosgrove (1990, pp. 482490) as a case study for structural analysis of multiple deformation, and by Lisle (1988) to question the application of vergence principles in refolded regions. The structures in this area have given rise to many different interpretations, some of which are illustrated in Fig. 1 (Greenly 1919; Shackleton 1969; Cosgrove 1980; Phillips 1991); other interpretations include those of Barber & Max (1979), Lisle (1988), Roper (1992) and Hudson & Stowell (1997). Many of these workers differ in their interpretation of the number and signicance of the deformation phases that gave rise to the fabrics and folds. In essence, these simplify into whether the Rhoscolyn Anticline is a major rst fold, as rst proposed by Shackleton (1969) (Fig. 1d), that is overprinted and modied by later folding and fabrics, or is a later antiform, that refolds earlier structures, as exemplied by the other illustrated interpretations (Fig. 1c, e and f).
117

The Rhoscolyn area provides ample exposure of the following types of structural criteria, which have been used variously to back the different interpretations. Major and minor folds with clear vergence relationships change their sense around the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Foliations vary from grain-shape fabrics in quartzites and psammites, to a dominant crenulation cleavage in pelites, with intermediate rocks showing folded cleavage within a bed, and sometimes two cross-cutting cleavages. Folded quartz veins are abundant in pelite beds, and roughly track the rst cleavage. Despite all these features, textbook-style coaxial refolding patterns of Type 3 (Ramsay 1967) are rare, leading us to wonder whether coaxial refolding is the primary method of superposed deformation in these rocks. Critical questions in the eld, here, are whether folds on different scales are rst or second, whether their vergence is signicant, and how the different cleavages in different rock types relate to their folds. We will propose a two-phase model that can account for many of the ambiguities in this area, and reconcile some of the differences among previous interpretations outlined more fully below. Our model and structural observations are restricted to the tripartite South Stack Group, and we leave investigation of the differently deformed overlying New Harbour Formation for inclusion in our continuing investigations of the geology and structure of NW Anglesey. Our approach begins by reviewing mechanisms of superposed deformation and polyphase folding, with special focus on coaxial refolding in rocks with competence contrasts. This leads to our specic investigation of the structures associated with the Rhoscolyn Anticline, and the development of a quantitative model for the two-phase deformation and folding history. Our model has implications in general for polyphase deformation in metasedimentary rocks with competence contrasts, and for the regional tectonic history of the Monian Supergroup of Anglesey.

118

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

Fig. 1. (a) Regional setting and (b) summary map of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, Holy Island, Anglesey, and the principal previous interpretations and polyphase history in schematic cross-sectional form of (c) Greenly (1919), (d) Shackleton (1969), (e) Cosgrove (1980) and (f) Phillips (1991). In (c), (e) and (f), the left-hand diagrams illustrate D1 stages. B, Borthwen; BD, Bwa Du; CG, Coastguard; PS, Porth Saint; v, volcanic rocks; Q, quartzite.

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

119

Mechanisms of superposed deformation and coaxial refolding


Refolded folds are probably the least-disputed evidence for polyphase deformation. Fold interference patterns in map or section view (Ramsay 1962, 1967, chapter 10; Ramsay & Huber 1987, chapter 22; see also Thiessen & Means 1980) reveal the variety of geometry that can arise from two phases of folds, according to the mutual relationships of their axes and axial planes. Ramsays classication (Ramsay 1962, 1967, chapter 10; Ramsay & Huber 1987, chapter 22) of fold interference (Types 13), is based on two superposed phases of similar folding with the same wavelength and amplitude, and has been illustrated by spectacular examples from gneissic rocks. In this paper, we are interested in the processes of two coaxial phases of folding, as for the Rhoscolyn structures. This means that any interference geometry is revealed fully in the shared fold prole plane of the two phases, and might be expected to show Ramsays Type 3 refolding, or Type 0 (no refolding), according to the orientation of the superposed shear folds. Ramsay & Lisle (2000, pp. 885901) provided a detailed case study of Type 3 interference caused by two perfectly orthogonal superposed phases of shear folding (Fig. 2a and b). They reveal the complex fold patterns and strain histories that result, and discuss some of the anomalies in small-scale structures and fabrics that might arise. The most signicant effect in Fig. 2b is that the rst folds can be clearly traced, with only small differences locally between original hinges and nal hinges, whereas the second folds are less persistent, with jumps in axial planes. This model does not consider the complexities that might arise from differences in scale of rst and second folds, or of major and minor folds and their vergence. The use of major and minor folds and of vergence of folds and cleavage has become an established method in geological mapping of folded regions, and the use of vergence in areas of

refolding was discussed by Bell (1981) and Weijermars (1982). Both suggested that in areas of coaxial refolding, the vergence of rst-phase structures would not be changed by second folding, and so reversals of vergence (vergence boundaries) could be used to identify early folds. This was tested by Lisle (1988), who considered the effects of superimposing a set of second similar (shear) folds on a bed containing a rst cleavage, and he demonstrated that anomalous cleavage vergence and vergence changes can arise. The study by Lisle (1988) is particularly apt for our paper, as it appears to have been prompted by specic structures and vergence features of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, and examples from here were used to illustrate small-scale vergence reversals that might lead to misinterpretations of the large-scale structure. Lisle concluded that vergence may be an unreliable structural tool in areas of polyphase folding. The models discussed for refolding, and for the case of coaxial refolding that we focus on in this paper, have so far involved superposed similar folds, without any concern for their mechanics of origin. However, any discussion of folding or refolding in rocks with competence contrasts, or of minor and major folding, cannot ignore the origin of rst and second folding; that is, the buckling mechanics. We thus turn to the question of whether 2D fold interference effects of the kind shown in Fig. 2b (after Ramsay & Lisle 2000) would be produced by orthogonal deformations, in layers with competence contrasts. Many analogue model studies have considered two-phase folding in layered materials with rheological contrasts (Watkinson 1981; Ghosh et al. 1992, 1993; Grujic 1993; Johns & Mosher 1996), but have been principally concerned with cross-folding (Type 1 or 2 interference patterns) rather than coaxial refolding (Type 3). These cited studies all reveal the importance of the rst fold geometry on the development of Type 1 or 2 fold interference in mechanically active two-phase folding. Ghosh et al. (1992, 1993) classied modes of superposed buckling, and revealed the 3D complexities that arise in interfer-

1 2 3 4 2

Fig. 2. Models for two-phase folding with parallel fold axes and orthogonal shortening directions. (a) First phase similar-style folds with four numbered marker layers (continuous curves), and F1 axial planes (dashed lines). (b) Classical Type 3 interference, according to Ramsays model of similar refolding, with F2 folds having the same geometry as the F1 folds, after Ramsay & Lisle (2000, g. 35.6). Same line symbols as in (a), but also showing discontinuous F2 axial planes (dotted traces). (c) Reversal of the F1 folds in (a) by active unfolding, as a result of equal and opposite D1 and D2 deformations (see text for details). The layers become straight, and the original F1 axial planes are folded, and an associated cleavage (S1 ) would be folded on orthogonal F2 axial planes (dotted). (d) An alternative version of equal and opposite D1 and D2 deformation, but where D2 is a passive pure shear modication of the F1 folds shown in (a). The folds are opened by homogeneous D2 strain, and F1 axial planes undergo shortening and folding in a similar fashion to (c).

120

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

ing folds of different (major, minor) orders. Johns & Mosher (1996) examined the effects of varying the competence contrasts. However, we are unaware of any experimental studies that examined these variables for coaxial superposed buckling, to investigate whether Type 3 interference patterns are produced in layered systems with competence contrasts, or what form they might have. Our discussion must therefore concentrate on theoretical principles. Let us consider a multilayer comprising competent and incompetent layers in a rst phase of layer-parallel compression, that produced sinusoidal buckles with 608 limb dips (as in Fig. 2a). If we wish to consider the effects of a second deformation, equal but orthogonal to the rst, for comparison with the similar folding model (Fig. 2b), we need rst to estimate the strain associated with these rst folds. If produced by buckling alone, this would indicate 35% layer shortening, but it allows for no internal layer shortening before or during folding. From a review of analogue and experimental models of single and multilayer folds (Treagus 1997, gs 19.4 and 19.5), a shortening of 47% seems a more realistic gure, equivalent to a plane strain with strain ratio of R 3:5. The example in Fig. 2 can thus be considered as two phases of pure shear, each with R 3:5, the rst (D1 ) parallel to layering, the second (D2 ) orthogonally, with shortening parallel to the axial planes of rst folds. (The total strain is therefore zero.) Instead of assuming that D2 causes a sinusoidal second displacement pattern, we will consider the likely response of a mechanically active system. If the layers behave according to Newtonian rheology, and there are no changes in layer viscosities, a D2 deformation equal and opposite to D1 would simply reverse the folding instability, and unfold the layers to their initial straightness (Fig. 2c). Such perfect reversals of deformation can be produced in analogue fold models, and in nite-element models with Newtonian ow laws (S. H. Treagus, unpublished data). Within this unfolded fold (Fig. 2c), a hypothetical rst cleavage (assumed parallel to XY for D1 ) might become crenulated, to develop an orthogonal second cleavage. Therefore, although the cumulative effects of folding and unfolding here lead to zero bulk strain in the system, this would not be obvious if the two-stage effects were preserved in fabrics within competent and incompetent layers. An alternative type of superposed D2 deformation, equal and opposite in strain value to the rst, is shown in Fig. 2d. This is the result of assuming D2 strain is a homogeneous pure shear of R 3:5. The effect is also to open up the rst folds of Fig. 2a; but passively, by changing the limb dip from 608 to 268, to create a distorted hybrid rst fold. As for the previous model, this superposed pure shear might shorten and crenulate any rst axial-plane cleavage, to produce an orthogonal second cleavage. In this model, the polyphase effects would be manifested in deceptively gentle folds of bedding, but potentially stronger folds of an earlier axial-plane fabric. This quasi-passive model does not require that the layers maintain the same rheological contrasts in D2 as in D1. It would require quantitative models, and adoption of specic values for layer viscosities, to reveal the true mechanical behaviour of superposed deformation on a particular suite of earlier D1 structures. The modelling would need to be two-stage: rst to generate the rst folds; then to deform these again, orthogonally, under the same model conditions. We are unaware of any modelling of this kind. From theoretical studies of strain variations across competence contrasts in layered systems or related to folding (Treagus 1988, 1993, 1997), we think the nite deformation effects would be complex. The simplest conceptual model is to assume quasi-passive D2 deformation, of the kind

shown in Fig. 2d. This may be a suitable approximation to the bulk response, for some patterns of rst folding, and will be pursued below. The likelihood of developing new second folds by active folding or refolding in a multiplayer (rather than unbuckling or passively distorting the earlier folds in either of the manners shown in Fig. 2c and d), will depend on satisfying two main requirements. (1) Are there sufcient straight sections of layering around rst folds that remain in compression for second folds to initiate? Previous analogue models of buckling of layers in oblique shortening (Beech 1969; Treagus 1972) showed that signicant folds were produced only in layers initially ,258 to principal shortening. The orientation does not affect the wavelength and folds should initiate symmetrically (Treagus 1973), but an S or Z asymmetry would subsequently develop according to the sense of obliquity to the strain. Applying these results to (second) folding of layers in hinges or limbs of rst folds, we see that no part of the folds in Fig. 2a would be in suitable orientation for second folding. Where the two deformations are not orthogonal, or the rst folds are asymmetric, second folds might develop preferentially on alternate limbs of rst folds. Only where rst folds are nearly isoclinal and straight-limbed, might signicant second folding be seen on both limbs (not necessarily with the same symmetry; Ramsay 1967, g. 10.21). (2) Does the layering (singly or multiply), in any section around a rst fold, full the mechanical requirements for buckling (Johnson & Fletcher 1994) into new folds? It is difcult to explain how a new set of buckles could properly form, having the same wavelengths as the rst (to satisfy the mechanics of the system), when a set of earlier folds already exists. One explanation is to assume there are reductions of viscosity contrasts in the second deformation that would reduce the dominant wavelengths for buckling and allow smaller folds to grow, which would also reduce the buckling response. Alternatively, a half fold wave or whole waves (a fold pair) might be localized on rst fold limbs, especially on long limbs, so that the wavelengths of the second folds are controlled by the size of the rst fold limbs, rather than by the buckling mechanics. From this reasoning, we conclude that development of new second folds, or proper coaxial refolding of earlier rst folds, should be the exception in mechanically active systems with competence contrasts subjected to this type of superposed deformation. Second folds are likely to be on a smaller scale than rst folds, and systematic fold patterns require rst folds that are straight-limbed and tight to isoclinal. These conclusions highlight the different interplays of mechanics and geometry: the manner in which the rst folds interfere with, or favour, second folding, for different orientations of superposed deformation, that potentially give rise to Types 1, 2 or 3 interference. In rocks with competence contrasts, we consider that Type 3 interference is likely to be localized and rare, compared with Types 1 and 2. This theoretical discussion and its conclusions can now be applied to real rocks, to help unravel the polyphase structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline.

The Rhoscolyn Anticline: review and critical observations


Following our brief introduction to the Rhoscolyn Anticline above (Fig. 1), we now consider it in more detail as a case study for revealing the superposed effects of two coaxial folding deformations in layered rocks with competence contrasts.

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

121

Review of geology and previous structural interpretations


The dominant structural feature of the Rhoscolyn area of Holy Island, Anglesey, is the Rhoscolyn Anticline or Antiform (Fig. 1a and b), illustrated in our map and prole (Fig. 3); detailed observations are described in the next section. There have been several conicting interpretations of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and its associated minor structures in these Monian Supergroup (Precambrian or Cambrian) rocks, as simplied in Fig. 1cf. Before reviewing these, we summarize the geometry of structural elements that is common to them all, regardless of their supposed age or mechanical signicance. (1) Three lithostratigraphic formations are displayed clearly in an antiformal fold, the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Figs 1 and 3). The South Stack, Holyhead Quartzite and Rhoscolyn Formations collectively comprise bedded quartzites, psammites and pelites. The South Stack and Rhoscolyn Formations consist of alternating

centimetre- to metre-scale psammites, semipelites and pelites, which sandwich the Holyhead Quartzite Formation, dominantly a poorly bedded orthoquartzite. These rocks are succeeded by the New Harbour Formation, dominantly a distinct nely layered green semipelite. (2) The major fold plunges to the NE and has an axial surface that dips to the NW; it has a long, atter, limb that dips gently to the NW, a broad, rounded, hinge zone, and an apparently short limb that dips initially steeply to the SE, becoming locally vertical and overturned, steeply dipping to the NW. (3) The bedded units on both limbs are affected by intermediate-scale folds (tens of metres in wavelength) and abundant minor-scale folds (metres or less in wavelength), most of which plunge subparallel to, and are congruent with, the major antiform. (4) In the psammitic rocks, most of the minor- and intermediate-scale folds of bedding referred to above have a penetrative

Fig. 3. (a) Structural map and eld data for the Rhoscolyn Anticline, an abbreviated version from our eld maps. Readings related to D2 are not shown. (b) Downplunge projection of (a), based on the average plunge of fold axes of 248/0568 (prole section plane 1468/668 SW). The nine eld localities described in the text are located on map and prole. H shows the major fold hinge trace; X is discussed in the text.

122

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

cleavage subparallel to their steep NW-dipping axial surfaces and to that of the major fold. (5) The pelites throughout the major fold are dominated by a crenulation cleavage, which dips at shallow angles to the NW. They also contain a signicant volume of quartz veins, oblique to bedding, which are folded. We summarize ve previous interpretations of the evolution of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and its associated minor structures, four of which are illustrated in schematic form (Fig. 1cf). Roper (1992) did not illustrate his interpretation in cross-sectional or prole view, but we consider it would look very similar to our own prole (Fig. 3b). We cannot do justice here to the detailed observations that the previous workers have presented, but have tried to abstract the essential elements of their work that are pertinent to their interpretation, and to our reinterpretation. Readers are referred to these studies for fuller discussion of the regional geology and tectonics. We omit interpretations (e.g. Hudson & Stowell 1997) based principally on structures in the New Harbour Formation, but will address these and their correlations in another paper. Shackleton (1969), using sedimentary way-up structures, reinterpreted the stratigraphic succession and structural interpretation of the original mapping of the Rhoscolyn area by Greenly (1919) (Fig. 1c). Shackletons four-fold, upward-facing, succession (Fig. 1d) is accepted by most later workers, and by ourselves. On the basis of the plentiful minor structures, he interpreted the Rhoscolyn Anticline as an F1 fold, verging and facing steeply to the SE. A strong axial-planar penetrative S1 schistosity, fanning around the fold, was observed to be developed in the quartzites and psammites, parallel to which quartz veins were segregated in the pelites. Several sets of minor structures were identied, superimposed upon the Rhoscolyn Anticline, one of which was said to originate from a vertical compressional stress eld (D2 of this paper). The view of Shackleton (1969), which we essentially share, was not challenged until the claim by Cosgrove (1980) that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was in fact a D2 antiform superimposed on the at limb of an earlier major D1 isoclinal fold or kink-band, facing to the NW (Fig. 1e). This view was based on observations of the geometry of minor structures (see also Price & Cosgrove 1990, pp. 482490), which were at variance with those of Shackleton. Most importantly, an early fabric was observed in the quartzites and psammites of the South Stack, the Holyhead Quartzite and the Rhoscolyn Formations, which was folded around the Rhoscolyn Anticline, although no D1 minor folds were identied. The well-developed minor folds that verge towards the major fold were thus identied as D2: In the quartzites and psammites, a new penetrative S2 cleavage was developed axial-planar to the minor folds, but fanning around the major fold; in the steep limb this cleavage was coincident with S1 , but in the hinge zone and at limb both cleavages were distinguished. An S2 crenulation cleavage was developed in the pelites. The geometry of the quartz veins, which were segregated as planar bodies parallel to S1 in the pelites, was used particularly by Cosgrove to demonstrate the D2 age of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and other major folds on Holy Island. His observed Z-shape geometry of these veins, related to D2 minor folding in the at or NW-dipping limbs of the major D2 folds, was attributed to a top-to-the-NW shear couple set up as a result of exural slip between competent beds. The veins on the SEdipping limb would have been bodily rotated not folded, and so the folds with S-shape geometry that were observed in the quartz veins on the steep limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (e.g. Fig. 4b) were here attributed to a locally developed D3 phase.

Lisle (1988) raised the question of whether the Rhoscolyn Anticline was a major rst or second fold (Fx or F y in his terminology), and highlighted its ambiguities, in a discussion of the nature of structural vergence in refolded regions. As noted in the preceding section, he showed how a set of shear folds, superposed on bedding and rst cleavage, could produce anomalous vergence patterns, and illustrated this with specic examples from the NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Although presenting evidence that seems more in favour of deducing that the Rhoscolyn Anticline is a rst fold with a related axial-plane cleavage in the psammites, Lisle concluded that some ambiguity remained, which could not be solved by vergence information alone. Phillips (1991) postulated that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was a D2 antiform, but for different reasons from those of Cosgrove (1980). He considered that D1 was responsible for a top-to-theSE shearing of the sedimentary pile, producing a beddingparallel (S0 /S1 ) fabric in the pelites and in the ner-grained psammites and a NWSE chlorite lineation on S0 /S1 surfaces; no folds or fabrics, oblique to bedding, were produced (Fig. 1f). D2, a progressive continuation of the SE-directed simple shear, resulted in several major SE-verging folds on Holy Island, such as the Rhoscolyn Anticline, as well as the dominant minor folds and their axial-planar fabrics. These fabrics were pervasive in the psammites and quartzites but contiguous with a crenulation cleavage developed in lithologies affected by the D1 beddingparallel fabric, especially in the pelites. Phillips differed in his interpretation of the history of the quartz veins from Cosgrove, in that the veins did not develop parallel to an S1 fabric, but late in the D1 event as tension gashes in response to the SE-directed shear; subsequently they were wrapped around the Rhoscolyn Anticline and affected by the D2 minor folding, thus accounting for their S-shaped geometry on both limbs. A localized minor D3 folding with an axial-planar fabric (S3 ) subparallel to S2 is recognized in the at limb and hinge zone of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Roper (1992), using evidence that includes fold vergence, returned to a rst-phase (his D x ) origin for the Rhoscolyn Anticline, interpreting it as a major upright fold associated with the dominant minor folds and a penetrative cleavage in all lithologies in the South Stack, Holyhead Quartzite and Rhoscolyn Formations. The quartz veins in the pelites were said to be produced as tension gashes parallel to the rst cleavage, as a result of stress relaxation late in D x. The second deformation (his D y ) was responsible for creating NW-verging minor folds (especially of the rst cleavage and the quartz veins) with an axial-planar crenulation cleavage, imposed across the earlier structure. The second structures were all attributed to a shear couple dipping NW, which produced inhomogeneous simple shear zones (likened to Riedel shears) that rotated the original steep-dipping rst cleavage to become the at limbs of the second folds. Although this deformation history differs from our own, the net product in prole view would probably not be very different from ours, shown below. These different conclusions for the age of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and its structures reect problems in interpretation of fabrics, and their correlation with minor and major folds, that are pertinent to many areas of polyphase deformation. In the case of Rhoscolyn, these distil into questions regarding the correlation of folds and fabrics in different rock types; whether single penetrative fabrics are rst, or second, or combined; and what information can be gained from fold vergence, rst or second. It will become apparent that our interpretation of the development of the Rhoscolyn area, in subsequent sections, can reconcile

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

123

many of the differences among the interpretations reviewed above, and can explain what might appear to be ambiguous structural relationships.

Description with key localities


We present our interpretation of the Rhoscolyn structures in terms of a map, downplunge prole and key localities (Fig. 3), together with structural sketches and photographs (Figs. 48). The prole section was constructed perpendicular to the mean of all measured rst and second fold axes (248/0568). The major anticline is apparent in both map and cross-section (Fig. 3): an asymmetric open major fold with a broad and mildly undulating hinge region. We have located the fold axial or hinge trace at H in Fig. 3, in common with the above-cited studies. On the scale of the map and its prole section (Fig. 3), a few substantial minor folds can be seen on each limb, with their vergence supporting the anticline. From details given below, it will become clear that we regard these and the major anticline as rst folds (F1 ). There is plentiful way-up evidence in the area (crossbedding, graded bedding, load structures) to conrm the upwardyounging succession, and no evidence for major repetitions to signify earlier isoclinal structures or major thrust repetitions. Nine eld localities are selected that are accessible and representative, but also chosen to illustrate characteristic hybrid effects of the two-phase deformation of the area. For each locality, we describe structures that occur within c. 100 m of coastal exposures. Our descriptions are fuller for the central part of the major structure, in the South Stack Formation, as these observations are critical in our interpretation. Some are comparable with Cosgroves localities (Cosgrove 1980, g. 2; Price & Cosgrove 1990, g. 18.49), but his cross-section pays scanter attention to the SE limb, or the NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline away from the at hingelimb region. Our traverse of the Rhoscolyn Anticline begins on the SE steep limb immediately adjacent to Porth y Hwngan (1), continuing NW on this limb to (2), then via the Holyhead Quartzite Formation to exposures of the South Stack Formation near gullies in the hinge zone (3, 4), a well-visited locality on the at limb (5), and towards Porth Gwalch (6), still in the South Stack Formation. Via Rhoscolyn Head, where the Holyhead Quartzite Formation reappears, we then examine the Rhoscolyn Formation on the NW limb at Porth Saint (7) and nearby (8), ending at Bwa Du (9). (Note that the section of Cosgrove (1980) stops at locality 7). Our terms will be F1 for folds we interpret as rst folds, F2 for second folds, and S1 and S2 for their related cleavages. Thus our notation attributes rst and second to the folding deformations in these rocks, and will differ from other workers numbering schemes based on fabrics or other criteria. Locality 1 [26657475] is in the Rhoscolyn Formation on the steep SE limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, where cross-bedding and graded bedding in psammites provide way-up evidence. F1 fold pairs with several-metre wavelengths can be seen with S asymmetry and steep NW-dipping axial-plane cleavage (see prole; Fig. 3b), conrming their position on this steep fold limb. Examples also occur of local F2 folds cross-cutting F1 folds (Fig. 4a), with a shallower-dipping axial plane parallel to crenulation cleavage (S2 ) in semipelites to pelites, and spaced S2 locally in semipsammites. Locality 2 [26507485] in the Rhoscolyn Formation shows characteristic structures in pelite beds and the quartz veins they contain (Fig. 4b), which occur among psammites on this limb of the fold, where bedding is generally steeply SE dipping. We interpret the predominant cleavage in psammites as S1 , and

observe quartz veins subparallel to S1 in the pelite. The sense of S1 cleavage refraction from competent psammite to incompetent pelite supports its position on the SE limb of a major F1 anticline (Fig. 4b). The F2 folds of quartz veins and of S1 in semipelites also show S asymmetry (NW vergence), but with signicantly shallow NW-dipping axial planes, parallel to crenulation cleavage (S2 ) developed in the pelite, and to localized cleavage that crosscuts S1 in some semipsammites. The major Rhoscolyn Anticline can be mapped from exposures of the Holyhead Quartzite Formation and pelites within it, and changes of strike and dip are exemplied by exposures adjacent to the Coastguard lookout [26327520] close to the crest of the fold. However, the true nature of the major fold hinge, as it is recognized today, is better seen in the underlying South Stack Formation of quartzites, psammites and pelites, both in detail and across gullies to gain larger-scale downplunge views of the sheet dip (10258 SE) and the mesoscopic fold vergence. Locality 3 [26207510] provides spectacular exposures of approximately symmetrical cylindroidal folds that cascade with a sheet dip of c. 258 SE, and is close to the major fold hinge located in earlier cited studies (Fig. 3, H). The folds can be examined in three dimensions, and fold axes traceable for many metres are in detail curved or branching. This is a key locality for recognizing the hybrid nature of the fold structures. We interpret most of these folds as originally F1, now signicantly modied and distorted by the second deformation, but there are also examples of F2 folds of bedding and S1 (Fig. 5a). Here, F1 and F2 folds are not always perfectly coaxial, and an angle of up to 208 between them may locally occur, giving rise to spiralling S1 S0 intersections around F2 folds. We do not agree with Cosgroves interpretation that all the mesoscale folds here are F2 folds that fold an earlier cleavage (Cosgrove 1980, gs 5 and 6; Price & Cosgrove 1990, gs. 18.51 and 18.52), because many of the folds have axial-planar S1 in their cores (Fig. 5a). The folds of quartz veins are clear evidence of a signicant D2 shortening, but in a different orientation to the D1 shortening. The combined effects of F1 F2 folding leading to the broadly neutral vergence at this locality reveal important features that we consider critical in the two-phase history of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. When unravelling F2 folds of S1 within cleaved semipsammites (Fig. 5a), we nd evidence that the F1 cleavagebedding vergence was originally NW. A simple undoing of the F2 folds in Fig. 5a suggests that the F1 fold was originally an asymmetric anticline, with a short thick NW limb and a much thinner and longer SE limb (now refolded in the F2 folds); that is, an originally NWverging asymmetric F1 fold. If representative, these two lines of evidence suggest that todays hinge, H, does not mark the position of the original F1 axis of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Locality 4 [26057510] provides further examples of the twophase folding effects in the South Stack Formation, and especially the variations among the different rock types. The minor fold geometry in psammites is asymmetric, with Z geometry and SE vergence, but is the combined effect of F1 and F2 folding (Fig. 4c). Here, F1 folds with distinct hinges and axial-planar to convergent S1 cleavage are observed adjacent to F2 folds of both bedding and S1 , with atter axial planes parallel to the crenulation cleavage (S2 ) in nearby pelites. Other psammite layers appear only weakly folded, or include straighter regions with cleavage fans, which suggest some unfolding of F1 folds. After removal (by eye) of the F2 folding (e.g. in Fig. 4c), the remaining F1 folds are found to be NW verging, with Z asymmetry. Semipelite beds reveal chevron folding of S1 (Fig. 4c), whereas the pelite beds are dominated by crenulation of S1 to produce S2 ,

124

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

and contain strongly folded quartz veins. The effect is that F2 folds of quartz veins and S1 in pelites to semipsammites can often appear to be tighter than the hybrid F1 F2 folds of bedding in psammite to quartzite beds. At this locality there are rare but important examples of more traditional Type 3 fold interference in centimetre-thick quartzite beds, where small NW-verging F1 folds and S1 are wrapped around SE-verging F2 folds (Fig. 5b).

This locality also reveals that the minor F1 structures were initially NW verging, on the original SE limb of the primary Rhoscolyn Anticline, and that the predominant SE vergence of the folds is an effect of D2 deformation. Locality 5 [25957510] exhibits beds with well-developed slump folding and uid escape structures (dewatering). Our structural observations and illustrations (Fig. 4d and e) are taken

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

125

Fig. 4. Field photographs of critical structures at some of the numbered localities (see Fig. 3), all taken downplunge (NE). Scales: pencil and notebook are 15 cm long; lens cap is 5 cm in diameter. (a) F1 minor fold in a psammite bed of the Rhoscolyn Formation (RF) at locality 1, showing a steep axial plane and S1 (parallel to pencil), the NW limb refolded by F2 folds, and S2 cleavage (bottom left). (b) Pelite bed between two cleaved psammite beds in the Rhoscolyn Formation at locality 2, showing S-shaped geometry of the F2 folds in quartz veins parallel to S1 , and the anticlockwise sense of S1 refraction from psammites to pelite. (c) Hybrid F1 and F2 folding (hinges labelled) in a pale psammite bed in the South Stack Formation (SSF) at locality 4. Annotations show the changing orientation of S1 within this folded bed. The F2 chevron folds of S1 in the semipelite in the foreground, with axial planes parallel to S2 crenulation cleavage, should also be noted. (d) The variable geometry of F1 folds in the South Stack Formation at locality 5. The uppermost thick psammite reveals weak folding, whereas the thinner quartzite layers in the centre are more obviously folded, with varying geometry and overall SE vergence. In the foreground, subvertical quartz veins show variable to tight F2 folds. (e) Further detail from locality 5, showing the steep NW-dipping S1 in psammite (top), continuing downwards with slight anticlockwise refraction into the quartz veins in the underlying semipelite. The variable geometry of the F2 folds in this array of quartz veins should be noted. (f) Relationships of bedding (S0 ), S1 and S2 in the South Stack Formation at locality 6. The lower semipsammite shows kink-like folding of S1 within the bed, but semipelite bed above shows stronger F2 chevron folding of S1 , and the development of a crenulation cleavage (S2 ).

126

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

from cleaved and folded layers stratigraphically between these sedimentary structures, where the strong asymmetry and SE vergence of folds would appear to provide support for a position on the NW at limb of the major Rhoscolyn Anticline. In detail, however, we consider the asymmetric fold trains seen in thin psammites to be a combination of F1 and F2 folds (Fig. 4d). The initially upright F1 folds appear to have been tightened and rotated into SE vergence by the second deformation, or straightened out, or have undergone refolding of their limbs, according to F1 tightness. The nal geometry is one of irregular asymmetric folding on shallow NW-dipping axial planes subparallel to S2 crenulation cleavage in pelite beds. In contrast, thicker beds of psammite and semipsammite appear to be only slightly folded (Fig. 4e), their deformation mainly revealed in the steep axialplanar S1 cleavage. As for the previous locality, pelite beds accommodate considerable variations of deformation around the folds on different scales, and contain a signicant volume of quartz veins of varying continuity, thickness and F2 fold geometry (Fig. 4e). Any consistent vergence in the folds of quartz veins is difcult to assess: we nd examples of S, M and Z asymmetry, perhaps reecting the varying orientations associated with S1 cleavage fans around F1 folds, or in localized F2 deformation. We consider the commonest vergence as SE (Zshaped) to neutral (M-shaped) (Fig. 4d and e). The subparallelism of quartz veins to S1 cleavage is revealed by a sharp veer from a variably SE-dipping trend in pelite, to steeply NWdipping on approach and entry into psammites (Fig. 4e). This sense of S1 refraction suggests a position still on the SE limb of a major F1 anticline. We do not concur with Cosgrove (1980) that this is evidence that the Rhoscolyn Anticline is a major F2 antiform that refolds F1 structures that are all NW verging. Instead, we deduce that the original axis of the Rhoscolyn Anticline is north of this locality, and that the Rhoscolyn Anticline has been signicantly distorted and undergone hinge migration during an obliquely superposed F2 deformation. Locality 6 [25807535] is our last site in the South Stack Formation, still in the broad central part of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Successive beds of shallowly NW-dipping psammite and pelite persist along the cliffs. Psammite beds of .1 m thickness appear virtually unfolded, but contain a subvertical to steep NW-dipping S1 cleavage. This is another good locality to observe the apparent discrepancies in deformation structures in different rock types and on different scales. Well-cleaved semipsammites reveal internal chevron folding of S1 cleavage, on axial planes at a small angle to bedding (Fig. 4f) or locally subparallel, and may be accentuated by an S2 cleavage. This type of refolding feature and vergence effects were described by Lisle (1988) from this vicinity, and have been discussed above. Some of the patterns of folded S1 within the beds here are puzzling in detail, revealing sheaf-like fans (Fig. 5c) that might be preserved fans related to F1, or F2 geometric effects. These cleaved horizons show evidence of hybrid folding, as described above, but here suggestive of overprinting of asymmetric SE-verging F2 folds on asymmetric SE-verging F1 folds. The like senses of vergence and asymmetry combine to produce appressed and irregular asymmetric folds, with lengthened and thinned original F1 long limbs and a zig-zag shortening of S1 within, and further shortened F1 short limbs (Fig. 5c). Folds of quartz veins in pelite at this locality are irregular, as before, but we consider the predominant orientations are steeply NW verging, in S-shaped folds. Taking the hybrid effects of F1 and F2 folds and the geometry of quartz veins together, we consider this locality to be on the NW limb of the initial Rhoscolyn Anticline. Thus, the original axis of the Rhoscolyn Anticline lies somewhere between localities 5 and 6.

Fig. 5. Field sketches of hybrid F1 F2 folds and cleavage patterns in the South Stack Formation, all drawn downplunge (looking NE). Bedding (S0 ) and S1 are shown as continuous lines, S2 as dashed lines and quartz veins in black in (b) and (c). (a) Folded and cleaved psammite layer at locality 3, the present-day hinge region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. The succession of F1 and F2 folds along the layer (revealed by changes of S1 within the bed), which combine to give almost neutral fold vergence, should be noted. Scale bar represents 1 m. (b) Rare example of F1 folds refolded by F2 folding and cross-cut by S2 , in a thin quartzite bed with cross-bedding (x) from locality 4. Scale bar represents 10 cm. (c) Detail of F1 fold pair modied by F2 pair at locality 6, revealed by the F1 axial traces (dotted lines). In the main psammite layer, S1 is folded (with rudimentary development of S2 ) within lengthened at limbs of F1 folds, and shows local sheaf-like fans. The hinge region of the syncline appears much thickened and skewed, as a result of the combination of F1 and F2 folding. Scale bar represents 25 cm.

Continuing to traverse northwards, the Holyhead Quartzite Formation has reappeared (across a fault) around the major anticlinal closure, and on Rhoscolyn Head (Fig. 3) tight F1 folds occur in the cliffs [257756], and can be mapped out on the ground from pelites within the quartzite. The overall vergence is undisputably SE, on steep NW-dipping axial planes. We then reenter the Rhoscolyn Formation, with cliff exposures where mesoscale folds and fabrics and NW-dipping sheet dips can be observed from a distance. We interpret these mesoscale folds in psammite beds to be F1, with strong axial-plane S1 cleavage that can be clearly observed in local chevron folds (F2 ) within beds on F1 long limbs. Locality 7 is in the bay of Porth Saint [26007585], where three 15 cm quartzite beds in pelite reddened by proximity to faults reveal a series of F1 folds modied by F2 (Fig. 6). The SE-

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

127

Fig. 6. Downplunge view (NE) of series of F1 folds with SE vergence, in layers of quartzite (stippled) and cleaved reddish semipelite of the Rhoscolyn Formation (RF), at locality 7. The S1 cleavage fans and refraction from quartzite to semipelite (continuous lines) are well preserved, and clearly related to the F1 folds, but the tight inclined F1 fold in the upper-right section appears to have been modied by D2 deformation that folded the quartz veins (black) and created the S2 crenulation cleavage (dashed lines). Scale bar represents 1 m.

reveals the convergent F1 cleavage fan: it can be followed from NW dipping through subvertical to SE dipping, around the syncline (northwestwards) as shown in Fig. 7. Locally, this anastomosing S1 can appear as a lozenge pattern, but we do not consider this an S1 and S2 effect (Cosgrove 1980). Where the S1 cleavage in the quartzite is strong, it is folded into angular F2 folds with shallow NW-dipping axial planes, and a rough S2 whose trend can be seen to transect the syncline. F2 folding is more obvious in the pelite, revealed by ptygmatic folding of subvertical quartz veins without a consistent sense of asymmetry or vergence, and an axial-planar S2 crenulation cleavage (Fig. 7b and c). This is a well-preserved F1 fold that has undergone only mild second deformation, perhaps associated with slight fold opening. Its approximately vertical axial plane is considered close to the original orientation of F1 axial planes. Locality 9 [26007630], at Bwa Du, sees the last exposures of the Rhoscolyn Formation around the Rhoscolyn Anticline before a faulted contact with New Harbour Formation. An asymmetric SE-verging F1 fold pair with clear axial-plane cleavage (S1 ) can be seen in quartzite (Fig. 8), and its cross-bedding provides wayup evidence, conrming a SE-facing of these SE-verging minor

verging folds reveal convergent cleavage fans in the quartzite fold cores, good axial-plane penetrative cleavage (S1 ) in the pelite in inner arcs, and preservation of arcuate cleavage fans and nite neutral points (Ramsay 1967, p. 417) in outer arcs. The effects of F2 are seen in a quartz vein that can be traced from axial planar in a tight inclined syncline, but is folded around an adjacent anticline, conrming that is has been tightened during F2. A crenulation cleavage (S2 ) is developed in the pelite, axial planar to the quartz vein folds, and crenulating the arcuate S1 cleavage fan of the original F1 anticline (Fig. 6). These folds clearly reveal the hybrid effects of F1 F2 in mechanically active layers with competence contrasts, and the change from SE-verging F1 folds on fairly steep axial planes into tighter and more strongly inclined hybrid F1 F2 folds whose axial planes are subparallel to the regional S2 . Locality 8 [25857595] is a distinct site north of Porth Saint, where a massive quartzite within the Rhoscolyn Formation crops out in an open upright F1 syncline (Fig. 7a), marked out by a thin pelite containing folded quartz veins, within the quartzite. We see different responses to the second deformation in the thick competent quartzite and thinner incompetent pelite. In the quartzite, a dominant rough and anastomosing S1 cleavage

Fig. 8. Representation of the signicant SE-verging F1 fold pair in the Rhoscolyn Formation at locality 9 near Bwa Du, based on eld photographs taken approximately downplunge (looking NE). The quartzite bed (stippled) contains a steep axial-planar S1 cleavage (continuous lines), and the overlying brown semipsammite (annotated) in the background reveals the steep S1 and also a shallower NW-dipping S2 cleavage (dashed lines) that cuts across the folds. The central unshaded region is an effect of perspective. Scale bar represents 1 m.

Fig. 7. (a) Large basin-shaped F1 syncline in thick quartzite units in the Rhoscolyn Formation at locality 8, viewed downplunge (NE), showing locations of three detailed sketches (b d) traced from eld photographs. Scale bar represents 15 m. (b) and (c) show the convergent S1 (continuous lines) in quartzite (stippled), and veins following S1 in pelites, where the pervasive fabric is S2 (dashed lines). Scale bars represent 40 cm. (d) NW inclined bedding within quartzites; the lower bed (unshaded) shows a strong crenulation of S1 (continuous lines) and the development of S2 (dashed lines) cross-cutting the synclinal structure. Scale bar represents 5 cm.

128

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

F1 folds, synthetic with the major Rhoscolyn Anticline. Just above the quartzite is a brown semipsammite that exhibits two cleavages (Fig. 8): an S1 cleavage fanning about the axial plane of the fold pair; and a shallower NW-dipping S2 , which clearly cross-cuts the limbs of the fold pair. We nd no evidence in these rocks of any at-lying NW-facing F1 structures, as required in the interpretation by Cosgrove (1980).

Conclusions from eld observations


The Rhoscolyn Anticline is a major F1 fold with synthetic mesoscale folds on each limb, with a sub-penetrative axial-planar S1 cleavage preserved in psammites, but a predominant crenulation cleavage in pelites (S2 ). On the small scale, many of the observable folds are F2 folds of quartz veins and S1 cleavage, and some folds in thin quartzite beds may also be deduced to be F2 folds because of inclined axial planes and axial-planar S2 . The ambiguity arises, therefore, as to whether strongly asymmetric small-scale folds, especially on the NW limb, are F1 or F2 ; and if the latter, does this imply that the major structure is an F2 antiform, as suggested by Cosgrove (1980)? This is not our conclusion, despite the apparent changes in F2 fold vergence around the structure. On detailed investigation, we nd that the majority of the folds that affect bedding in these rocks are original F1 folds that have been variably modied by the second deformation. According to the lithology and the initial F1 fold geometry, the effects of F2 are variable. Ambiguous hybrid F1 F2 folds occur most in the open at hinge region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (locations 3 6). At the present-day hinge (locality 3), some F1 structures with NW vergence appear to be folded around the major structure. However, on the steep to overturned SE limb (localities 1 and 2), and the NW-dipping part of the NW limb (localities 79), strongly developed F1 folds have unambiguous vergence in support of a major F1 fold, and the shallower cross-cutting nature of the second deformation rules out their interpretation as second folds synthetic to a major F2 antiform. Evidence from folded S1 in psammites, especially where the F2 axial planes and S2 are subparallel to bedding (location 6), indicates that F2 folding arises from a shortening in a direction of c. 708 SE in the prole plane (perpendicular to the average S2 trace, 208 NW). This steeply inclined shortening is also deduced from the range of attitudes of folded quartz veins in pelites around the major structure. In the next section, we will examine in more detail the possible effects of a steeply inclined second shortening on earlier F1 structures, and attempt to remove this second deformation to reveal the geometry of original F1 structures. However, several lines of eld evidence suggest that the major and minor F1 folds might have been closer to upright and symmetrical, originally. We described various structural criteria to suggest that H in Fig. 3 (including locality 3) is not the major axial trace of the original Rhoscolyn Anticline. We deduce that this axis was between localities 5 and 6, placed tentatively at X in Fig. 3, on the basis of mapped changes in S1 and bedding vergence, and geometry of folded quartz veins. The c. 260 m distance from X to H therefore marks the apparent hinge migration of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, caused by the distortion effected by the second deformation. This may be considered a quasi-passive pure shear of the kind shown in Fig. 2d, but here oblique to the F1 axial plane. Thus, the Rhoscolyn Anticline is an F1 anticline, but has undergone signicant modication in its shape and smallscale structures. It is probably now a more open anticline than originally, and with a signicant section of hybrid structures

where F2 has attened out, modied or refolded F1 structures on the original SE limb near the hinge, to make them now part of the apparent NW at limb of the present-day major structure. If this region were the main focus of study, and evidence from further away on the fold limbs disregarded, the major structure might be deduced to be an F2 fold (antiform). The overall SE vergence and inclination of the axial planes is largely a result of the second deformation. We nd no eld structural criteria to lead us to interpret the mechanics of either the rst or the second deformation in terms of large-scale simple shear, in any direction. Instead, the evidence leads us to a simple model of two phases of pure shear with coaxial intermediate strain directions parallel to 248/0568 (the average plunge of F1 and F2 folds), and about 708 difference in orientations of principal strain directions (X and Z) in the prole plane for the two phases.

Modelling the Rhoscolyn Anticline Constraining the D1 D2 model


The preceding section summarizes the eld structural data that we consider point to a simple two-phase deformation history for the Rhoscolyn area. These data provide precise constraints for both deformations, as detailed below, especially in determining the amount and orientation of the D2 strain. This can then be removed to reveal the true nature of the D1 structures. For each deformation, we use X > Y > Z as nomenclature for the principal axes of strain and their stretch values. Orientations of principal axes. As F1 and F2 axes are virtually coaxial (248/0568), we take this as the intermediate axis of strain, and take Y 1 for both deformations, unless contradictory evidence emerges. The prole plane of 1468/668SW is thus common for both deformations, and the two-phase history can be viewed two-dimensionally, in this plane. The S1 trace is assumed to reect the XY plane for D1, but is now modied by D2. The S2 crenulation cleavage is taken as the XY plane of D2 strain. Its average trace on the prole plane determines the X direction to be 208 NW (Fig. 9a). D2 deformation style. The consistency of S2 crenulation cleavage and F2 folds across the Rhoscolyn Anticline, the systematic behaviour of specic lithologies, and the absence of any consistent evidence of any regional shear sense affecting all the rocks, lead us to reject a model of D2 as simple shear (see Cosgrove 1980; Phillips 1991; Roper 1992). We consider the evidence consistent with bulk pure shear (or approximately) for the D2 deformation; that is, a plane strain pure shear with 208 NW extension (X) and 708 SE shortening (Z) in the prole plane (Fig. 9). This strain quasi-passively distorted the earlier F1 structures, in the manner of coaxial superposed deformation discussed above (Fig. 2d), except that the two deformations are not orthogonal. Determining the D2 strain from F2 folds. The main constraints on the D2 strain ratio ( X = Z R), come from the range of orientations of F2 folds of quartz veins and new F2 folds of bedding, and their respective shortening values. Buckled quartz veins in pelites and semipelites across many parts of the Rhoscolyn Anticline are subparallel to S1 , broadly axial-planar with F1 folds and oriented 60 58 NW in prole section (Fig. 3b). Folded veins with S asymmetry have typical shortening values of c. 20%. Veins that are subvertical to steeply SE dipping (related to S1 fanning) are more tightly folded into more symmetrical shapes, with typical shortening values up to 43%. If

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

129

Fig. 9. Orientation of D2 pure shearing in the prole section: (a) original circle before D2, showing the orientations for extension (X) and shortening (Z); (b) the D2 strain ellipse, again showing X and Z, where X is aligned parallel to regional S2 . The shaded region shows the limit for F2 buckling (see text for discussion), and the different vergence geometry that would be expected in layers parallel to l, m and n are shown in (b) (l9, m9, n9).

this is assumed to be measuring the maximum shortening (Z), it indicates a pure shear of R 3 affecting these rocks. Determining the D2 strain from orientations of layers with F2 folds. Now let us consider the information from orientations of veins or layers containing F2 folds. In the D2 pure shear with strain ratio R, traces at angle j to shortening (Z) change to j9 by tan j9 R tan j (1)

(Ramsay 1967, p. 67). For pure shear of R 24, nite shortening sufcient to produce measurable folding (20%) requires j # 208, and so the orientation range for F2 buckling can be set at 0 208 to Z (Fig. 9a). Oriented with respect to Rhoscolyn D2, this means veins or layers inclined 90-508 SE in prole view (l n, Fig. 9a). Testing different R values in Eq. (1), we nd that the vertical orientation (l) deforms to 628 NW, for R 3, and would have folds of S asymmetry (l9, Fig. 9b). This agrees with observations for S1 -parallel quartz veins noted in (3). The other limit (n, 508SE) deforms to 228 SE and folds with Z asymmetry (n9, Fig. 9b). The direction of greatest folding (m, 708SE) does not rotate, and would fold with M symmetry. These asymmetry and vergence relationships are broadly consistent with the geometry of folded beds and quartz veins at Rhoscolyn, supporting our adoption of R 3 for the superposed D2 quasi-passive pure shear. Vergence of F2 folds. The vergence of F2 folds of bedding, or of quartz veins in pelites, or affecting S1 in semipelites to psammites, can be compared with the relationships noted above (Fig. 9). These provide additional constraints on the model for

D2 deformation. We have found the geometry and vergence of folded quartz veins to indicate D2 pure shear with R 3. The more variable vein fold geometry seen in pelites in the central part of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, where shallow SE-dipping veins with Z asymmetry are locally seen, can be explained in terms of veins and S1 originally dipping SE, reecting a divergent fan into the major hinge zone, or variations around minor F1 fold hinges. Our observations do not conrm those by Cosgrove (1980) that quartz veins in pelites have a predominant SE dip with Z folds throughout the whole of the NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. In psammites, the geometry of F2 folds of S1 reveals the superposition of D2 pure shear on fanning to axial-planar S1 associated with the Rhoscolyn Anticline. The vergence of F2 folds of bedding is more difcult to assess, because of the hybrid effects of F1 and F2, particularly in the at hinge region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. The dominant SE vergence of minor folds on the at limb may reect true F2 vergence for this orientation of folds of bedding, but also the distortional effects of D2 strain on F1 folds that produce hybrid F1 F2 folds. Original F1 fold geometry. Todays Rhoscolyn Anticline has a SE-leaning geometry (Fig. 3b), but it cannot be assumed that this reects the original F1 fold geometry. Removal of a D2 strain of R 3, as deduced above, and oriented as in Fig. 9, leads to a conclusion that the original Rhoscolyn Anticline must have been less obviously SE inclined and asymmetric than it is now. We concluded that the average S1 and its parallel quartz veins (now folded and c. 608 NW) must have been approximately vertical before D2. This leads us to deduce that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an upright fold with vertical axial plane, and perhaps symmetrical. To constrain the original limb dips of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, we must consider the evidence from D2 structures on the NW and SE limbs of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. The steep SE limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and its F1 minor folds have been locally folded (refolded) in F2 folds, and so this limb must fall in the buckling range shown in Fig. 9. Initial dips of .708 SE would steepen and rotate clockwise towards X, whereas dips of ,708 SE would decrease dip, so not become a steep limb. As a symmetrical fold with both limbs dipping .708 is a very tight major F1 fold, we take a conservative lowest limit of 708 limb dip. This means that the SE limb (at its steepest) was subparallel to principal D2 shortening, Z, so underwent no overall dip change or steepening of this limb during D2. Thus, any steepening or overturning of this limb is attributed to D2 shortening that tightened or distorted mesoscale F1 folds and their long limbs. On the other hand, the 708 NW limb will have a very different history during D2 strain of R 3, undergoing a signicant clockwise rotation to a shallower dip of 428 NW (Eq. 1), consistent with the constructed fold prole (Fig. 3b). This limb was thus oriented for D2 extension, potentially to become a longer atter limb with bed thinning. The evidence from S1 , which is markedly folded within straight psammite beds, together with observations of possibly unfolded or signicantly skewed F1 folds all conrm that this NW limb has indeed been lengthened by D2. Therefore all this evidence points to an initial upright symmetrical F1 Rhoscolyn Anticline, with 708 apparent limb dips (408 interlimb angle), and a vertical axial plane and S1 .

Quantitative D2 model
To arrive at a quantitative model, we tested the distortional effects of a D2 pure shear with small variations of R about 3.0, variations in its orientation, and a variety of initial fold shapes and limb dips. We also compared the results for R 3 distortion of symmetric anticlines with 708 limb dips, in fold shapes that

130

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

were a sine wave, a circular arc and a parabola (Hudleston 1973). These permutations provide quantitative testing of the fold shape and D2 strain values that best satisfy all the preceding properties and constraints for modelling structures at Rhoscolyn. The deformed shape that is closest to the geometry of the prole section of the present-day Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 3b) is obtained from pure shear with R 3, passively deforming a 708 parabola. The original parabolic shape of the schematic Rhoscolyn Anticline is shown in Fig. 10. A parabola with maximum limb dip, , is expressed in Cartesian coordinates (Hudleston 1973) as y tan (x x 2 )=: For 708, the expression becomes y 0:875(x x 2 ) (3) as constructed in Fig. 10. A superposed pure shear ( R 3; X oriented 208 anticlockwise of horizontal) can be written as a transformation of the (x, y) parabola coordinates to new coordinates (x9, y9) (see Means 1990, eq. 8), which for this deformation are found to be x9 1:6 x 0:37 y; y9 0:37 x 0:71 y: (4) (2)

This is the deformed fold shape (x9, y9) constructed in Fig. 10; its geometric similarity to our constructed prole of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 3b) should be noted.

Results
Comparison of the original and deformed fold, aided by the positions and spacings of graph symbols in Fig. 10, illustrates the following features of this hybrid antiform, which we relate to the broad geometry and structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. (1) The deformed fold is more open than the original shape, strongly asymmetric and SE verging. It has a broader hinge region, without a distinct axis or hinge point. The original horizontal is now c. 138 NW. (2) The fold axis (A) and axial plane (AP) have deformed to occupy positions that appear off-centre (A9 P9), not where the current axial plane or fold hinge might be constructed for the distorted fold. The current hinge is taken to be where bedding is perpendicular to S1 (modied) in this deformed fold (Fig. 10, H), as is the case in the interpretations of the Rhoscolyn Anticline that we cited above (also Fig. 3, H).

(3) The distance A9 H is thus the effective hinge migration, approximately halfway round the right limb (SE limb). The broad crest of the distorted fold that is left (NW) of hinge, H, largely comprises a section of the original right limb (A9 H), and is thus a hybrid zone of particular signicance. (4) The original right limb (AC) has become shorter altogether, but unevenly. Zone A9 H has actually extended, whereas HC9 (the current right limb) has shortened by c. 40%, because its steepest part is subparallel to Z. Thus the current right limb is a signicant short limb for two reasons: it represents only two-thirds of the original SE limb, and it includes the part of the original fold that experienced the maximum D2 shortening. (5) All of the left limb, both its original section (B9 A9) and its apparent current form (B9 H), has become extended. This is now a signicant long limb. However, its true length is unlikely to be fully exposed, because a horizontal section (C9 leftwards) would omit the steeper half of this left limb. (6) The deformed fold viewed in prole cross-section (Fig. 10) now comprises three distinct zones that are applicable to the Rhoscolyn Anticline: (a) a steeply dipping short SE limb that has shortened; (b) a at central region, where structures on the original SE limb have been modied and obliquely stretched, now to become the hinge to NW-limb region of the hybrid Rhoscolyn Anticline structure; (c) a long NW limb that has extended, and its dip decreased. (7) The original axial plane (AP) has changed from vertical to c. 628 NW, and shortened by 20%. Axial-plane structures, such as cleavage (S1 ) and S1 -parallel quartz veins, would likewise rotate, and would develop F2 folds with S asymmetry and NW vergence (compare lines l and l9, Fig. 9). (8) Any potential F2 folding or refolding of bedding is restricted to the orientation range for buckling for this D2 deformation (ln, Fig. 9a); that is, dips of 90508 SE, in the vicinity of HC9. Dips of .708 SE could develop F2 folds with S asymmetry and NW vergence (l9, Fig. 9b) (as for S1 and quartz veins). Dips of 50708 SE could develop F2 folds with Z asymmetry and SE vergence (n9, Fig. 9b). This model, with the features listed above, provides a good simulation of the large-scale geometry of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, as shown in its prole section (Fig. 3b) and the eld descriptions. In the next section, we will build on the simple model of one fold surface in Fig. 10, to include features to simulate detailed geological features and mesoscale to smallscale structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline.

Fig. 10. Distortion of a parabolic fold with 708 limb dip (x, y coordinates, j) by D2 pure shear with extension X inclined at 208 and strain ratio R 3, according to the coordinate transformation in Eq. (4). The fold becomes the asymmetric curve (x9, y9 coordinates, half-lled squares) with its inexion surface (B9C9) dipping 148 to the left (NW), and the original vertical axial plane (AP) now A9P9, dipping 628 to the left (NW). H marks the position that might be deduced to be the hinge or axis of the distorted fold, where the fold tangent surface is perpendicular to A9P9. (H) is its undeformed position.

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

131

Developing the model to unravel two-phase structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline


The three main formations in the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 3) comprise quartzites, psammites and pelites (and intermediaries) in various combinations and bed thicknesses. These give rise to folds on a variety of scales, and the vergence of minormajor folds has played an important part in previous interpretations of the area. The presence of buckle folding on many scales also demonstrates the importance of the competence contrasts in these rocks. Our approach to modelling these features is not to build an exact replica of the Rhoscolyn Anticline stratigraphy to produce the large-scale fold structures shown in Fig. 3b; these are broadly simulated already in Fig. 10. Instead, we present a model that includes important key elements to simulate structural variations that can be related to the Rhoscolyn Anticline on a number of different scales. We consider three components in Fig. 11: (I) a main bed with bulk properties, to simulate pelite to

semipsammite, with axial-planar S1 , and some S1 -parallel quartz veins (v); (II) an upper competent bed, to simulate quartzite or psammite, with a schematic convergent S1 cleavage fan, modelled on fans in sandstone beds (Gray 1981; Treagus 1982); (III) a thin layer containing schematic F1 minor folds with changing vergence and asymmetry, based on patterns given by Ramberg (1964). We have not included an incompetent layer with a signicant divergent cleavage fan around the Rhoscolyn Anticline, because eld evidence from the pelites and quartz veins suggests a (more or less) regional axial-planar S1 , not a strongly divergent fan on each major limb. (Compare, for example, locations 2 and 8, Figs. 4b and 7). Furthermore, theoretical modelling of strain partitioning in layers and folds (Treagus 1993, 1997) suggests that in competentincompetent alternations, the dominant strain partitioning arises by reduced strains in the competent horizons, rather than a greatly intensied strain in the incompetent horizons. Thus, the average layer (Fig. 11, I) provides a reason-

Fig. 11. Schematic model of the distortion of an upright F1 anticline (a), by D2 pure shear deformation (b), according to the model in Fig. 10, but including geological features relevant to the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Unit I represents an average layer or the whole structure, in an F1 similar fold. After D2 deformation, the S1 cleavage and veins become inclined (628 NW), and would develop F2 folds with S asymmetry, with axial plane S2 crenulation cleavage (208 NW). The original position of the axial plane is not a recognizable geometric feature, and the hinge and axial plane of the distorted fold would be placed at HH (crossed lines). Unit II is a schematic competent layer with convergent S1 cleavage fan. F2 folding of S1 in this layer would vary around the main fold, not occurring on the SE limb, where potential S2 is at a small angle to S1 in the unit. On the NW limb, the fanning S1 gives rise to a steady variation in F2 fold geometry, with important change in vergence at the position asterisked. Unit III shows a thin layer with schematic minor F1 folds (a), and their distortion and changed vergence when subjected to passive D2 pure shear deformation (b). The decrease in asymmetry towards approximate neutral vergence on the original SE limb, and an increase in asymmetry on the NW limb, should be noted. All these distorted F1 folds are cross-cut by S2 . The position of the original fold axis (A9) would not be deduced from the fold vergence in (b).

132

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

able approximation for incompetent pelite beds around the Rhoscolyn Anticline, except where pelite beds are involved in F1 minor folds. Here, heterogeneous deformation and signicant variations in S1 orientation would arise locally, but have not been specically modelled. All these components are subjected to the same model of homogeneous D2 deformation as shown in Figs. 9 and 10, although we relax the homogeneity on the small scale to allow S1 to crenulate and to develop S2 , and for S1 -parallel quartz veins to buckle into F2 folds. We do not attempt to model mechanically active D2 behaviour of the lithological layering in Fig. 11: this will be addressed below (see Fig. 12). The purpose of Fig. 11 is to reveal the geometrical effects that might occur from entirely passive D2 deformation of rocks with different orientations of S1 , and containing F1 minor folds with different initial asymmetry. We will discuss these features in detail in the next section. Modelling the competent bed with the same amount of D2 strain, applied homogeneously as for the whole structure, provides only a rough approximation. Competent beds with convergent S1 cleavage fans reect their stiffer layer behaviour in D1, and a similarly reduced strain might therefore be expected during D2. These variations cannot be quantied without adopting specic values for viscosity ratios among the different rock

layers (e.g. Treagus 1988), and so are not attempted here. Qualitatively, we might expect the principal axes of D2 strain to refract across competence contrasts. We have not recorded a signicant degree of S2 refraction from incompetent to competent beds at Rhoscolyn. However, the development of S2 in quartzites and purer psammites has been noted to be generally weaker and more localized. Thick quartzites, particularly, might experience a weaker D2 deformation than the rocks as a whole, and this has implications for the distorting effects of D2 shown in our model. For example, the whole of the Rhoscolyn Anticline might have distorted from an initial upright form to its present asymmetric SE vergent geometry, as modelled (Figs. 10 and 11), whereas the Holyhead Quartzite Formation and some of the thick quartzites in the Rhoscolyn Formation might have preserved more of its original upright F1 structure and undergone a lesser degree of hinge migration. There is local evidence for this at locality 8 (Fig. 7), where an approximately upright open F1 fold in quartzite reveals a convergent S1 fan, and appears less distorted by D2 than other mesoscale F1 folds around the Rhoscolyn Anticline (see Figs. 6 and 8). The features modelled in Fig. 11 are discussed below, by structural topic, and presented in terms of the structures of the Rhoscolyn Anticline and eld localities described above. We will add to this quasi-passive D2 model the question of mechanically

Fig. 12. The development of hybrid F1 F2 folds. (a) An asymmetric NW-verging minor F1 fold in a schematic competent layer, such as might be developed on the SE limb (at 408 dip) of the original anticline (see Fig. 11 for key). S1 and schematic veins (v) are generally vertical, but refract convergently into the competent layer. (b) F2 folding of the F1 long limb, to achieve the required amount of D2 shortening and passive rotation of the 408 SE sheet dip to 108 SE. (See text for further explanation of the model.) In this manner, folds can be produced that change, serially, from F1 with axialplane S1 and quartz veins, to F2 folds that fold bedding, S1 and veins, and with axial planes close to the regional S2 orientation. (Compare this model with examples in Figs. 4c and 5a).

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

133

active buckling, and the development of F2 folds of bedding, and refolding. This involves developing a model for producing hybrid F1 F2 folds (see Fig. 12), which are some of the most puzzling structures at Rhoscolyn, and have been open to different previous interpretations. We can then reveal a possible reason for the observed changes in F1 and F2 fold vergence in the vicinity of the present-day hinge of the Rhoscolyn Anticline.

Bedding and cleavage, folded fabrics and quartz veins


The average layer (Fig. 11, I) reveals that the original vertical axial-plane cleavage (S1 ) has deformed to 628 NW, close to the average S1 trace in the prole of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 3b). The axial-planar S1 remains visible in some semipelites, cross-cut by a shallower NW-dipping S2 (Fig. 8). In most pelites, the dominant foliation is the S2 crenulation cleavage, with signicantly shallower 208 NW trace. However, at locality 7, the S1 cleavage in pelite around F1 folds in thin quartzites is clearly preserved (Fig. 6). Quartz veins subparallel to the axial-planar S1 generally reveal F2 folds of S asymmetry and NW vergence (Fig. 11b), with S2 axial planar, as shown at locality 2 (Fig. 4b). However, we observe many local variations in the geometry of these quartz veins and their folds, particularly in the South Stack Formation in the central part of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (localities 5 and 6), as described above. This may in part be due to irregular initial vein geometry, but we consider it mainly reects veins that track S1 fans around F1 folds on different scales and are thus in a variety of orientations for F2 folding. In our strain model (Fig. 11), layers or veins originally inclined 90708 SE should fold with S asymmetry, whereas those at ,708 SE should fold with Z asymmetry. Such variations in vein fold geometry are revealed at locality 5 (Fig. 4d and e). The S1 fabric of the Rhoscolyn Anticline is generally best preserved in quartzites, psammites and semipsammites, but some of these last rocks reveal a shallower-dipping cross-cutting S2 (e.g. locality 9, Fig. 8). The model in Fig. 11b shows that in theory, S1 would be folded in a different geometry, in different rock types, according to its original attitude. Our eld observations reveal this to be the case. It is important to note that our model and our structural observations show S2 cross-cutting both limbs of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, and cannot be explained as an axial-planar structure. The geometry of S2 cross-cutting F1 folds is seen on different scales, at many localities around the Rhoscolyn Anticline (e.g. localities 1, 8 and 9) (Figs. 4a, 7 and 8). Let us consider now the D2 effects on the convergent S1 cleavage in the schematic competent bed (Fig. 11, II). The F2 folding effects are shown to vary around the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 11b), and the same geometric variations would be seen around F1 folds on smaller scales, too. On the SE limb, S1 is extended and rotated to a shallower NW dip, but remains steeper than S2 , and so the oblique cross-cutting effects of S1 and S2 would be clear. The sense of S1 refraction from axial planar clockwise into competent beds will preserve the F1 NW vergence on this limb, and this refraction sense is seen at eld localities 1 and 2 (e.g. Fig. 4b). Entering the central hybrid zone of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 11b, A9 H), which our model considers is part of the original SE limb, this same NW-verging sense of the convergent S1 fan in the competent bed should be preserved, although diminished by the D2 deformation. This is the opposite sense of refraction into a competent bed from what would be expected on this part of a major fold, if it were a single-phase structure with its hinge at H. Our descriptions of

localities 35 (e.g. Fig. 4e) noted just such a sense of S1 refraction, and it was these observations, together with vergence and S1 relationships in minor folds and the geometry of folded quartz veins, that led us to conclude that the original axis of the Rhoscolyn Anticline lay between localities 5 and 6 (Fig. 3, X), shown as A9 in the model (Figs. 10 and 11). This wrong sense of S1 refraction is probably the main reason for Cosgrove (1980) to deduce that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an antiform that refolded earlier beddingcleavage relationships, but our own observations clarify that this relationship is peculiar to this central hybrid region, rather than persistent on the whole of the NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Our model reveals very different effects of D2 on S1 in the competent bed (II) on the original NW limb (Fig. 11b). Although bedding lengthens, the convergent S1 cleavage is oriented close to the D2 shortening direction, and should undergo signicant F2 folding with axial planes (S2 ) at a small angle to bedding. This feature of folded S1 within non-folded beds produces the abnormal cleavage vergence relationships described by Lisle (1988) from this part of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, and discussed above. Chevron-style F2 folds of this kind, sometimes of just one wavelength within a particular psammite bed, are notable features in at-lying rocks on this NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, as shown at locality 6 (Fig. 4f). According to our model, there is a critical orientation in the convergent S1 fan, with original inclination of 708 SE (Fig. 11, asterisk) where maximum folding of S1 occurs, to create symmetrical M-shaped F2 folds. This point marks a structural divide on the deforming F1 fold (whether major or minor), between two regions: (1) where S1 rotates clockwise during D2, and develops F2 chevron folds with S asymmetry: (2) where S1 rotates anticlockwise, developing F2 folds with Z asymmetry. At this divide, an internal fanning of S1 is geometrically created within the lengthening competent bed, unrelated to F1 or F2 folding, as illustrated (Fig. 11b). We regard this as the explanation for the sheaf-like fanning shown on a fold limb at locality 6 (Fig. 5c).

Distortion of F1 minor folds, and their vergence


We consider now a suite of schematic minor F1 folds and their passive distortion by the D2 deformation, assuming they undergo no mechanically active F2 refolding (Fig. 11, III). The original NW-verging F1 folds on the steeper part of the SE limb (Fig. 10, HC9) will undergo body rotation and some fold tightening. The original short limbs become atter and extended, and original long limbs are steepened to overturned, and shortened. The total effect is a decrease in S asymmetry while retaining the NW vergence. In contrast, on the lengthened NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (Fig. 10, B9 A9), these minor F1 folds would increase their Z asymmetry and their SE vergence. The most interesting and potentially ambiguous effects are in the hybrid hinge zone (Fig. 10, A9 H). Here, D2 passively distorts NW-verging F1 minor folds towards a more neutral vergence and near-symmetrical (M) forms (Fig. 11b), but the nite effect will depend on the original tightness and asymmetry of the F1 folds compared with the D2 distortion. Tighter F1 folds could retain their NW vergence and original hinges, whereas more open F1 folds could become signicantly modied to become SE verging and Z shaped, with hinge migration. At Rhoscolyn, the average F1 fold geometry shows an overall neutral vergence at locality 3, which is close to the present hinge (Fig. 3, H), as suggested by Roper (1992) and others. According to our model, this is not the original hinge of the Rhoscolyn

134

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .

Anticline, but is a product of the D2 distortion of the original fold. We consider that the original axis or hinge of the Rhoscolyn Anticline (see Fig. 11, A), where F1 folds would have changed their vergence before the second deformation, is somewhere between localities 5 and 6 (Fig. 3, X). This position is no longer uniquely revealed by a changing F1 fold vergence, but was deduced on the basis of other eld evidence, such as S1 relationships, as described above.

F2 folding and hybrid F1 F2 folds


Observations at localities 3 and 4 reveal that not all the features can be explained by the passive D2 deformation model shown in Fig. 11. Some of the features of the minor folds and their fabrics clearly arise from hybrid F1 F2 folding. We thus need to consider mechanically active behaviour during D2 ; that is, F2 folding and/or refolding of F1 folds. Competent and incompetent layers that behaved in a mechanically active way in the rst deformation, to develop F1 minor folds on different scales, would in theory be expected to behave in a mechanically active manner during D2, and develop new F2 folds. However, we noted in our discussion above of polyphase deformation and coaxial refolding that mechanically active F2 folding, which either produces new folds in bedding or refolds F1 folds, is likely to be a complex process in rocks with competence contrasts that already contain structures on a range of scales. We can consider two types of mechanical response of the Rhoscolyn rocks to D2 deformation. (1) The superposed deformation might simply reactivate the F1 folds, rather than create new F2 folds (see Fig. 2c). Thus, F1 minor folds on the steep SE limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, undergoing shortening in D2, might be reactivated to become tighter. The lengthening NW limb of the Rhoscolyn Anticline would undergo the opposite effect: a potential reversal of buckling that would open up F1 minor folds. There is some evidence of opened F1 folds at Rhoscolyn, but this can also arise with the passive deformation model described above, and so active opening is rather difcult to prove. (2) The superposed deformation might initiate F2 folds in layers that are favourably oriented for buckling, as discussed already for S1 -parallel quartz veins (see also Results, (7)). This refolding response is the more usual model for polyphase deformation in the literature, as reviewed above. We have already discussed F2 folds that affect quartz veins and S1 cleavage in different orientations. These provide good evidence for the twophase deformation history at Rhoscolyn, and allowed us to quantify the D2 strain in our model. Here, we are interested in assessing the degree of F2 folding of sedimentary beds, creating new folds or refolding of F1 folds. To produce active F2 folds of bedding, layer(s) must be in a suitable orientation for folding (Fig. 9), be long and straight enough to accommodate a half or whole fold wavelength, and satisfy buckling mechanics. Assuming these conditions are all met, F2 folds would be expected to have different symmetry and vergence according to bedding orientation around the major fold, or on subsidiary folds. Steep beds (.708 SE) would develop F2 folds with S asymmetry and NW vergence, as for the axial-plane F2 structures (Fig. 9b). Such second folds might arise on long limbs of F1 folds on the SE limb, as described at locality 1 (Fig. 4a). Symmetrical M-shaped F2 folds (neutral vergence) would theoretically develop on limbs with 708 SE dips. More moderately SE-dipping beds (50708 SE) would develop F2 folds with Z asymmetry and SE vergence. These could also arise on long

limbs of F1 folds on the shallower part of the SE limb, or perhaps on short limbs of F1 folds on the NW limb. We consider that the most favourable condition for F2 folding is on long limbs of asymmetric F1 folds on the SE limb. These are in the D2 shortening direction, and also provide the greatest layer length to accommodate an F2 fold pair, albeit one that must have a shorter wavelength than the F1 fold wavelength. This situation might be further favoured by irregularities in F1 folds and their wavelengths, so that an F1 fold with an exceptionally long wavelength could provide an unusually long limb that could possibly nucleate an F2 fold close to its ideal buckling wavelength. As noted above, the resulting F2 folds could be NW or SE verging, or neutral, according to this long-limb orientation. However, the discussion so far reveals that many geometrical conditions need to be met for F2 folding, reinforcing our eld observations that F2 folds of bedding are localized structures, not a systematic refolding of F1 folds. We illustrate this process in Fig. 12, using a schematic initially asymmetric F1 fold pair with NW vergence, limb dips of 658 NW and SE, and overall sheet dip of 408 SE. Such a fold might have been seen in the AH region of the original Rhoscolyn Anticline (Figs. 10 and 11), which became the hybrid zone after D2. We assume that the layer is competent, and folded almost entirely by buckling in both D1 and D2, to retain the original bed length. In Fig. 12b, the sheet dip has rotated to 108 SE, as for the passive model, but in this case it is accompanied by active F2 folding. An F2 fold pair is constructed on the F1 long limb, with Z asymmetry and SE vergence to meet the D2 strain requirements, and with geometry that best satises other space requirements. In deriving this construction, we nd that the interlimb bisector (axial plane) of the F2 buckles cannot be exactly parallel to S2 , and this angular discordance controls the precise orientations of F2 fold limbs and the angle of the long limbs to S2 (always a small angle). The solution in Fig. 12b best meets all the geometric criteria, but was also guided by eld observations of cleavage and bedding orientations in hybrid folds. The nal product is a series of folds appearing to have Z asymmetry and SE vergence, with longer at limbs, but in detail they have the form anticline, synform, antiform, syncline, as shown (Fig. 12b). This type of hybrid folding has been described from localities 3 and 4, and the example from locality 4 (Fig. 4c) shows notably similar features to those modelled in Fig. 12. Most important is the sequence from a fold hinge with an axial-plane S1 (F1 ), to the next fold that folds S1 together with bedding (F2 ) (e.g. Figs. 4c and 5a). Another diagnostic feature of the model is the small angle between the long limbs of these F2 folds and the crenulation cleavage (S2 ), also conrmed by eld observations. In Fig. 12b, we also attempt to reproduce some of the complexities that could arise in quartz veins that are parallel to S1 , in different parts of the hybrid F1 F2 folds. Such changes from veins axial planar to some folds, and yet folded around others, are all observed in association with hybrid folds at localities 35. Similar constructions of F2 folds have been made for other orientations and degrees of asymmetry of F1 folds. Those with sheet dips of 308 SE and 508 SE range (deformed range of 08 to 238 SE, the latter being close to H in Figs. 10 and 11) reveal similar geometric properties of refolding, and their structural implications, to those shown in Fig. 12 for the intermediate orientation. These two other examples (not illustrated) produce new F2 folds and hybrid F1 F2 folds that both suggest overall SE vergence. The hybrid fold asymmetry is greatest at the shallower dip, comparable with the present crest or at limb of

T H E R H O S C O LY N A N T I C L I N E U N R AV E L L E D

135

the Rhoscolyn Anticline (see locality 5), and least for the model closest to todays hinge, H (locality 3), where we produced almost neutral effective fold vergence in the model. Active F2 folding is more difcult to explain and model on the NW limb of the original Rhoscolyn Anticline. Here, the layer orientations favourable for F2 shortening with possible buckling are the short limbs of F1 folds. We conclude from eld observations that most of the observed minor folds on this NW limb are F1 folds that have been modied by D2, quasi-passively, as described above (Fig. 11). For example, the tight folds at locality 7 (Fig. 6) appear to have been overprinted by S2 , and a folded quartz vein suggests tightening of one of the F1 folds, but no signicant new F2 folds are recognized. Likewise, the fold pair at Bwa Du (locality 9, Fig. 8) reects only the D2 deformation in the superposition of S2 fabrics. These observations tend to conrm that F2 folding (refolding) of bedding is restricted, and is probably signicant only in the present-day hinge region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline. Even there, it rarely causes coaxial refolding in the traditional sense, with Type 3 cross-sectional patterns (e.g. Fig. 5b), but instead usually gives rise to compound F1 F2 folds (e.g. Figs. 4c and 5a).

The enigma of F1 and F2 vergence changes


Referring back to the mapped structures at Rhoscolyn (Fig. 3), Cosgrove (1980) considered that F2 folds changed their vergence at H, supporting his conclusion that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an F2 fold. However, Roper (1992) specically considered F1 and F2 minor fold vergence, and concluded that there was an F1 vergence change at c. H, leading him to conclude that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an F1 structure with its axis at H. Can both be correct? According to our model, H is not a signicant point on the original Rhoscolyn Anticline, and not where we would expect to see a change in minor F1 fold vergence around the major fold. Also, according to our model, H has no structural signicance in D2 deformation, except that it produces the illusion that there is a major fold hinge here. We have shown that the combined effect of quasi-passive D2 distortion on mildly NW-verging F1 folds in this region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline would be to neutralize the F1 fold vergence, creating an apparent F1 vergence change near H. At the same time, the change from F2 folds with S asymmetry that formed on steep F1 long limbs, to folds with Z asymmetry that formed on less steep F1 long limbs (discussed above), could also be close to H. Neither of these vergence changes is likely to be a precise position on the Rhoscolyn Anticline, given (a) the likely variation in fold geometry of F1 folds, which affects the neutralizing effect of the D2 deformation on their NW vergence, and (b) the dependence of F2 fold vergence on whether folding occurs in beds or F1 limbs with initial dips above or below 708 SE. Thus, todays hinge (H in Fig. 3) may mark an approximate vergence divide for F1 and F2 folds, which could explain why the Rhoscolyn structures have remained in contention. We conclude that H is neither the true axis of the Rhoscolyn Anticline nor a major F2 fold axis.

of the folds (c. 248), and we have not extended our analyses here to structures of similar kinds in nearby localities of Monian Supergroup. Nevertheless, our eld studies in South Stack to Rhoscolyn Formation rocks in other parts of Holy Island support the deduction that the F1 folds were initially rather tight upright structures, consistent with the model presented here for the Rhoscolyn Anticline. If the total deformation is modelled as two superposed planestrain pure shears with a common XZ plane (the prole plane), it is straightforward to calculate the total nite strain ellipse. From the symmetrical upright shape of the parabolic F1 fold (Fig. 10a) in section, the D1 deformation can be deduced to be a pure shear with horizontal shortening (Z) and vertical extension (X). We do not have any direct measurement of the D1 strain. A 708 parabolic anticline produced entirely by buckling could be achieved by a horizontal stretch of 0.58 (horizontal distance/ curve length), but this excludes any layer shortening before or during the folding, as evidenced by S1 fabrics in all the rocks at Rhoscolyn. From a recent review of strain associated with folding (Treagus 1997), we estimate a bulk shortening of c. 0.5 for a multilayer fold of this shape. For plane strain, this would be a D1 strain ellipse with axial ratio of R 4. If this D1 strain ellipse is subjected to the D2 strain of R 3 deduced above (according to the coordinate transformation; Eq. 4), the resulting nite (D1 D2 ) strain ellipse is found to have an axial ratio of R 3:05, with X oriented 558 NW and Z 358SE. This total strain is therefore almost the same, in value, as the D2 strain, but with axes oriented approximately midway between the D1 and D2 axes. The deformed X direction for D1 (e.g. a mean S1 trace) ends up only 78 anticlockwise of the nite X direction. Thus, if a nite D1 D2 grain-shape fabric were to form, it would cross-cut the deformed S1 fabric by only a small angle, with a slightly shallower NW dip, and might appear to be axial planar to the deformed fold. However, this total fabric would have a signicant angle to S2 .

Conclusions
(1) Structural observations and modelling demonstrate that the Rhoscolyn Anticline was an originally upright F1 fold of parabolic shape with up to 708 limb dip. The second deformation (D2 ) has created its present-day asymmetric, SE-facing, more open form. We estimate that the original anticline axis was c. 260 m NW of the present-day hinge, and that the region between the old and new hinge is a hybrid zone. Here, original NWverging F1 minor folds have been distorted by the D2 deformation and modied or refolded by F2 folds, to create many of the ambiguous structures that have given rise to different previous interpretations. (2) The structures at Rhoscolyn allow us to quantify the D1 D2 deformation in this part of Anglesey. The original Rhoscolyn Anticline is consistent with a bulk horizontal shortening of 0.5 ( R 4) for the sequence during D1. The D2 deformation is deduced to be a 708 SE-inclined pure shear shortening with R 3. This leads to a total deformation of R 3:05, with the shortening inclined 358 SE in fold prole view. (3) Few studies have addressed the mechanics of superposed deformation of layered systems with competence contrasts, where the fold axes are subparallel but the shortening directions are at a high angle. We provide theoretical and geometrical arguments why the Type 3 fold interference patterns of Ramsay (1962) would be unlikely to develop in these rocks, except locally. Instead, the superposed deformation causes modication

Calculating the total deformation at Rhoscolyn


From the structures and modelling of the Rhoscolyn Anticline, we deduce two superposed deformations, with a common intermediate strain axis (Y) subparallel to F1 and F2 fold axes. The combined effects of these can therefore be analysed in two dimensions, in the fold prole plane. Our modelling has not specically addressed 3D orientations, or reasons for the plunge

136

S . H . T R E AG U S E T A L .
Grujic, D. 1993. The inuence of initial fold geometry on Type 1 and Type 2 interference patterns: an experimental approach. Journal of Structural Geology, 15, 293307. Hudleston, P.J. 1973. Fold morphology and some geometrical implications of theories of fold development. Tectonophysics, 16, 146. Hudson, N.F. & Stowell, J.F.W. 1997. On the deformation sequence in the New Harbour group of Holy Island, Anglesey, North Wales. Geological Journal, 23, 211220. Johns, M.K. & Mosher, S. 1996. Physical models of regional fold superposition: the role of competence contrast. Journal of Structural Geology, 18, 475492. Johnson, A.M. & Fletcher, R.C. 1994. Folding of Viscous Layers. Columbia University Press, New York. Lisle, R.J. 1988. Anomalous vergence patterns in the Rhoscolyn Anticline, Anglesey: implications for structural analysis of refold regions. Geological Journal, 23, 211220. Means, W.D. 1990. Kinematics, stress, deformation and material behavior. Journal of Structural Geology, 12, 953971. Passchier, C.W. & Trouw, R.A.J. 1996. Microtectonics. Springer, Berlin. Phillips, E. 1991. Progressive deformation of the South Stack and Hew Harbour Group, Holy Island, western Anglesey, North Wales. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 148, 10911100. Price, N.J. & Cosgrove, J.W. 1990. Analysis of Geological Structures. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Ramberg, H. 1964. Selective buckling of composite layers with contrasted rheological properties, a theory for simultaneous formation of several orders of folds. Tectonophysics, 1, 307341. Ramsay, J.G. 1962. Interference patterns produced by the superposition of folds of similar type. Journal of Geology, 70, 466481. Ramsay, J.G. 1967. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. McGrawHill, New York. Ramsay, J.G. & Huber, M. 1987. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Volume 2. Folds and Fractures. Academic Press, London. Ramsay, J.G. & Lisle, R.J. 2000. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Volume 3. Applications of Continuum Mechanics in Structural Geology. Academic Press, London. Roper, H. 1992. Superposed structures in the Mona Complex at Rhoscolyn, Ynys Gybi, North Wales. Geological Magazine, 129, 475490. Shackleton, R.M. 1969. The Precambrian of North Wales. In: Wood, A. (ed.) The Pre-Cambrian and Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales. University of Wales Press, Town, 122. Thiessen, R.L. & Means, W.D. 1980. Classication of fold interference patterns: a reexamination. Journal of Structural Geology, 2, 311316. Treagus, S.H. 1972. Processes in fold development. PhD thesis, University of Manchester. Treagus, S.H. 1973. Buckling stability of a viscous single-layer system oblique to the principal compression. Tectonophysics, 19, 271289. Treagus, S.H. 1982. A new isogoncleavage classication and its application to natural and model fold studies. Geological Journal, 17, 4964. Treagus, S.H. 1988. Strain refraction in layered systems. Journal of Structural Geology, 10, 517527. Treagus, S.H. 1993. Flow variations in power-law multilayers: implications for competence contrasts in rocks. Journal of Structural Geology, 15, 423434. Treagus, S.H. 1997. Modelling deformation partitioning in folds. In: Sengupta, S. (ed.) Evolution of Geological Structures in Micro- to Macro-Scales. Chapman & Hall, London, 341372. Watkinson, A.J. 1981. Patterns of fold interference: inuence of early fold shapes. Journal of Structural Geology, 3, 1923. Watkinson, A.J. & Cobbold, P.R. 1981. Axial directions of folds in rocks with linear/planar fabrics. Journal of Structural Geology, 3, 211217. Weijermars, R. 1982. Vergence boundaries: an extension of the vergence concept. Journal of Structural Geology, 4, 407409.

and reactivation of rst folds, and creates a variety of hybrid structures and two-phase fabrics. (4) This study endorses the conclusion by Lisle (1988) that fold vergence boundaries are an unreliable method of locating early folds, in regions of polyphase deformation. The vergence of minor folds around the Rhoscolyn Anticline has been used in previous studies, to deduce both that it is a major rst fold and that it is a major second fold. We consider neither is the case, and the neutral vergence in the present hinge region of the Rhoscolyn Anticline is the result of the superposition of an oblique D2 deformation on NW-verging F1 folds. (5) An important aspect of unravelling the polyphase structures at Rhoscolyn concerns the relative importance attached to structures and fabrics in different lithologies. One reason for the different interpretations is the signicance attached to the deformation and fabrics in psammites (S1 ), versus those in pelites (S2 ) and the quartz veins they contain. We conclude that least deformed lithologies (quartzites and psammites) provide clearer clues to the regions deformation history than those in the more deformed pelitic lithologies.
We dedicate this paper to the memory of Robert M. Shackleton (died 3 May 2001) and Dennis S. Wood (died 27 April 2001), who introduced J.E.T. to the geology of Anglesey, and who at Rhoscolyn provided an enthusiastic introduction to eld structural geology for so many geologists and their students. Thanks go also to the many colleagues and students, on countless eld trips that have helped us form this interpretation. We appreciate the constructive review of J. Gale, and thank R. Hartley for drafting some gures. S.H.T. acknowledges a NERC Senior Research Fellowship, which allowed this paper to be completed.

References
Barber, A.J. & Max, M.D. 1979. A new look at the Mona Complex (Anglesey, North Wales). Journal of the Geological Society, London, 136, 407432. Beech, S.H. 1969. Buckling of single and multi-layers oblique to principal compressive stress, and its bearing on the problem of asymmetric fold formation. MSc thesis Imperial College, University of London. Bell, A.M. 1981. Vergence: an evaluation. Journal of Structural Geology, 3, 197202. Cosgrove, J.W. 1980. The tectonic implications of some small-scale structures in the Mona Complex of Holy Island, North Wales. Journal of Structural Geology, 2, 383396. Ghosh, S.K., Mandal, N., Khan, D. & Deb, S.K. 1992. Modes of superposed buckling in single layers controlled by initial tightness of early folds. Journal of Structural Geology, 14, 381394. Ghosh, S.K., Mandal, N., Sengupta, S., Deb, S.K. & Khan, D. 1993. Superposed buckling in multilayers. Journal of Structural Geology, 15, 95111. Gray, D.R. 1981. Cleavagefold relationships and their implications for transected folds: an example from southwest Virginia, U.S.A. Journal of Structural Geology, 3, 265277. Greenly, E. 1919. The Geology of Anglesey. Memoir of the Geological Survey, UK.

Received 14 December 2001; revised typescript accepted 24 May 2002. Scientic editing by Haakon Fossen