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A Study of Underground Transport Safety Evaluation Based on Man-machine Engineering Theory

WANG Suling
School of Resources and Environment Henan Polytechnic University Jiaozuo, China

Abstract Human, machines and environment, three main factors contained in transport system in coal mines, and their impact on transport accident have been analyzed with system engineering theory of man-machine-environment in this article. Reasons and control of human mistakes, relationship between human and transport accident, analysis of machines stability and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation have been deeply studied in this paper, and corresponding control measures are also offered so as to supply sufficient science data for coal mines safety. Keywords-man-machine engineeringunderground transport comprehensive evaluation.

environmental factor and other abnormal conditions are the main reasons leading to man-made faults. Control of man-made faults Based on analysis of reasons triggers man-made faults, effective measures to control them could be selected to reduce man-made faults. B. Fuzzy stability analysis for human factor Based on two-factor theory brought up by Herzberg and hierarchy of needs theory brought up by Maslow, the structure chart of human fuzzy stability can be built up.(Figure 1) z

Centering reasonable combination and interaction between human, machine and environment, man-machine engineering has set its aim at improving production efficiency, safety and healthy level by designing out machine and environment system which comforts physiological and psychological characters of human being. Therefore, it has important practical significance to study safety evaluation for underground transport system through man-machine-environment system engineering theory. I. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FACTOR Figure1Human fuzzy reliability structure Through basic principles of analytic hierarchy process, weights ( Wi ) for every index can be achieved, and practical value, Di , for every index can also be obtained delphi technique. Values of fuzzy reliability, ,can be received through the following formula.

As the main part in the man-machine-environment system, human creates fortune so as to meet goals. However, human beings are also the main factor triggers accidents underground. Among all system failures, 70%-90% of them are directly or indirectly committed by human actions. A. Reasons and control of man-made faults z Concept of man-made faults Man-made faults, which make human, machine and environment in the system suffer a certain level of loss, means human failed to complete certain mission or didnt complete it on time. To be specific, man-made faults include that human beings did not function as they are supposed to be, or they functioned in a wrong way, or they functioned in a wrong order or at a wrong time. Reasons of man-made faults Holding the concept of less importance of safety, some people did not work according to certain rules. Besides that, carelessness, slow response, physiologic factors, psychological barrier, low technical level, equipment faults, z

i i =1


Fuzzy reliability has considered psychological factors, physiologic factors and environment factors.

C. The relationship between underground transport accident and human factor z The relationship between underground transport accident and human quality Following charts can offer us the statistical analysis concerning the relationship between death and seriously injured tool of transport accident from 1960 to 1996 and workers age, length of service and education level.

978-1-4244-7161-4/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

population %
12 10 8 6 4 2

34.4% 11 25% 21.9% 8 7 6.2% 3.1% 1 2 6.2% 3.1% 2 1 40 45 45 50

40 30 20 10

Tiredness weakens human beings sensation and lower action accuracy and sensitivity of both auditory and vision. Meanwhile reaction time to complicated stimulation could be prolonged by tiredness. Hence tiredness has serious impact on underground transport safety. The following factors could make workers feel tired: long working time and short rest time, influence from environment, for example, illumination, noise and working space, high level of working intension, low working technique, and numerous energy-consumption during labor process and monotonous operation. After realizing reasons why mine workers could easily be tired, effective measures should be taken to prevent them being tired as soon as possible. Transform labor structure and arrange working and rest time scientifically, pick up right worker for the right job, strengthen workers psychological quality, and improve level of mechanization and automation, lower labor intension. II. ANALYSIS OF MACHINE FACTOR






Figure 2 Age distribution figure of wounded workers

population %

60 43.8% 11 45 31.3 % 8 15.6% 7 9.3% 1 Untaught primary junior high high 30 15

15 12 9 6 3

Figure 3 Education level distribution figure of wounded workers

18 15 12 9 6 3

In the man-machine-environment system, human is the decisive factor while the machine is the important one. Along with the mechanization level gets higher day by day, machines played a more important role in the system safety. However, the number of accident committed by machines grows rapidly during recent years. Therefore scientific study concerns relationship between machines and accident has significance as to improve the safety level of underground transport system.

% 60 31.2% 10 12.5% 4 6.25% 2 6.25% 2 20 25 service length 20 40

Reliability analysis of machines Based on related reliability theory, the availability and fault frequency of Markov repairable system could be derived.
Systems availability:


43.8% 14

A = 1 + Systems fault frequency:

i =1 n

i i




Figure 4 Service length distribution figure of wounded workers In conclusion, the bigger of the age and service length are and the higher the education level is, the less the number of accident is. z The relationship between underground transport accident and human psychological factor Based on domestic and foreign study conclusion concerned with the relationship between underground transport accident and human psychological factor, transport safety level is profoundly influenced by employees working at transport part underground. Negative psychological feature often leads to accident. Therefore, positive psychological quality is acquired to assure underground transport safety. z The relationship between underground transport accident and tiredness.

M = 1 + In the above two formulas,

i =1

i i


i is the fault frequency of the component number i i is the repair rate of the component number i.
B. Event tree analysis As one of the most important analysis approaches of system safety, event tree analysis event tree analysis is able to ascertain systems output status. Through quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis of every event tree, corresponding measures can be selected and taken so as to avoid system fault.
Accident tree analysis Accident tree analysis, another analysis approach of system safety, includes seeking for minimum cut, Minimal path set, probability top events, structural importance,

probability importance and critical importance. Three different kinds of importance, especially the probability importance and critical importance, point out the primary and secondary factor so as to help prevent accident from happening. III. ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENT FACTOR

In man-machine-environment system, as another factor throwing great impact on system safety, environment is the basic factor creating unsafeness for both human and equipment and triggering accident in a further step. A. Underground transport accident and gray relation analysis of environment factor Having qualitatively analyzed influence to underground transport safety from main environment factors (humidity, temperature, noise, working space and illuminance), the relationship between these main factors and underground transport safety has been analyzed through gray relationship analysis. Analysis outcome has points out that noise, humidity has the largest relatedness to transport death poll, while the illuminances relatedness is smaller, and the humidity has the least relatedness to death poll of underground transport accidents. The value of gray relatedness manifests the factors importance to transport accident.

Figure 5 Underground transport safety evaluation indexes


B. Fuzzy cluster analysis of underground transport environment Cluster analysis classifies objectives according to certain condition or property. After standardization process towards original data, fuzzy relationship and fuzzy cluster then are set up.
IV. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND MAN-MACHINE-ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM SAFETY When make comprehensive safety evaluation for underground transport system, numerous factors classified into multi-levels have to be considered. Therefore, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of two level is selected.

Set up evaluation grades set The evaluation grade set is made up by every evaluation V = {good , general, bad} = { V 1,V 2,V 3} grade. . Comprehensive evaluation Three subsystems are evaluated through two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. From the conclusion, based on the consideration of the three aspects human, machine and environment, main inclined shafts safety is the best, electric locomotives safety ranked the second place, safety of screed transport in working surface has the worst safety condition. Primary evaluation conclusion points out the weak chain of every subsystem which offered scientific proof to prevent transport accident from large-scaled happening. V. CONCLUSION

Set up factors set Through above analysis of system safety, human, machine and environment are selected as factors of the first level. Factors influencing human, machine and environment are classified into the second level which also includes average service length, average age and other 9 factors. Factors structure can be seen as figure 5.

Based on man-machine-environment system engineering theory, the new-emerging theory belonging to man-machine engineering subject, three main aspects of underground transport system, man, machine and environment are analyzed. Existing problems in the systems have been pointed out, and effective control measures are brought up so as to reverse the condition of multi-accidents and gain great benefit for both economy and society. REFERENCE
[1] Meiyu Zhou. Man-machine engineering for industry design [M] Beijing. Chinese Light Industry Press,2008 [2] Jianzhong Li, Weihong, Ren, Dingdong He. Man-machine engineering [M] Xuzhou China Mining University Press,2009 [3] Jianzhong Li. The study of man-machine engineering used in coal mine industry [J] Coal Engineering Press. 2009 (10) [4] Fu Guo. Man-machine engineering.[M] Liaoning, Northeastern University Press 2008