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Short guide for resistivity and induced polarization imaging

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Short guide for resistivity imaging


Chapter 1

Comparison of main methods of 2D imaging


The comparison of main 5 methods used for 2 D imaging will be shown in this chapter. This short overview can help with the choice of optimum solution with the respect to the studied problem. A comparison of important basic features in the frame of these 5 methods is offered. This comparison is illustrated by attached pictures from measurements with the use of individual methods.

Schlumberger
Purpose General purpose method covering broad range of tasks especially imaging of horizontal and quasi-horizontal (declined) layers. Detection of larger inhomogenities of various shape and direction like wider crackles, tectonic zones, ore veins and contacts of layers with big difference of resistivities is also effective. Section covering Medium depth range - of about 1/5 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Medium side covering.

Resolution Medium resolution - sufficient rather for detailed investigation of shallow structures. Measuring conditions Commonly used method for various ground resistivities. Lower resistance against electric noise is caused by lower level of measured potentials.

Wenner
Purpose The fastest method. The most frequent variant called Wenner alpha is close to Schlumberger with similar range of applications. Other variants called Wenner beta (like Dipole-Dipole) and Wenner gamma (non conventional array) are used rarely. Section covering Low depth range of about 1/6 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Low side covering. Resolution Low resolution inconvenient for detailed investigation of deeper structures. Measuring conditions High resistance against electric noise effective replacement of Schlumberger at places hit by electric noise.

Dipole-Dipole
Purpose The most detailed method especially for detection of vertical structures (including slimmer fissures, ore veins) and cavities. Section covering Medium depth range of about 1/5 of the maximum used C1C2 distance. Medium side covering. Resolution The highest resolution allows the maximum possible distinguishing of deeper situated structures. Measuring conditions The effective depth range is strongly limited by rapid decrease of measured potential at larger dipole distance. Artificial electric noise causes additional significant limitation of use of this method.

Pole-Dipole
Purpose The most effective method for detection of all vertical structures (even slim crackles) with high depth range. Section covering High depth range of about 1/3 of the used length of the electrode array. Higher side covering. Resolution Higher resolution. The accuracy of positions in section is decreased (side shift) as the method is non symmetric. For better results (regarding positions) it is recommended to use an additional Reverse Pole-Dipole or to use Combined Pole-Dipole instead. Measuring conditions Installation of external current electrod C2 (C1 in the case of reverse way) called infinite is necessary. The place of infinite electrode must be at least at the distance of 5 multiple of the maximum length of used electrode array. Its optimum position should be in perpendicular direction from the electrode array. The big distance of infinite current electrode requires maximum power of the transmitter and careful installation of such an electrode (or even electrode nest) to reach its lowest possible ground resistance.

Pole-Pole
Purpose The most effective method for investigation of deep structures (all kinds). Rarely used. Section covering The highest depth range almost 70 % of the length of the electrode array. The highest side covering. Resolution Medium resolution. Measuring conditions Installation of two external electrodes (C2 and P2) called infinites is necessary. The preparation of the measurement is the most time consuming with the highest requirement regarding the available free area around the measuring line. Each infinite electrode must be at least at the distance of 5 multiple of the maximum length of used electrode array. Their optimum position should be in perpendicular direction from the electrode array. C2 and P2 should be on opposite sides of the electrode array. The big distance of infinite current electrode requires maximum power of the transmitter and careful installation of such an electrode (or even electrode nest) to reach its lowest possible ground resistance.

Comparison of sections measured on the same line using different methods (electrode arrays) This way it is possible to judge differences in section covering (depth and side ranges) and resolution (density of measured points).
Profile: 20
The length of the measured profile: 31 m Number of electrodes: 32 (4 sections)
C1 a P1 a P2 a C2

a). Wenner Alpha


Ps.Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20

25

30 m.

Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection


Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.4 % 0 5 10
Depth (m)

Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 20 25 30 m.

15

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

b). Schlumberger
Ps.Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10

Resistivity in ohm.m
C1 na P1 a P2 na C2

15

20

25

30 m.

Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection


Iteration 5 RMS error = 0.96 % 0 5 10
Depth (m)

Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 20 25 30 m.

15

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

c). Dipole-Dipole
Ps.Z 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20

C2 a C1

na

P1 a P2

25

30 m.

Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection


0
Depth (m)

Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 20 25 30 m.

Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.18 % 0 5 10

15

-2 -4 -6

Inverse Model Resistivity Section

Unit electrode spacing 1 m


C2 P1 a P2

d). Pole-Dipole
Ps.Z 0 0 5 10

Resistivity in ohm.m
C1 na

15

20

25

30 m.

10

Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection


Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.15 % 0 5 10 15 20

Unit electrode spacing 1 m. 25 30 m.

0 -2
Depth (m)

-4 -6 -8

-10

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

e1). Pole-Pole
Ps.Z 0 0 5 10 15 20

C2

C1 a P1

P2

25

30

m.

10

15

20

25

Measured Apparent Resistivity Pseudosection

Unit electrode spacing 1 m.

e2). Pole-Pole
C2 C1 a P1 P2

Iteration 5 RMS error = 5.8 % 0 5 10 0

15

20

25

30 m.

e2). Pole-Pole
-5 Iteration 5 RMS error = 5.8 %

C2

C1 a P1

P2

Depth (m)

-10

-15

-20

-25

Inverse Model Resistivity Section

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

Resistivity in ohm.m

Comparison of sections measured on the same line using different Wenner methods (alpha, beta, gamma) In the following pictures different depth ranges, resolutions and sensitivities to the structure are obvious.
Profile: 20
The length of the measured profile: 31 m Number of electrodes: 32 (4 sections)
C1 a P1 a P2 a C2

a). Wenner Alpha


Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.4 % 0 5 10
Depth (m)

15

20

25

30 m.

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

b). Wenner Beta


Iteration 5 RMS error = 1.29 % 0 5 10
Depth (m)

C2

C1

P1

P2

15

20

25

30 m.

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

c). Wenner Gamma


Iteration 5 RMS error = 2.5 % 0 5 10 0
Depth (m)

C1

P1

C2

P2

15

20

25

30 m.

-2 -4 -6

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

Examples of typical applications


Hydrogeology This wide area of resistivity imaging applications includes various tasks: - water management and protection - environmental monitoring - impacts in civil engineering Engineering geology This area connected with the construction and maintenance of buildings, roads, railways and bridges requires judgement of: - bedrock surface - slope stability - landslide risk - detailed geological structure - mechanical properties of rocks, sediments etc. Geological mapping General survey for geological studies covers: - raw material prospecting - geological survey - complex judgement of strategic localities - choice of places for dangerous waste materials

Projecting of water well

Detailed geological information for locating, drilling and building of water well was required. The preliminary idea of the survey was based on mapping of tectonic zones and weathered rocks. Due to the needed rather high depth range and resolution Pole-Dipole method was chosen (infinite electrode C2 at x = 50 m and y = 600 m).

The picture shows the position of a wide fault filled with permeable weathered rocks convenient for building of the well with rich water supply.

Iteration 4 RMS error = 6.8 %

20

40

60

80

100

120

140 m.
0

-10

S G G

-10 -20 -30 -40 -50


Unit electrode spacing 3.0 m

Depth (m)
10 18.2 33.2 60.5 110.3

-20

-30

-40

G - Gneiss S - Rock surface

-50

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


201.1 366.4 667.8

Resistivity in ohm.m

Environmental protection

A complex monitoring in the frame of ground water protection in close vicinity of a pig farm was done. The goal of the resistivity imaging was to detect leakage from a liquid manure tank. Schlumberger array was used.

Under the backfill created by sand and gravel a zone with significantly decreased resistivity is seen. These extremely low values of resistivity are typical for the high contamination with organic substances. B - Backfill - sand and gravel
- Zone of contamination with liquid manure
10 15 20 m. 0 5

Iteration 4 RMS error = 2.3 %

Depth (m)
10 14 18 22 26

Depth (m)
-2

-2

-4 Unit electrode spacing 1.0 m

-4

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


30 34

38 40

Resistivity in ohm.m

Protection of building

Walls of a building as well as cellars were partially hit by water coming to its insufficiently insulated basement. The survey for determination of watered zones along this building was performed. Several profiles in the vicinity of the building were measured. Schlumberger array was used.

The picture shows large watered zone with significantly decreased resisitivity in the left part. The exact position of the main water infiltration is obvious at position P.
Sandstone Eluvium (dry)
15 20 25 30 35

Water saturated zone


m. 40 45

Iteration 5 RMS error = 0.44 %

10

-2

-4

Depth (m)
25 45 65 85 105

-6

-8

-10 Unit electrode spacing 0.500 m 125 145 165

Inverse Model Resistivity Section

Resistivity in ohm.m

River dike investigation In the frame of the protection against floods the river dike quality and stability were monitored. Thus a profile along the dike and a dense grid of profiles perpendicularly to the river were measured. Schlumberger array was used.

The picture coming from one of profiles in perpendicular direction to the river shows both the geological structure and the base and structure of the artificial dike. The huge alluvium gravel layer allows quick water infiltration below the dike in the case of high water level. The material of the dike shows both inhomogenous structure and permeable basement which leads to its malfunction in the case of flood (quick occurrence of water on fields behind the dike).

20 40 60 80

100

120

140

m.

180 175 170 165 160


Unit electrode spacing 2 m

180 175 170

Elevation
10 15.9 25.2 40

165 160

Inverse Model Resistivity Section

The way of water infiltration during the high water level.


63.5 101 160 254

Resistivity in ohm.m

Landslide risk judgement

Mapping of the depth of the debris for dam stability monitoring was done on a slope of river valley close to the dam. Schlumberger array was used.

The picture shows the depth and shape of old landslide created by stones and coarse sandstone debris. Heterogeneous structure of the bedrock partially saturated with water from the dam is obvious as well.
280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 460 450 440 m. 530 520 510 500 490

530

520

510

500

490

Sandstone locally with S thin claystone layers

480

Elevation
480

Elevation

470

470

460

20

40

60

450

S Bedrock surface
Unit electrode spacing 4 m
22.5 50.6 113.9 256.2 576.6 1297.4 2919.3

440

430

430 420

420

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


10

Resistivity in ohm.m

Mapping slope deformation

A road in mountains was fatally destroyed by active landslide (as a consequence of heavy rain). Detailed monitoring of the slope was performed before the road reconstruction. Schlumberger array was used. The picture shows the thickness and shape of the watered zone with risk of the massive continuous landslide. The bedrock is created by claystone and sandstone. The position of an old dry landslide is seen at position D as well.
Wet sediments - zone of saturation

470 20 30 40

10

S Slip surface - base of non solid ground

470

465

465 50 460 60 m. 455

Elevation
6 9 12 15 18

Elevation

460

455

450 Unit electrode spacing 1 m 21 24 27

450

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Monitoring slope stability above cellars The area above a queue of wine cellars was endangered by unpredictable movement of instable soil that occurred as a consequence of collapse of some cellars. Houses and asphalt road on that place were partially destroyed. The survey should detect weak zones, holes and waste material deposits in the slope. Schlumberger array was used.

Many inhomogenities (cavities, backfill) are visible in left part of the picture. They determine the zone of the slope instability. The cellars in the right part of the picture are situated in solid rock and are not endangered by collapse.
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m.

Iteration 5 Abs. error = 1.61 %

10

20

Depth (m)
20 30 40 50 60 70 80

0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 Unit electrode spacing 1.50 m


90

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

t hal p s A

d roa

Unbroken Cellars
ad Ro

Cellar

Roof fall

A Base of disturbed area B Backfill C Clay

Mapping cavities

A fishpond dam was partially destroyed during the flood. The survey was performed to detect its weak places. Schlumberger array was measured along the dam.

The section shows three main areas filled with mud from the fishpond (taken during the flood). Their positions are partially visible in situ because they are accompanied with depressions of the dam. K1 New discovered cavity K2 Cavity continuation K3 Known cavity partially repaired
30 35 40 45 50 55 m.

Iteration 3 RMS error = 5.4 %

20

25

-2

Depth (m)
10 30 50 70 90

-4

-6

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


110 130 150

Unit electrode spacing 1 m

Resistivity in ohm.m

Investigation of the rock surface

The rock surface (granodiorite) was investigated before projecting of basements of houses. Schlumberger array was used. The shape of inclined bedrock as well as the weathered layer above are very well visible from the picture.
Silty loam+Eluvium Granodiorite m. 118 40 30 20
116 114 112 110 108 106

B Bedrock surface

118

116

Model resistivity with topography Iteration 4 RMS error = 4.1

114

112

110

Elevation

Elevation

108

10

106

104

104 102 100


Unit Electrode Spacing = 1.0 m

102

100
10 16

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


25 40 63 101 160

254

Resistivity in ohm.m.

Mapping resistivity contact General geological mapping was performed to determine the safe area for a large building construction. The task was to give an exact information about the square and depth of homogenous geological structure. Schlumberger array was used. The picture shows the border between homogenous clay sediment and inhomogeneous area created by sandy and clayey sediments. (These two pictures demonstrate the fact that for this purpose the increased spacing - 2 m instead of 1 m - gives very similar results.) a). Minimum electrode spacing 2 m
20 40 60 80 m.

Elevation

220 216 212 208

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


10 14 18

Unit electrode spacing 2 m


22 26 30 34 38

Resistivity in ohm.m

b). Minimum electrode spacing 1 m


0 20 40 60 80 m.

Elevation

220 216 212 208

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


10 14 18 22 26 30

Unit electrode spacing 1 m


34 38

Resistivity in ohm.m

Sandy developments

Clay sediments

Geoelectrical boundary

Mapping backfill

The backfill thickness was determined by means of resistivity imaging. Schlumberger array was used.

It is possible to see very homogenous bedrock (clayey silt) covered by approx. 2 m backfill. The backfill shows very inhomogeneous structure (building waste material, concrete blocks and recycling material).

A Alluvium sediments - clayey silt B Bbackfill - building garbage, concrete blocks, recycling materials
60 80 100 120 140 160 m.

Iteration 4 RMS error = 5.3 % 0 20 40

-2

Depth (m)
10 30 50 70 90

-4

-6

-8 Unit electrode spacing 1.00 m


110 130 150

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Thin horizontal layer survey The task was to determine a thin inhomogeneous layer (of approx. 1 m) in the ceramic clay quarry. Schlumberger array was used. The detected inhomogeneous layer of sandstone with pyrite was spread horizontally at about 1 m depth. (These two pictures demonstrate the necessity of the sufficient density of electrodes - decreased spacing - for required resolution.)
Dry cracked claystone at the surface Sandstone Claystone Near-surface inhomogeneous layer- sand and insulated dissemination of metallic sulfides (pyrite)

a). Minimum electrode spacing 0.4 m


Iteration 4 RMS error = 1.85 % 0 10 20 30 40 m.

Depth (m)

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Unit electrode spacing 0.4 m


120 125

Resistivity in ohm.m

b). Minimum electrode spacing 0.8 m


Iteration 4 RMS error = 1.54 % 0 10 20 30 40 m.

Depth (m)

-1 -3 -5

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


50 60 70

Unit electrode spacing 0.8 m

Resistivity in ohm.m

80

90

100

110

120 125

Short guide for induced polarization imaging


Chapter 2

General features and purpose of IP measurement


Measurement of induced polarization allows distinguishing structures according to their chargeabilities and can be used as complementary method for resistivity imaging. Thus we can obtain useful information from simultaneous sections of resistivity, chargeability and metal factor (defined as ratio of chargeability and resistivity). This comparison is useful for judgment of structures when metal ore layer (with first order conductor), water table or influence of artificial substances (like oil, organic and inorganic chemicals) are supposed and studied.

Physical background
To understand physical basis of this method comparison with simple and well known electric elements like resistor and capacitor is useful. Some structures (e.g. dry sandy and crystalline rocks) look like resistor rather than capacitor the potential induced during current pulse is rapidly lost (during several milliseconds) when this pulse is terminated. Other structures (e.g. metal ore layers) look like capacitor rather than resistor the potential induced during current pulse is kept for significant period (during several seconds) when this pulse is terminated. The decay curve of potential can sampled and sections from individual sampling windows can be processed as chargeability (resp. as metal factor).

Methodical reminders
IP measurement is not such a general method like resistivity imaging, however, for special tasks can bring results that can be hardly replaced by another geophysical method. Its proper application requires deeper knowledge, the IP measurement takes significantly longer time than resistivity. The choice of IP window can influence selectivity to specific kinds of objects. Generally, windows set to short times after pulse termination increase selectivity to shallow situated and smaller objects while windows set to longer times after pulse termination select bigger and deeper situated objects.

Measuring instructions and settings


For IP measurement stainless steel electrodes are necessary. The measured potential is necessary to be kept at the highest level possible to suppress noise present at low measured potential and causing big statistic deviation of IP readings. It means to set 200 mV optimum potential for IP measurement which activates the maximum available transmitter power. The first 20 ms IP window after pulse termination can be hit by EM (electromagnetic) effect especially while longer cable line is used. This effect can disturb responses of real objects.

Examples of typical applications


Following examples show results from raw material prospecting and hydrogeology, which belong to basic areas of IP applications. Environmental studies like leakage of oil and other mineral substances can be supported by IP measurement as well. Some important features of IP measurement are discussed in individual pictures.

Ore Prospecting Shallow situated ore deposit (former surface mines from 15 th century) was investigated using Schlumberger array. Chargeability section shows ore vein situated in weakened zone of rock characterized by lower resistivity (see resistivity section). Metal factor section illustrates further possibility of selection of ore vein positions decreasing influence of changing resistivity.
Iteration 5 RMS error = 2.2 %

0
0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
Depth (m)

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


20 29 41 60 86 124

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m 178 257 519

Resistivity in ohm.m 30 40 50 60 m.

Iteration 5 RMS error = 6.3

0
0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
Depth (m)

10

20

IP 2 = 0.02 - 0.04 s

Inverse Model Chargeability Section


0 3 9

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

16 22 28 34 41 47 53 59 66 72 78 84 91 97 157

Chargeability in msec (= 0.1 %)


Iteration 5 RMS error = 62.7

0
Depth (m)
-0.5 -1.63 -3.03 -4.79 -6.99 -9.73

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

IP 2 = 0.02 - 0.04 s

Inverse Model Metal Factor Section


500 700

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

Metal Factor in 0.001 msec/ohm.m

900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900

IP Windows Selection This picture (accompanying the previous one) shows the crucial influence of IP windows position in pulse decay curve. Smaller and shallow situated objects are emphasized in first 20 ms IP window while next IP windows select weakened zone filled with ore vein.
Iteration 5 RMS error = 25.0

0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
Depth (m)

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

IP 1 = 0.00 - 0.02 s

Inverse Model Chargeability Section


Iteration 5 RMS error = 6.3

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
Depth (m)

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

IP 2 = 0.02 - 0.04 s

Inverse Model Chargeability Section


Iteration 5 RMS error = 5.1

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

10 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 IP 3 = 0.04 - 0.06 s -10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

Depth (m)

Inverse Model Chargeability Section

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

16 22 28 34 41 47 53 59 66 72 78 84 91 97 157

Chargeability in msec (= 0.1 %)

Natural Graphite Deposit

IP Section performed above former drift of graphite mine shows position of deposit. Position of the drift as well as rather complicated geological structure are seen from accompanying resistivity section.

Iteration 4 RMS error = 4.0 % 100 150 200 250 m.

50

-10

-20

Depth (m)

-30 Unit electrode spacing 4.0 m 60 120 240 480 960 1920 200 250 m. 150

-40

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


15 30

Resistivity in ohm.m

Iteration 4 RMS error = 7.3 0 50 100

-10

-20

Depth (m)

-30

-40

IP 3 = 0.04 - 0.06 s
Unit electrode spacing 4.0 m 110 140 170 200 230

Inverse Model Chargeability Section


50 80

20

Chargeability in msec (= 0.1 %)

Water Table Investigation Basic geology of the site is created by quartz sand above clay background visible in resistivity section. IP section shows slightly inclined water table at approximately 3 m level in the sandy layer.

Iteration 4 RMS error = 4.7 %

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

Depth (m)

-2 -4 -6 -8

-10

Inverse Model Resistivity Section


Resistivity in ohm.m

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

0 20 25 31 39 49 61 76 95 119 149 186 233 291 363 455 568

Iteration 4 RMS error = 0.85

0
0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10
Depth (m)

10

20

30

40

50

60 m.

IP 2 = 0.02 - 0.04 s

Inverse Model Chargeability Section

Unit electrode spacing 2.0 m

0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

Chargeability in msec (= 0.1 %)