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Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare

ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225


Vol.3, No.4, 2013

Review of L
Omidiora, Elijah Olusayo
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, LAUTECH, Nigeria;
2
School of Engineering, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nige
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
*
E-mail of the corresponding author: adegokebo@yahoo.com
Abstract
This paper reviews animal feed formulation methods, the convent
Highlighting their cons and pros. The intelligent system method (neuro
levenberge training of artificial neural network. The neuro
Amino acid elements of chicks feed. With 0.05 level of significance on NCCS 2000 platforms, output of the
neuro-fuzzy system produced a correlation coefficient of 0.888608 and p
employed to increase productivity in the field of animal feed formulation.
Keywords: animal feed formulation, linear programming, neuro

1. Introduction
Ration can be defined as the total amount of feed given to the animals on daily basis. Animal feed formu
defined as the process by which different feed ingredients are combined in a proportion necessary to provide the
animal with proper amount of nutrients needed at a particular stage of production, (Afolayan and Afolayan 2008).
As the world population increases, one of the major problem facing developing countries of the world is their ability
to cope with protein requirement for the growing population, (Oladoja and Olusanya, 2009). Poultry, which offer
meat and egg on account of its short gesta
role in the bid to provide protein of animal source, (Oladoja and Olusanya). It is reported that the most commonly
kept livestock is poultry and that over 70% of those farmers kept
is very important in raising animals because feed cost between 65% and 70% of the total cost of production in
poultry production as identified by literatures (Bamiro

2 Livestock Feed Formulation Methods
There are about six conventional livestock feed formulation methods identified by Imamidoost,
1992 and Jerry, 2003. These methods include; Pearson Square method,
2.1.1 Pearson Square Method.
This method is relatively simple and easy to follow. Some of its merits as identified by Afolayan and Afolayan
include: its simplicity of use and secondly its usefulness for balancing protein requirement. Its disadvantages include,
its usability for only two(2) requirements at the same t
nutritive requirements especially, vitamins and minerals
2.1.2 Simultaneous Equation Method
This is an alternative method for the square method using a simple algebraic equation. Here, a particul
requirement is satisfied using a combination of two feed ingredients.
Merits of Simultaneous Method
The system is easy to use both by beginners and the experienced feed millers. It is used to introduce feed formulation
to students in teaching classes. Advantages of simultaneous equation over Pearson method are:
Firstly, farmer can balance for both protein and energy. Secondly, it is useful in considering more than two feed
ingredients at once when balancing more complex ration. Finally, as th
equation increases.
Limitations of Pearson Square and Simultaneous Method
The limitations includes firstly, it satisfies only one nutrient requirement and uses only two feed ingredients. Another
limitation is that the level of the nutrient being computed should be intermediate between the nutrient concentrations
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
69
Livestock Feed Formulation Techniques

Omidiora, Elijah Olusayo
1
, Adegoke, Benjamin Olusesan
2*
& Aderounmu Ganiyu Adesola.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, LAUTECH, Nigeria;
School of Engineering, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria..
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
mail of the corresponding author: adegokebo@yahoo.com

This paper reviews animal feed formulation methods, the conventional methods and intelligent system method.
Highlighting their cons and pros. The intelligent system method (neuro-fuzzy) incorporated fuzzy conjunctive into
levenberge training of artificial neural network. The neuro-fuzzy system was trained with dataset
Amino acid elements of chicks feed. With 0.05 level of significance on NCCS 2000 platforms, output of the
fuzzy system produced a correlation coefficient of 0.888608 and p-value of 0.97. Intelligent system can be
ease productivity in the field of animal feed formulation.
animal feed formulation, linear programming, neuro-fuzzy, ration.
Ration can be defined as the total amount of feed given to the animals on daily basis. Animal feed formu
defined as the process by which different feed ingredients are combined in a proportion necessary to provide the
animal with proper amount of nutrients needed at a particular stage of production, (Afolayan and Afolayan 2008).
ulation increases, one of the major problem facing developing countries of the world is their ability
to cope with protein requirement for the growing population, (Oladoja and Olusanya, 2009). Poultry, which offer
meat and egg on account of its short gestation, short generative interval and handy size is expected to play a major
role in the bid to provide protein of animal source, (Oladoja and Olusanya). It is reported that the most commonly
kept livestock is poultry and that over 70% of those farmers kept chickens (Udoh and Etim 2008). Feed formulation
is very important in raising animals because feed cost between 65% and 70% of the total cost of production in
poultry production as identified by literatures (Bamiro et al. 2001; Bamiro et al. 2009).
tock Feed Formulation Methods
There are about six conventional livestock feed formulation methods identified by Imamidoost,
1992 and Jerry, 2003. These methods include; Pearson Square method,
Pearson Square Method.
and easy to follow. Some of its merits as identified by Afolayan and Afolayan
include: its simplicity of use and secondly its usefulness for balancing protein requirement. Its disadvantages include,
its usability for only two(2) requirements at the same time and secondly, its reduced consideration given to other
nutritive requirements especially, vitamins and minerals
Simultaneous Equation Method
This is an alternative method for the square method using a simple algebraic equation. Here, a particul
requirement is satisfied using a combination of two feed ingredients.
The system is easy to use both by beginners and the experienced feed millers. It is used to introduce feed formulation
classes. Advantages of simultaneous equation over Pearson method are:
Firstly, farmer can balance for both protein and energy. Secondly, it is useful in considering more than two feed
ingredients at once when balancing more complex ration. Finally, as the requirement increases, the system of
Square and Simultaneous Method
The limitations includes firstly, it satisfies only one nutrient requirement and uses only two feed ingredients. Another
level of the nutrient being computed should be intermediate between the nutrient concentrations
www.iiste.org
echniques
& Aderounmu Ganiyu Adesola.
3

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, LAUTECH, Nigeria;
ria..
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
mail of the corresponding author: adegokebo@yahoo.com
ional methods and intelligent system method.
fuzzy) incorporated fuzzy conjunctive into
fuzzy system was trained with dataset and validated using
Amino acid elements of chicks feed. With 0.05 level of significance on NCCS 2000 platforms, output of the
value of 0.97. Intelligent system can be
Ration can be defined as the total amount of feed given to the animals on daily basis. Animal feed formulation can be
defined as the process by which different feed ingredients are combined in a proportion necessary to provide the
animal with proper amount of nutrients needed at a particular stage of production, (Afolayan and Afolayan 2008).
ulation increases, one of the major problem facing developing countries of the world is their ability
to cope with protein requirement for the growing population, (Oladoja and Olusanya, 2009). Poultry, which offer
tion, short generative interval and handy size is expected to play a major
role in the bid to provide protein of animal source, (Oladoja and Olusanya). It is reported that the most commonly
chickens (Udoh and Etim 2008). Feed formulation
is very important in raising animals because feed cost between 65% and 70% of the total cost of production in
There are about six conventional livestock feed formulation methods identified by Imamidoost,
and easy to follow. Some of its merits as identified by Afolayan and Afolayan
include: its simplicity of use and secondly its usefulness for balancing protein requirement. Its disadvantages include,
ime and secondly, its reduced consideration given to other
This is an alternative method for the square method using a simple algebraic equation. Here, a particular nutrient
The system is easy to use both by beginners and the experienced feed millers. It is used to introduce feed formulation
classes. Advantages of simultaneous equation over Pearson method are:
Firstly, farmer can balance for both protein and energy. Secondly, it is useful in considering more than two feed
e requirement increases, the system of
The limitations includes firstly, it satisfies only one nutrient requirement and uses only two feed ingredients. Another
level of the nutrient being computed should be intermediate between the nutrient concentrations
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

of the two feed ingredients being used.
2.1.3 Two-By-Two Matrix Method.
This method solves two nutrients requirement using two different feed ingredients. A
and a series of equations are solved to come up with the solution to the problem.
2.1.4 Trial and Error Method.
This is the most popular method of formulating ration for the swine and poultry. It is a type of feed formulati
in many developing nations of the world (Adejoro 2004), Nigeria inclusive. As the name implies, the formulation is
manipulated until the nutrient requirements of the animal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a
ration that meets all the nutrient requirements of the animal. In poultry feed formation, various cases of mineral
deficiency such as osteomalacia, rickets and shellessness or soft shell formation may not be properly addressed if
care is not taken to comprehensively analyz
question.
2.1.5 Imami Method.
This is an educational way to describe and balance simple rations by a common
calculator with a high accuracy for farmers who do not have access to the com
2.1.6 Linear Programming (LP) Method.
This is otherwise called, least cost computerized feed formulation. This method of determining the least cost
combination of ingredients using a series of equations which employs Linear Programming methods. Th
can employed in feed formulation takes basic seven steps.
Advantages of Linear Programming
Mark, (1998); Onwurah, (2005); highlight some advantages and disadvantages of Linear Programming. Some of the
advantages of Linear Programming method are:
i. Scientific Approach to Problem Solving
Hence it results in a better and true picture of the problems which can then be minutely analyzed and
solution ascertained.
ii. Quality of Decision. LP provides practical and better quality of decisions that reflect very precisely the
limitation of the system i.e; the various restrictions under which the system must operate for the solution to
be optimal. If it becomes necessary to deviate from t
associated costs or penalty It guaranteed the finding of optimal solution
iii. Evaluation of All Possible Alternatives.
complicated. LP method ensu
is selected.
iv. Flexibility. LP is flexible mathematical method.
Disadvantages of Linear Programming Method
Although Linear Programming (LP) is a highly successful techniques hav
demerits which are as follows:
i. Absence of risk
ii. Linear Relationship: It can only be applied to situations where the given problem can be represented in the
form of linear relationship. Hence it is based on implicit as
constraints or the limiting factors can be stated in the form of linear expression. Many practical problems
like feed mix problem can be better expressed with a minimum of quadratic equation.
iii. Constant Value of objective and Constraint Equations
mix problem, the values or the coefficients of the objective and constraints functions must be completely
known and be constant over a period of time. If the values cha
loose its effectiveness and may fail to provide optimal solution to the problem. However, in practical sense
it is not possible to determine the coefficients of objective function and the constraint equations wi
absolute certainty. These variables may lie on probability distribution curve and hence at best, only the
likelihood of their occurrence can be predicted. Moreover, the values change due to extremely as well as
internal factors during the period of stud
may be restricted.
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
70
of the two feed ingredients being used.
Two Matrix Method.
This method solves two nutrients requirement using two different feed ingredients. A 2 by 2 matrix is formed a set
and a series of equations are solved to come up with the solution to the problem.

This is the most popular method of formulating ration for the swine and poultry. It is a type of feed formulati
in many developing nations of the world (Adejoro 2004), Nigeria inclusive. As the name implies, the formulation is
manipulated until the nutrient requirements of the animal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a
all the nutrient requirements of the animal. In poultry feed formation, various cases of mineral
deficiency such as osteomalacia, rickets and shellessness or soft shell formation may not be properly addressed if
care is not taken to comprehensively analyze or calculate the level of calcium and phosphorus of the ration in
This is an educational way to describe and balance simple rations by a common
calculator with a high accuracy for farmers who do not have access to the computer.
Linear Programming (LP) Method.
This is otherwise called, least cost computerized feed formulation. This method of determining the least cost
combination of ingredients using a series of equations which employs Linear Programming methods. Th
can employed in feed formulation takes basic seven steps.
Linear Programming Method
Mark, (1998); Onwurah, (2005); highlight some advantages and disadvantages of Linear Programming. Some of the
method are:
Scientific Approach to Problem Solving. It is the application of scientific approach to problem solving.
Hence it results in a better and true picture of the problems which can then be minutely analyzed and
LP provides practical and better quality of decisions that reflect very precisely the
limitation of the system i.e; the various restrictions under which the system must operate for the solution to
be optimal. If it becomes necessary to deviate from the optimal path, LP can quite easily evaluate the
associated costs or penalty It guaranteed the finding of optimal solution
Evaluation of All Possible Alternatives. Majority of the problems in animal feed formulation are somehow
complicated. LP method ensures that all possible solutions are generated, out of which the optimal solution
LP is flexible mathematical method.
Linear Programming Method
Although Linear Programming (LP) is a highly successful techniques having wide applications, yet it has some
: It can only be applied to situations where the given problem can be represented in the
form of linear relationship. Hence it is based on implicit assumption that the objective as well as all the
constraints or the limiting factors can be stated in the form of linear expression. Many practical problems
like feed mix problem can be better expressed with a minimum of quadratic equation.
objective and Constraint Equations. Before a LP technique could be applied to any feed
mix problem, the values or the coefficients of the objective and constraints functions must be completely
known and be constant over a period of time. If the values change during the period of study, the LP would
loose its effectiveness and may fail to provide optimal solution to the problem. However, in practical sense
it is not possible to determine the coefficients of objective function and the constraint equations wi
absolute certainty. These variables may lie on probability distribution curve and hence at best, only the
likelihood of their occurrence can be predicted. Moreover, the values change due to extremely as well as
internal factors during the period of study. \due to this, the actual application of Linear Programming tools
www.iiste.org
2 by 2 matrix is formed a set
This is the most popular method of formulating ration for the swine and poultry. It is a type of feed formulation used
in many developing nations of the world (Adejoro 2004), Nigeria inclusive. As the name implies, the formulation is
manipulated until the nutrient requirements of the animal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a
all the nutrient requirements of the animal. In poultry feed formation, various cases of mineral
deficiency such as osteomalacia, rickets and shellessness or soft shell formation may not be properly addressed if
e or calculate the level of calcium and phosphorus of the ration in
This is otherwise called, least cost computerized feed formulation. This method of determining the least cost
combination of ingredients using a series of equations which employs Linear Programming methods. This least cost
Mark, (1998); Onwurah, (2005); highlight some advantages and disadvantages of Linear Programming. Some of the
It is the application of scientific approach to problem solving.
Hence it results in a better and true picture of the problems which can then be minutely analyzed and
LP provides practical and better quality of decisions that reflect very precisely the
limitation of the system i.e; the various restrictions under which the system must operate for the solution to
he optimal path, LP can quite easily evaluate the
Majority of the problems in animal feed formulation are somehow
res that all possible solutions are generated, out of which the optimal solution
ing wide applications, yet it has some
: It can only be applied to situations where the given problem can be represented in the
sumption that the objective as well as all the
constraints or the limiting factors can be stated in the form of linear expression. Many practical problems
like feed mix problem can be better expressed with a minimum of quadratic equation.
. Before a LP technique could be applied to any feed
mix problem, the values or the coefficients of the objective and constraints functions must be completely
nge during the period of study, the LP would
loose its effectiveness and may fail to provide optimal solution to the problem. However, in practical sense
it is not possible to determine the coefficients of objective function and the constraint equations with
absolute certainty. These variables may lie on probability distribution curve and hence at best, only the
likelihood of their occurrence can be predicted. Moreover, the values change due to extremely as well as
due to this, the actual application of Linear Programming tools
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

iv. Fractional solutions often have no meaning.
mix problem can always be quantified as an integer quite ofte
rounded off to the next integer. Hence, the solution would not be the optimal one.
v. Flexibility Limitation. Once a problem has been properly quantified in terms of objective function and
constraint equations and the tools of Linear Programming are applied to it, it becomes very difficult to
incorporate any changes in the system arising on account of any change in decision parameter. Hence, it
lacks the desired operational flexibility. Reducing the world to a set o
difficult.
vi. Multiplicity of Goal. The long
any point of time in its operations has a multiplicity of goals or the goals hierarchy
attained on a priority wise basis for its long term growth. In a case where farm managers goals are multiple
and conflicting, the LP method fails.
vii. Degree of Complexity. Many large
techniques even with the help of a computer due to high complexity and lengthy calculations involved.
Assumptions and approximations are required to be made so that the given problem can be broken down
into several smaller problems and, then solved separately
cases, may be doubtful.
2.2 Limitations of Existing Feed Formulation Methods.
Computer allows rapid formulation of rations that meet nutrient specifications at minimum cost. Because of the
precision possible with the use of computers, it is tempting to forget that the formula produced is only reliable as the
input data given to the computer. Nutritional specifications must be reviewed to take care of changes due to new
research findings. Close attention to ingredient quality is essential for reliable formulation. Madueke (2004) while
trying to look at the way to solve the problem of an ever increasing animal protein gap in Nigeria, recommended that
there should be massive increase in livestock production
Nigeria Livestock Industry are still centered on the conventional livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry) ,
their production has consistently remained low. The reason for this has being the h
feed costs and poor management (Madubuike
poultry as being animal produced in more percentage in Nigeria. Esonu
percent of Nigerias poultry farms have closed down and another 30 percent forced to reduce their production
capacity due to high costs of livestock feeds. This livestock feed actually account for 70 to 80 percent of cost of
livestock production against the 55
Ekenyem, 2001).

3. Material and Methods
Neuro-fuzzy Animal Feed Formulation
Neuro-fuzzy animal feed formulation employs hybridization of two synergies in formulation of the animal fe
Lakhmi and Martin (1998) stressed the fact of the hybridization has many advantages over individual paradigms.
Robbert (2001) described the OR and AND fuzzy neuron. Akinyokun (2002) employed the hybridized strength of
neuro-fuzzy for evaluating human resources performance of academic staff of higher institution of learning. Rahib et.
al (2005) developed neuro-fuzzy system for electricity comsumption prediction model.
Neuro-fuzzy algorithm for animal feed formulation
Enumerated below is the algorithm fo
Step 1: Start
Step 2: (Select the target vector from the recommended component levels for the animal type to be
formulated for, which invariably forms the target vector)
- Capture the recommended percentage nutrient level for the type of ratio
Specifically, those to be used as the control parameters.
- Organize the percentage parameters into a vector.
The target will generate an input vector
to be satisfied in the feed formula
Step 3: (Select the available feed ingredients to be used in the feed formulation).
- Select the feed ingredients to be used in the formulation
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
71
Fractional solutions often have no meaning. There is absolutely no certainty that the solution to a LP feed
mix problem can always be quantified as an integer quite often. It can give fractional answers which are
rounded off to the next integer. Hence, the solution would not be the optimal one.
Once a problem has been properly quantified in terms of objective function and
the tools of Linear Programming are applied to it, it becomes very difficult to
incorporate any changes in the system arising on account of any change in decision parameter. Hence, it
lacks the desired operational flexibility. Reducing the world to a set of linear equations is usually very
The long-term objectives of any farm are not confined to a single goal. Any farm, at
any point of time in its operations has a multiplicity of goals or the goals hierarchy
attained on a priority wise basis for its long term growth. In a case where farm managers goals are multiple
and conflicting, the LP method fails.
Many large-scale real life practical problems can be solved by employing LP
hniques even with the help of a computer due to high complexity and lengthy calculations involved.
Assumptions and approximations are required to be made so that the given problem can be broken down
into several smaller problems and, then solved separately. Hence, the validity of the final result, in all such
Limitations of Existing Feed Formulation Methods.
Computer allows rapid formulation of rations that meet nutrient specifications at minimum cost. Because of the
ssible with the use of computers, it is tempting to forget that the formula produced is only reliable as the
input data given to the computer. Nutritional specifications must be reviewed to take care of changes due to new
to ingredient quality is essential for reliable formulation. Madueke (2004) while
trying to look at the way to solve the problem of an ever increasing animal protein gap in Nigeria, recommended that
there should be massive increase in livestock production at lowest possible cost. Though policy programmes in
Nigeria Livestock Industry are still centered on the conventional livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry) ,
their production has consistently remained low. The reason for this has being the huge capital requirements, high
feed costs and poor management (Madubuike et. al. 2003; Mbanasor and Nwosu 2003). Oyenuga (1968) identified
poultry as being animal produced in more percentage in Nigeria. Esonu et al (2001) reported that more than 50
t of Nigerias poultry farms have closed down and another 30 percent forced to reduce their production
capacity due to high costs of livestock feeds. This livestock feed actually account for 70 to 80 percent of cost of
livestock production against the 55 percent to 70 percent earlier reported by Pond and Maner, (Madubuike and
fuzzy Animal Feed Formulation
fuzzy animal feed formulation employs hybridization of two synergies in formulation of the animal fe
Lakhmi and Martin (1998) stressed the fact of the hybridization has many advantages over individual paradigms.
Robbert (2001) described the OR and AND fuzzy neuron. Akinyokun (2002) employed the hybridized strength of
esources performance of academic staff of higher institution of learning. Rahib et.
fuzzy system for electricity comsumption prediction model.
fuzzy algorithm for animal feed formulation
Enumerated below is the algorithm for the system
(Select the target vector from the recommended component levels for the animal type to be
formulated for, which invariably forms the target vector).
Capture the recommended percentage nutrient level for the type of ratio
Specifically, those to be used as the control parameters.
Organize the percentage parameters into a vector.
The target will generate an input vector p= (1x m) where m is the number of feed requirement
to be satisfied in the feed formulation.
(Select the available feed ingredients to be used in the feed formulation).
Select the feed ingredients to be used in the formulation
www.iiste.org
There is absolutely no certainty that the solution to a LP feed
n. It can give fractional answers which are
rounded off to the next integer. Hence, the solution would not be the optimal one.
Once a problem has been properly quantified in terms of objective function and
the tools of Linear Programming are applied to it, it becomes very difficult to
incorporate any changes in the system arising on account of any change in decision parameter. Hence, it
f linear equations is usually very
term objectives of any farm are not confined to a single goal. Any farm, at
any point of time in its operations has a multiplicity of goals or the goals hierarchy- all of which must be
attained on a priority wise basis for its long term growth. In a case where farm managers goals are multiple
scale real life practical problems can be solved by employing LP
hniques even with the help of a computer due to high complexity and lengthy calculations involved.
Assumptions and approximations are required to be made so that the given problem can be broken down
. Hence, the validity of the final result, in all such
Computer allows rapid formulation of rations that meet nutrient specifications at minimum cost. Because of the
ssible with the use of computers, it is tempting to forget that the formula produced is only reliable as the
input data given to the computer. Nutritional specifications must be reviewed to take care of changes due to new
to ingredient quality is essential for reliable formulation. Madueke (2004) while
trying to look at the way to solve the problem of an ever increasing animal protein gap in Nigeria, recommended that
at lowest possible cost. Though policy programmes in
Nigeria Livestock Industry are still centered on the conventional livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry) ,
uge capital requirements, high
2003; Mbanasor and Nwosu 2003). Oyenuga (1968) identified
(2001) reported that more than 50
t of Nigerias poultry farms have closed down and another 30 percent forced to reduce their production
capacity due to high costs of livestock feeds. This livestock feed actually account for 70 to 80 percent of cost of
percent to 70 percent earlier reported by Pond and Maner, (Madubuike and
fuzzy animal feed formulation employs hybridization of two synergies in formulation of the animal feed.
Lakhmi and Martin (1998) stressed the fact of the hybridization has many advantages over individual paradigms.
Robbert (2001) described the OR and AND fuzzy neuron. Akinyokun (2002) employed the hybridized strength of
esources performance of academic staff of higher institution of learning. Rahib et.

(Select the target vector from the recommended component levels for the animal type to be
Capture the recommended percentage nutrient level for the type of ration to be formulated.
is the number of feed requirement
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

- Enter their percentage nutrient contents levels
- Organize these parameters into an m by n vector
Vector q= m x n
where m is the number of ingredients to be used in the formulation
n in the number of the control parameters which is determined by the number of feed
requirement to be satisfied in the formulation.
Step 4: Normalize the input vector
Step 5: Fuzzify the input vector using sigmoidal membership function

(x
k
, a, b) =
1+ c
-
where a is the maximum value for feed ingredient
b is minimum value for feed ingr
and 1 < k
Step 6: Adjust the weight of the elements of the network by training the
i. Network using the Levenberge training algorithm
Qx
where x
k+1
is the output of (i+1)
x
k
is the output of the previous iteration
J is the Jacobian matrix that contains the first derivatives of the network
J
T
is the transpose of the Jacobian matrix
e is the vector of the network errors.
I is a scalar which is usually decreased at each consecut
ii. Employ fuzzy multiple conjunctive antecedent inference method to form the inference layer of the
system.
IF x is P
1,1
AND
IF x is P
2,1
AND
:
:
IF x is P
n,1
AND
where P
n,
= P
n,1
AND
P
n,
(x) = min |p
n,1
membership value for nutrient content
Step 7: Deffuzify the output of the training (
(x

) =
] p
k
(x)
n
k=1
] p
k
(x)
m
k=1
where (x

) is the defuzzified output value of feed ingredient


Step 8: Generate the percentages combination for the feed formulated for each components x
(x
2
), . ., (x
n
)
Step 9: Multiply each (x
1
) by component digestible nutrients of individual ingredients in the feed (y
(x
1
)*{ (y
1
), (y
2
), . ., (y
(x
2
)*{ (y
1
), (y
2
), . ., (y
(x
n
)*{ (y
1
), (y
2
), . ., (y
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
72
Enter their percentage nutrient contents levels
Organize these parameters into an m by n vector
x n
is the number of ingredients to be used in the formulation
in the number of the control parameters which is determined by the number of feed
requirement to be satisfied in the formulation.
Normalize the input vector p (using minmax pre-processing function)
Step 5: Fuzzify the input vector using sigmoidal membership function
1
-c(x
k
-b)

where a is the maximum value for feed ingredient x
k

b is minimum value for feed ingredient x
k

m
Adjust the weight of the elements of the network by training the
using the Levenberge training algorithm
Qx
k+1
= x
k
[J
T
J + I]
-1
J
T
e
is the output of (i+1)
th
iteration
s the output of the previous iteration
is the Jacobian matrix that contains the first derivatives of the network
is the transpose of the Jacobian matrix
is the vector of the network errors.
is a scalar which is usually decreased at each consecutive iterations.
Employ fuzzy multiple conjunctive antecedent inference method to form the inference layer of the
AND P
1,2
AND P
1,m
THEN y is
1

AND P
2,2
AND P
2,m
THEN y is
2

AND P
n,2
AND P
n,m
THEN y is
m

AND P
n,2
AND P
n,m

1
(x), p
n,2
(x), . . , p
n,m
(x) ] (3)
membership value for nutrient content n of feed ingredient i 1 < i m ;
Deffuzify the output of the training (Simulated output) using (minmax post-processing function
( )dx
( )dx
(4)
is the defuzzified output value of feed ingredient .
s combination for the feed formulated for each components x
) by component digestible nutrients of individual ingredients in the feed (y
), . ., (y
m
)}
), . ., (y
m
)}
), . ., (y
m
)}
www.iiste.org

in the number of the control parameters which is determined by the number of feed
(1)
(2)
Employ fuzzy multiple conjunctive antecedent inference method to form the inference layer of the
(3) wher p
n,
is
; 1 < n m
processing function).
(4)
s combination for the feed formulated for each components x
i
for i = 1 to n. (x
1
),
) by component digestible nutrients of individual ingredients in the feed (y
i
).
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

where ( ) the percentage of the digestible nutrient
Step 10: Calculate the percentage nutrient and digestible nutrient contents.
Percentage digestible nutrient is ca
q

= y

n
k=1

where q

is the total digestible nutrient


Stop11: Stop
This study employs the output from the neuro
Registration Council (NRC) standards for chicks feed standard.
The specific research questions in this paper are listed below. They are tested at 0.05 levels of significance.
i) What type of relationship exist between the output of Neuro
ii) What is the degree of relationship between the two (2) results ie. NF & NRC 1994.
To examine the above research question, statistical analysis tools to be employed are:
i) Scatter diagram will be used to depict the direction and t
NF and NRC 1994.
ii) T- test will be used to examine the nature of the relationship

t
n-1
=
x

4. Results and discussion
The output of the neuro-fuzzy system compared with National Registration Council (NRC, 1994) is shown in table 1.
Integrity of the system is test by comparing it with the control (NRC 1994).Analysis of the result is done on NCSS
2000 with alpha =0.05.
(i) Plot section
The normal distribution plot of differences in fig 1a indicates normality that exist between the data (treatments).
(ii) Assumptions section: The test of assumption in fig 2 indicates that normality cannot be rejected for the
treatments and that 0.889 correlation exist between the treatments.
(iii) T-test section : From fig 3, the p
the conclusion of this hypothesis is acceptance, i. e. there is no difference in the two treatments. ( i e. NF and NRC
1994).
iv) Descriptive statistics: Fig 4 showed that the mean difference is 3.138375E
being 4.315441. the 95% interval estaimate for the mean difference ranges from
Advantages of neuro-fuzzy animal feed formulation system.
Some of the advantages of neuro-fuzzy system which neuro
follows:
i. A multi-objective, purpose-
ii. It is simpler to use because it involve simple input from the users while the system does
the complex computations) and produces the desired output to the system users.
iii. It incorporates the knowledge of millers expertise into the feed formulation.
iv. It can compound as many target nutrient components as possible with a number
ingredients
v. It combines the feed ingredients within a reasonable affordable limit.
vi. It can be applied for any type of animal feed once the recommended nutrient level and the nutrient contents
of the available feed ingredients are known.
Limitation
With the neuro-fuzzy system, the number of targeted feed nutrients contents determines the number of feed
ingredients to be employed in the formulation.
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
73
) the percentage of the digestible nutrient i in each feed ingredient.
Calculate the percentage nutrient and digestible nutrient contents.
Percentage digestible nutrient is calculated by equation (5)

is the total digestible nutrient i in the formulated feed.
This study employs the output from the neuro-fuzzy animal feed formulation method in its study ag
Registration Council (NRC) standards for chicks feed standard.
The specific research questions in this paper are listed below. They are tested at 0.05 levels of significance.
What type of relationship exist between the output of Neuro-fuzzy (NF), NRC 1971 and NRC 1994.
What is the degree of relationship between the two (2) results ie. NF & NRC 1994.
To examine the above research question, statistical analysis tools to be employed are:
Scatter diagram will be used to depict the direction and the nature of the relationship that exist between
test will be used to examine the nature of the relationship
E
0
:
d
= u
vs
E
1
:
d
= u
-
0
sn

fuzzy system compared with National Registration Council (NRC, 1994) is shown in table 1.
Integrity of the system is test by comparing it with the control (NRC 1994).Analysis of the result is done on NCSS
The normal distribution plot of differences in fig 1a indicates normality that exist between the data (treatments).
The test of assumption in fig 2 indicates that normality cannot be rejected for the
that 0.889 correlation exist between the treatments.
From fig 3, the p-value for this test is 0.977, which is much greater alpha () 0.005. Thus,
the conclusion of this hypothesis is acceptance, i. e. there is no difference in the two treatments. ( i e. NF and NRC
4 showed that the mean difference is 3.138375E-02 %, with standard deviation
being 4.315441. the 95% interval estaimate for the mean difference ranges from -2.268152 to 2.33092.
fuzzy animal feed formulation system.
fuzzy system which neuro-fuzzy animal feed formulation system inherited are as
-driven animal feed formulation method.
It is simpler to use because it involve simple input from the users while the system does
the complex computations) and produces the desired output to the system users.
It incorporates the knowledge of millers expertise into the feed formulation.
It can compound as many target nutrient components as possible with a number
It combines the feed ingredients within a reasonable affordable limit.
It can be applied for any type of animal feed once the recommended nutrient level and the nutrient contents
of the available feed ingredients are known.
fuzzy system, the number of targeted feed nutrients contents determines the number of feed
ingredients to be employed in the formulation.
www.iiste.org

(5)
fuzzy animal feed formulation method in its study against National
The specific research questions in this paper are listed below. They are tested at 0.05 levels of significance.
(NF), NRC 1971 and NRC 1994.
What is the degree of relationship between the two (2) results ie. NF & NRC 1994.
he nature of the relationship that exist between
fuzzy system compared with National Registration Council (NRC, 1994) is shown in table 1.
Integrity of the system is test by comparing it with the control (NRC 1994).Analysis of the result is done on NCSS
The normal distribution plot of differences in fig 1a indicates normality that exist between the data (treatments).
The test of assumption in fig 2 indicates that normality cannot be rejected for the
value for this test is 0.977, which is much greater alpha () 0.005. Thus,
the conclusion of this hypothesis is acceptance, i. e. there is no difference in the two treatments. ( i e. NF and NRC
02 %, with standard deviation
2.268152 to 2.33092.
fuzzy animal feed formulation system inherited are as
It is simpler to use because it involve simple input from the users while the system does the processing (all

It can compound as many target nutrient components as possible with a number of available feed
It can be applied for any type of animal feed once the recommended nutrient level and the nutrient contents
fuzzy system, the number of targeted feed nutrients contents determines the number of feed
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

References
Adejoro S. O. (2004). A Hand Book of Poultry Feed Formulation in the Tropics. SOAV
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Afolayan, M. O. and Afolayan, M.,(2008). Nigeria oriented poultry feed formulation software
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-51.
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for poverty alleviation among poultry farmers in Ogun state, International Journal
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Neuro-Fuzzy System. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 8: 128
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study of Urban Broiler Farms in Calabar, Nigeria.33
Production. Ogun-NSAP, 320

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Adejoro S. O. (2004). A Hand Book of Poultry Feed Formulation in the Tropics. SOAV
Center for Livestock Management Training Courses: 37-53.
Afolayan, M. O. and Afolayan, M.,(2008). Nigeria oriented poultry feed formulation software
requirements. Journal of applied Sciences Research, 4(11), 1596-1602.
Neuro-Fuzzy Expert System for Evaluation of Human Resources Performance,
Bank of Nigeria Plc Endowment Fund Lecture, FUTA: 3, 7.
Bamiro, M.O., Shittu A. M. and Kola Olutokun, A. S. (2001). Private feed production as cost
Effects on profitability of poultry business in Ogun state, Nigeria. The Ogun Journal ofAgricultural Sciences, 1(1):37
Bamiro, M. O., Momoh S. and Philip, A. O., (2009). Vertical integration and profitability in Poultry industry in
and Oyo states, Nigeria, Journal of Hum Ecol, 27(2): 149-154.
. Using IMAMI Method in Ration Formulation.
Feed Reference Standards, Philippine, PHILSAN.
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Alphabet Nigeria Publisher, Owerri, Nigeria.
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Oladoja, M.A. and Olusanya, T.P., (2009). Impact of private feed formulation and production as a tool
ion among poultry farmers in Ogun state, International Journal of Poultry Science 8(10), 1006
Onwurah, F. B., (2005). Excel Feed Formulation and Feeding Models, Proceeding of 1
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Technology, Education and Environment Conference, African Society for Scientific Research (ASSR),
Nigerias Feeds and Feeding-Stuffs: Their Chemistry and Nutritive Value
Rahib A.;Vasif H. A. and Cemal Ardil (2005). Electricity Consumption Prediction Model using
Fuzzy System. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 8: 128- 131.
Thomas S. Ferguson, (). Linear Programming: A Concise Introduction.
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study of Urban Broiler Farms in Calabar, Nigeria.33
rd
Annual conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal

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Adejoro S. O. (2004). A Hand Book of Poultry Feed Formulation in the Tropics. SOAVET Nig. Ltd, Ibadan and
Afolayan, M. O. and Afolayan, M.,(2008). Nigeria oriented poultry feed formulation software
Fuzzy Expert System for Evaluation of Human Resources Performance, First
Bamiro, M.O., Shittu A. M. and Kola Olutokun, A. S. (2001). Private feed production as cost Reduction strategy:
Effects on profitability of poultry business in Ogun state, Nigeria. The Ogun Journal ofAgricultural Sciences, 1(1):37
Bamiro, M. O., Momoh S. and Philip, A. O., (2009). Vertical integration and profitability in Poultry industry in Ogun
Networks, Fuzzy Systems and Genetic Algorithms:
The Potential use of white Star Apple seed (Chrisophyllum albidum) an Physic nut
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Sectorial Approach. Journal of
Ruminant Animal Production and Handling in the Tropics.
Perspective Scientific Instruments, Inc.
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Oladoja, M.A. and Olusanya, T.P., (2009). Impact of private feed formulation and production as a tool
of Poultry Science 8(10), 1006
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can Society for Scientific Research (ASSR), pp 192-199.
and Nutritive Value. University
n Prediction Model using
131.
poultry production. The case
Annual conference of the Nigeria Society for Animal
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

Table 1 Output from Neuro-fuzzy (NF) and NRC 1994 for amino acid content in chicks feed.
Ingredients
Arginine
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Cystine
Methonine
Threonine
Tryptopha
Valine
Crude protein
Ether Extract
Crude Fiber
Metabolizable Energy
(Kj/g)












(a)





(b) (c)
Fig 1a. Norm probability plot of difference
Average-difference plot

-10.0
-3.8
2.5
8.8
15.0
-2.0 -1.0 0.0
Normal Probability Plot of Differences
Expected Normals
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
0.0
6.3
12.5
18.8
25.0
0.0 8.8 17.5 26.3
Scatter Plot
C1
C
2
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
75
fuzzy (NF) and NRC 1994 for amino acid content in chicks feed.
Ingredients NF NRC (1994)
Arginine 0.558 1.4
Histidine 0.127 0.65
Isoleucine 0.28 10.18
Leucine 0.4588 2.2
Lysine 0.33234 1.22
Phenylalanine 0.3049 1.41
Tyrosine 0.184 0.79
Cystine 0.075 0.53
Methonine 0.1334 0.52
Threonine 0.2316 0.94
Tryptophan 0.073 0.39
Valine 0.3111 1.3
Crude protein 31.71 23.85
Ether Extract 16.97 6.5
Crude Fiber 9.54 8.38
Metabolizable Energy
(Kj/g) 2.749 3.276

(b) (c)
Norm probability plot of difference b. Scatter plot of NRC 1994 against NF

1.0 2.0
Normal Probability Plot of Differences
Expected Normals
26.3 35.0
-1.0
0.1
1.3
2.4
3.5
0.0 6.3 12.5
Average-Difference Plot
Difference
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
www.iiste.org
fuzzy (NF) and NRC 1994 for amino acid content in chicks feed.

(b) (c)
Scatter plot of NRC 1994 against NF c..
18.8 25.0
Average-Difference Plot
Difference
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225
Vol.3, No.4, 2013

Assumption
Skewness Normality
Kurtosis Normality
Omnibus Normality
Correlation Coefficient
Fig 2. Test of assumptions about differences


Alternative
Hypothesis
C1-C2<>0
C1-C2<0
C1-C2>0
Fig 3. T-test for differencebetween means


Standard Standard 95% LCL
Variable Count Mean
C1 16 4.002384
C2 16 3.971
Difference 16 3.138375E
T for Confidence Limits = 2.1314
Fig 4. Descriptive statistics

Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare
3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)
76
Value Probability Decision (5%)
1.0936 0.274152 Cannot reject normality
2.2865 0.022227 Reject normality
6.4238 0.040280 Reject normality
0.888608
Fig 2. Test of assumptions about differences
Prob Decision
T-Value Level (5%)
0.0291 0.977177 Accept Ho
0.0291 0.511412 Accept Ho
0.0291 0.488588 Accept Ho
test for differencebetween means
95% LCL 95% UCL
Mean Deviation Error of Mean
4.002384 8.705559 2.17639 -0.6364809
3.971 6.098962 1.524741 0.7210924
16 3.138375E-02 4.315441 1.07886 -2.268152


www.iiste.org
(5%)
Cannot reject normality
Reject normality
Reject normality
Power Power
(Alpha=.05) (Alpha=.01)
0.050085 0.010025
0.047197 0.009312
0.052934 0.010732
of Mean
0.6364809 8.641249
0.7210924 7.220908
2.268152 2.33092
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