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Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

A S L E Transactions

Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/utrb19

M. Kaneta , H. Yatsuzuka & Y. Murakami

a b c a b c

Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Japan Hitachi Ltd., Kokubu, Hitachi, Japan

To cite this article: M. Kaneta , H. Yatsuzuka & Y. Murakami (1985): Mechanism of Crack Growth in Lubricated Rolling/Sliding Contact, A S L E Transactions, 28:3, 407-414 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/05698198508981637

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

M. KANETA (Member, ASLE) Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Japan H. YATSUZUKA Hitachi Ltd., Kokubu, Hitachi, Japan and Y. MURAKAMI Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka, Japan

In order to explain the mechanism of rolling-contactfatigue crack growth analytically, fracture mechanics are applied to a semicircular suqace crack inclined at an angle to the elastic half-space loaded by Hertzian stresses. It is shown that the surface traction is the controlling factor for lubricant seepage into the crack and for shear mode crack growth rate. It is also clarijied that the generation of pits resultsfrom tensile nzode crack growth mainly due to the oil hydraulic pressure action.

This paper describes the mechanism of a three-dimensional surface crack propagation, qualitatively and synthetically, referring Keer's treatment. the Process of rolling-contact fatigue involves plastic flow below the contact, its effect is ignored.

A lubricated rollingJsliding contact system which contains cracks on their surfaces can he simulated by the system shown in Fig. 1. T h e elastic half-space containing a surface crack inclined at an angle (90" a)to the half-space surface is loaded by Hertzian contact pressure. A cycle of rolling can be viewed by shifting Hertzian contact pressure across the surface of the cracked half-space in a direction opposite to that of rolling. Traction force proportional to Hertzian contact pressure appears also within the contact region. These normal and tangential stresses are defined as follows:

INTRODUCTION

Although a great deal of investigation has been expended in elucidating the mechanism of rolling-contact fatigue phenomenon (pitting, flaking, spalling, etc.) the subject is still greatly debated. It is quite adequate to utilize fracture mechanics as a method to understand rolling-contact fatigue phenomenon, because the phenomenon is concerned with the growth of cracks. In the previous paper ( I ) , the authors discussed the growth behavior of cracks formed on lubricated rollinglsliding contact surfaces by focusing their attention to the relationship between the magnitude of stress intensity factor K,,, which prescribes the intensity of the tensile stress field near the tip of the crack and the magnitude of the threshold stress intensity factor A & , , , of the actual materials. As a result, it has been shown from the viewpoint of the fatigue crack propagation that the oil hydraulic pressure effect pointed out by Way (2) in 1935 may be accepted as a possible mechanism of surface crack growth. Moreover, it has been analytically confirmed that the crack on the follower surface propagates more easily than that on the driver surface, and that the surface traction, i.e. the tangential force, becomes an important factor for the crack propagation in the point that it controls lubricant seepage into the crack. However, Keer and his coworkers ( 3 ) , (4) have suggested, through their analysis of stress intensity factors for two-dimensional surface crack due to Hertzian loading, that the crack growth depends upon the shearing mode, i.e. mode 11, and they have given negative view with respect to the tensile mode crack growth. 407

where f is mean coefficient of surface traction. A surface crack is assumed to be a semicircle with radius a , and to be in they* - z* plane. T h e effect of lubricant penetrated into the crack is modeled by assuming that the fluid lubricant transmits the normal Hertzian contact pressure applied at the mouth of the crack, though the value of pressure is assumed to decrease linearly from crack mouth to crack front. That is, taking e as the distance between the crack mouth and the center of Hertzian contact, the fluid pressure applied at the crack faces is represented as

T h e three-dinlensional stress intensity factors lor the surface crack were obtained with the aid of the body force

408

method. T h e semicircular crack was divided into 72 triangular subregions as shown in Fig. 2 and the values of weighting functions indicating the intensity of the pair of the body forces were determined so as to satisfy the boundary conclitions for he crack uncler the contact stress field. In this proceclure, each triangular subregion was subdivided into four smaller triangles with the same size in order to improve (he accuracy ofanalysis. The mean value of four weighting f~~nctions evaluated at the centers of gravity of the four triatngles was regarded as the representative value for satisfying the boundary condition. T h e values of weighting f~~nc~io determined ns at the triangular subregions at the crack contour correspond to the din~ensionless stress intensicy liictors F I , FII,and F I I I .T h e stress intensity factors Kl, K I I ,and Kill are related to the dimensionless stress intensity factors as follows: KI = FI p,

Fig. 2-Mesh

G,

=

[41

KII = F I Ip,

6 and Kill

Fill po 6

In cliscussing Way's hypothesis as the possible mechanism of pitting plienonienon, the values of KI, KII,and Kill were evaluacecl by using he experimental data of Ref. ( 5 ) ,i.e. the maxim~rm Hertzian pressurep, = 1.1 GPa and the halfcontact wiclth c = 0.2 mni. Poisson's ratio was assumed to be 0.3.

Otsuka and his coworkers (6) have shown through their fractographical considerations that the critical condition of shear mode fatigue crack growth is given by K,(0),, = (consl.), and that of tensile mode fatigue crack growth by K,(O),, = M o t h (const.), approximately and show also that K,(O) is equal to AK,,,, at the transition from shear mode growth to tensile mode growth. Therefore, in this study, it is assumed that the shear mode growth starts macroscopically in the direction along which KT@)has the maximum value, when KT,, is larger than the threshold stress intensity factor AK,th. T h e angle 0, which gives the maximum value of K,(O) is obtained by putting the derivative of K,(0) with respect to 0 equal to zero, i.e. 0 - 1 tan2 0 - 7 tan 0 + 1 = 0, y tan 3 2 y 2 2 2 2 y

=

KIIIKI [7]

7

of the fields of shearing stress r,e and tensile stress c r e near (.he crack tip are expressed by the following formulas:

Concerning the tensile mode growth, the criterion given by Erdogan and Sih (7) is adopted. The angle 0, of crack growth by tensile mode is given by one of two roots of the following equation obtained by putting the derivative of K,(0) with respect to 0 equal to zero. 0 = (1 t -)My, 2

tan

=

y = KIIIKI

[8]

= cos

1 2

0 2

- l)]

K,,(O) =

[K1cos2 2 2

KllsinO] [6] 2

where ( r , 0) indicates the polar coordinate systems the origin of which is located at crack tip (see Fig. I).

where we must choose the angle 0, which makes K,(O) the maximum. T h e critical condition in both the tensile mode fatigue crack growth and the transition from shear mode to tensile mode is given by K,(0),,zhK,th. Otsuka el al (6) have experimentally determined the threshold stress intensity factors as AKslh=1.5 M ~ a . m land /~ M u I h = 6MPa.ml'' for low carbon steels. Many experimental results have commonly shown that most values of M a t h in fatigue fracture range only from 3 to 7.5 ~ P a . m ' / ' , irrespective of the kinds of materials.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Variations of Stress intensity Factors Caused by Movement of Contact

Figures 3 and 4 show the variations of dimensionless stress intensity factors for semicircular inclined crack caused by the movement of Hertzian contact pressure. F I and F I I are the values for crack tip at the deepest position. In these calculations, it is assumed that the crack faces receive fluid pressure due to lubricant penetrated into the crack. T h e abscissa shows the normalized distance, elc, between the crack mouth, which is at origin, and the center of Hertzian contact pressure. In the region of (elc(<1, the fluid pressure cor-

Fig. l-Analytlcal

a = radius of semi-circular crack c = half width of Hertzian contact u = crack incllnatlon angle (r,0) = polar coordinates with origln at crack tip p = angle from deepest crack tip of crack front

Mechanism of Crack Growth in Lubricated RollinglSliding Contact responding to Eq. [3] acts on the crack faces. T h e relationship between the inclined angle of crack and the direction of he movement of contact pressure differs depending on the direction of surface traction force. So, this relation is realized by changing the direction of traction force under the condition where the direction of inclination of crack is

409

fixed to the positive x direction in Fig. 1. When Hertzian contact moves from left of the crack mouth to right over the semi-infinite surface, the conditions f > 0 and f < 0 correspond to the driver surface, i.e. positive sliding surface, and the follower surface, i.e. negative sliding surface, respectively [see Fig. 5(A)]. On the contrary, when Hertzian contact moves from right to left, the conditions f > 0 and f < 0 correspond to the driver and the follower surfaces, respectively [see Fig. 5(B)].

-02'3

-2

-1

0

(b)

e/c 3

Fig. 4--Varletlons of stress intensity factors due to movement of contact (a) f = -0.3 (b) f = 0.3

Fig. 3--Varlatlons of stress intensity tactors due to movement of contact (a) f = -0.1 ( b ) f = 0.1

410

When the right end of Hertzian contact pressure is at the left of the crack mouth, i.e. elc < - 1, as described in the previous paper (I), the crack on the driver surface (f > 0) is closed (FI < 0) and on the follower surface (f < 0) the crack is open (FI > 0) at least at the mouth of the crack. Since lubricant cannot penetrate into the crack interior if the mouth of the crack is closed, it may be quite reasonable to consider that lubricant seepage into the crack on the clriver side is almost impossible. It can be seen from the comparison of Figs. 3 and 4 that the magnitude of lFll in the region of lelcl>l increases with increasing the surface traction, i.e. the magnitude of Ifl. Furthermore, the effect of surface traction increases with decreasing crack size. Contrary to the above discussion, in the case where Hertziiill contact pressure moves over the inclined crack surface from right to left, the crack on the driver (f < 0) is closed when the left end of Hertzian contact pressure is at the right of the crack mouth. T h e mouth of the crack on the follower (f > 0) is open if the crack size is small or the m:~gnitudeof the surface traction is large. However, lubricant penetrated into the crack in this region may be excluded because the crack is closed from its deepest position LO crack mouth as the contact moves at the region of e/c > 1 in the neighborhood of elc= 1 as described in the previous paper (1). In case of pure rolling (f = O), the crack is always closed in the region of le/c(hl. Consequently, it can be concluded that lubricant may very possibly penetrate into the crack, only when it is inclined so as to deepen in the direction of the movement of Hertzian contact, on the follower surface. In other cases involving the pure rolling, lubricant seepage into the crack interior may be impossible or seems to be limited. When Hertzian contact pressure is applied over the mouth of the crack uncler the existence of lubricant in the crack interior, the crack is likely to open (FI > 0) clue to the effect of the Iluid pressure as shown in Figs. 3 and 4. However, if the crack size is small, FI has negative value because the stresses in the neighborhood of Hertzian contact region are compressive states. It should be noted that the magnitude of positive value of FI is not remarkably influenced by the surface traction. Posslbillty o f Shear Mode Fatigue Crack Growth It has been founcl out in the previous paper (I), that if t.here is no fluicl pressure effect brought by the lubricant

seepage into the crack interior, it is difficult to explain the tensile mode crack growth from the viewpoint of fatigue crack propagation. However, as pointed out by Keer et al ( 3 ) ,( 4 ) ,the shear mode crack growth may occur. T h e shear mode fatigue crack growth will be remarkably influenced by frictional force between the contacting crack faces if the crack is closed. Therefore, we will discuss the possibility of the shear mode fatigue crack growth under the conditions where there is no fluid pressure and the parts of crack faces are capable of transmitting compressive stresses. The boundary condition with respect to the shearing stress T,, which acts on the crack faces, was assumed as

t and T* are the compressive and shearing In the above, a stresses, respectively, which act on the crack faces imagined in semi-infinite body with no crack subjected to the rolling contact pressure, f, is the coefficient of friction between the contacting crack faces, and sgn(r*) is the sign function, defined as follows:

A(a) F o l l o w e r s u r f a c e

A(b) D r i v e r surface

I

0

(b)

I

e/c 3

-3

B(a) Follower surface B(b) D r i v e r surface

-2

-1

Flg. 5--Relatlonshlp among dlrectlons of crack Incllnatlon, movement of contact pressure and surface traction.

Fig. &Effect of frlctlonal force between crack faces for small crack (a) f, = 0.2, alc = 0.1 (b) f, = 0.5, alc = 0.1

41 1

.1

e/c

their experimental facts with respect to the occurrence O F pitting. T h e above results may arrive at a conclusion that in the case of pure rolling (f = 0) or when the contact surfaces are separated completely by EHL film (If 1 < 0.1), the possibility of the propagation of microcrack is extremely low except for the case that the maximum contact pressure becomes several times as large as p, = 1.1 GPa assumed in this analysis. Figure 7 shows the result calculated for large crack size alc = 0.5 and for f = k0.1. T h e increase in crack size brings the decrease in the frictional force between the crack faces, because the compressive stress caused by Hertzian contact becomes relatively small. Consequently, there is a possibility of the shear mode crack growth for I fl = 0.1 even in the case off, = 0.5.

Figures 8 and 9, which are related to the dimensionless stress intensity factors F I and F I I in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively, show the variations of K,,, and K,,, associated with the movement of Hertzian contact. K T , , is calculated by assuming as F I = 0 when FI < 0, because F I < 0 never occurs in the actual phenomenon. However, concerning the calculation of K,,,, F1 < 0 is admitted, because if F 1 < 0 is treated as F I = 0, K,,, is overestimated. Accordingly, these figures give correct values in the case of F l > 0, though in the case of F I < 0 the values of K,,, and KT,, are overestimated. However, such approximations make no substantial change in the conclusions of this investigation. As already pointed out, the value of IK,,,,,I controls the shear mode crack growth. In this calculation, the crack growth angle for FI < 0 is zero, and, accordingly, K T , , becomes the maximum at the same angle, i.e. zero. T h e maximum range of AK,,, under the conditions of alc = 0.1 and f = + 0.1 exceeds AK,,h. However, because of F1 < 0 (see Fig. 3), if both the fluid pressure and the frictional force between the crack faces are considered in the calculation, the possibility of the crack growth will be extremely low. Although, as described in the previous section, there is a possibility of the shear mode crack growth if tangential traction between the contact surfaces increases, it should be considered that both the effect of fluid pressure and the high tangential traction could not be satisfied simultaneously. T h e value of KT,, increases with the increase in crack size. In this case, however, the mode of crack growth changes from shear type to tensile type since the value of K,,,,, exceeds AKUth.T h e value of K,,, for tiny crack never exceeds Moth even under the conditions off, = 0 and (/I = 0.3. Therefore, it may be concluded that the growth of a microcrack does not seem to occur by tensile mode or its growth rate is very slow. If large surface traction force is applied repeatedly, a microcrack may propagate by the shear mode, and, subsequently, the crack may propagate by the tensile mode.

-3

-2

-1

(b)

e/c

I 3

Fig. 7-Effect of frlctlonal force between crack faces for large crack (a) f = - 0.1, alc = 0.5 (b) f = 0.1, alc = 0.5

Equation [9] is defined only when a*< 0 on the closed parts of the crack. Figures 6(a) and 6(b) are plots of KT,, at the deepest position of the crack front, for normalized small crack size alc = 0.1 and for f, = 0.2 and 0.5. IK,,,l achieves the maximum value at the near points of elc = + 1, where the right and left edges of Hertzian contact pressure are just on the crack mouth. During a passage of Hertzian contact over the crack, i.e. lelcl < 1, KT,, becomes zero over the most part of the interval - 1 < elc < 1, since the frictional force between the crack faces supports the shear stress applied on the crack face by Hertzian contact. Accordingly, the slip between the crack faces does not occur in this region. It should be noted that increasing f,decreases lKTm,l. In the case of small surface traction force of I fl < 0.1, the maximum range of KT,,, i.e. AK,,,, is smaller than hKTlh= 1 . 5 ~ ~ a . m .~ However, " in the case of I fl = 0.3, AK,,, exceed AKTlhand the shear mode crack growth seems to occur. T h e angle of crack growth is 00 = 0, i.e. the direction along the initial crack. Ichimaru et a1 (8)and Soda et al (9) have pointed out experimentally that the increase in local tangential traction induced by asperity interaction may cause the initiation of pitting failure or may give a shorter life-to-pitting. T h e present result showing that the microcrack may propagate in shearing mode with increasing tangential traction, may give circumstantial evidence for

As is generally known, the occurrence of pitting or the

412

f < 0. Thus, the propagation of such kind of crack is unlikely to occur or its growth rate is very slow. On the other hand, when the crack is inclined as deepening to the direction of movement of the contact pressure as shown in Fig. 5(a), lubricant seepage is easier for f < 0 (i.e. the follower or the negative sliding surface) than for f > 0. As a result, it should be emphasized that for f < 0 the mean frictional coefficient, f,, between the crack faces is smaller in magnitude and the effect of fluid pressure is also greater as compared with that for f > 0. Figures 6 and 7 indicate that the value of KT,, which controls the shear mode crack growth is greater for f > 0 than for/ < 0. However, from the above discussion, f, for f < 0 is supposed to be smaller than that for f > 0. For example, in comparing the case off = 0.3 with that off =

propagation rate of crack is accelerated, especially on the Ibllower si~rface where the direction of surface traction is the siuiie as that of rolling (the inverse direction to the movement of the contact pressure); that is, the fatigue life is longer Ibr the driver surface than for the follower surface. '1-he difference of crack growth rate due to the difference of the direction of surface traction will be explained by considering that the shear n~oclecrack growth is affected by the frictional force between the crack faces and also the tensile mode crack growth is influenced by the fluid pressure clue to lubricant seepage into the crack. As clescribecl in the previous section, when the crack is inclined as shallowing to the direction of movement of the contact pressure as shown in Fig. 5(B), lubricant seepage into the crack interior is difficult for both cases o f f > 0 and

413

as the crack size increases but it always has positive value, and its value is greater forf > 0 than forf < 0.Furthermore, as (f 1 increases, the growth angle has increasing tendency for f > 0,but it has decreasing tendency for f < 0.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

In this study, the problem of fatigue crack propagation under lubricated rolling/sliding contact by utilizing the fracture mechanics has been discussed. T h e possible mechanisms concerning the crack growth and the occurrence of pit will be summarized as follows. T h e crack mouth opening depends on the magnitude of surface traction. Under the condition of pure rolling o r that of full film lubrication, the surface traction is zero or very small, and, accordingly, it is difficult for the lubricant to penetrate into the crack interior and then the crack growth hardly occurs. This indicates that as regards the crack growth, the action of surface traction plays an important role. Tiny cracks formed on the rolling/sliding contact surfaces take the shear mode fatigue growth at the first stage. Local increase in the surface traction induced by local collapse of EHL film and the decrease in the frictional coefficient between the crack faces due to the lubricant seepage are considered to be the necessary conditions for the crack growth. Since the contact pressure gives rise to large compressive stress field in the neighborhood of the contact region, the crack growth is unlikely to occur without sufficient surface traction and small frictional force between the crack faces. Although the relationship between the lubricant additives and the rolling-contact fatigue is not yet proved experimentally, the following may be predicted from the viewpoint of the fatigue crack propagation. T h e additives, which improve the characteristics of boundary lubrication, retard the crack growth in the point that they bring on the decrease in the surface traction; yet, since they give rise to the decrease in the coefficient of friction between the crack faces, the crack growth rate may be accelerated. T h e shear mode fatigue crack growth makes the crack extend along the original crack plane. Therefore, the transition from a crack to a pit is not induced by the shear mode crack growth. T h e crack growth by tensile mode is necessary for the occurrence of pit. T h e tensile mode crack growth dominates as the crack extends under the fluid pressure effect. T h e relationship between the direction of the crack inclination and the surface traction is an important factor for the crack growth in the point that it governs lubricant seepage into the crack. T h e crack inclined as deepening to the direction of movement of the contact pressure is mostly apt to propagate if the direction of the surface traction is opposite to that of movement of the contact pressure. This indicates that the crack propagation rate in this situation is higher for the crack formed on the follower surface than for that on the driver surface. Since, in this case, the growth angle becomes smaller as the surface traction increases in magnitude, it can be predicted that the higher the surface traction, the greater the pit in size. Moreover, if a crack formed on the driver surface propagates by the fluid pressure, a shallow pit may be produced as compared with a pit

Fig. +Variations of Kmmrand K,msr due to movement of contact (a) KOm.. (f = f 0.3)

- 0.3 in Fig. 6, the maximum range of K , , , for f = 0.3 and f, = 0.5 is 2.7 M ~ a . m ' /and ~ , that for f = -0.3 and f, = 0.2 is 2.8 M ~ a . m ' /Eventually ~. there is very little difference between them. T h e experimental result obtained by Soda and Yamamoto (5)shows that the growth rate of microcracks formed on the driver surface (f > 0) is slightly higher than that of microcracks formed on the follower surface (f< 0)o r both rates are almost the same. This result may be consistent with the present result. As the crack extends, the growth mode is altered fro111 the shear mode to the tensile mode. This is due to the influence of the fluid pressure by lubricant penetrated into the crack. In this regime, the maximum value of K,, is greater for f > 0 than for f < 0. However, this result is obtained by assuming that both cases have the same fluid pressure effect. In an actual situation, we must consider the possibility of lubricant seepage. As a result, it is expected that the cracks on the surfaces are more likely to propagate at higher rate on the follower side (f< 0)than on the driver side (f> O),and also that the crack growth in the case of pure rolling (f = 0)is unlikely to occur. T h e crack growth angle, 00, where K,,, becomes the maximum value is indicated in Figs. 8 and 9. Notice that the growth angle has the following tendencies. It decreases

414

M.

KANETA,

H.YATSUZUKAAND Y . M U R A K A M I

REFERENCES

( I ) Murakami, Y., Kaneta, M., and Yatsuzuka, H., "AnalysisofSurface Crack Propagation in Lubricated Rolling Contact," to be published in ASLE Tram. (2) Way, S., "Pitting Due to Rolling Contact," J . Appl. Mech., Trans. ASME., 2, p p A49-A58 (1935). (3) Keer. L. M., Bryant, hi. D. and Haritos, G. K., "Subsurface and Surface Cracking Due to Hertzian Contact," J . Lubr. Tech., Trans. ASME, 104, pp 347-351 (1982). (4) Keer, L. M. and Bryant, M. D., "A Pitting Model for Rolling Convact Fatigue," J . Lubr. Tech., Trans. ASME., 105, p p 198-205 (1983). (5) Soda, N. and Yarnarnoto, T . , "Effect of Tangential Traction and Roughness on Crack InitiationlPropagation During Rolling Contact," ASLE Trans., 25, 2, p p 198-206 (1982). (6) Otsuka, A,, Mori, K., and Miyata, T., "The Condition of Fatigue Crack Growth in Mixed Mode Condition," Eng. Fracfure Mech.. 7 , p p 429-439 (1975). (7) Erdogan. F. and Sih, G. C., "On the Crack Extension in Plates Under Plane Loading and Transverse Shear," J. Basic Eng., Trans. ASME, 85, p p 519-527 (1963). (8) Ichirnaru, K., Nakajirna, A., and Hirano, F., "Effect of Asperity Interaction on Pitting in Rollers and Gears," j. Mech. Design, Trans. ASME, 103, p p 482-491 (1981). (9) Soda, N. and Yarnarnoto, T., "Effects of Tangential Traction and Surface Roughness of Mating Roller of Cr-Mo Steel on Rolling-Fatigue Life of 0.45 percent Carbon Steel," Proc. JSLE-ASLE Inf. Lub. Conf., Tohyo, pp 458-465 (1975).

proclitced on the follower surface because of the greater gl-owth angle. Since the crack cannot propagate in the opposite direction to (lie initial inclination and also a tiny crack propagates straight by the shearing mechanism, we can conclude that the direction of a pitting crack would be determined at a very early stage, i.e. during the prepropagation stage. Finally, we must make an additional remark. We have recently found analytically that the lubricant entering the crack in advance of the contact is shut u p in the crack interior Ijy the mouth of the crack which is sealed as the movement of the contact. This phenomenon may further ;iccelera~e the tensile mode crack growth. T h e details of this analysis are expected to appear in the near future.

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