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MCQ on Anatomy &Physiology A Chapter 1: MCQ .The Human Body: An Orientation Anatomy is( ) .

the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts .the study of how the body and its parts function .the study of the body and its interaction with the environment .All of the above are correct answers Physiology is( ) .the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts .the study of how the body and its parts function .the study of the body and its interaction with the environment .All of the above are correct answers (Smooth muscle is an example of which level of structural organization ( .Tissue level .Organ level .Cellular level .Chemical level Which system regulates the acid-base balance of the blood( ) .The endocrine system .The urinary system .The lymphatic system .The cardiovascular system Organ systems are NOT described as which of these statements( ) .They act independently of each other .They function together to ensure wellness of the organism .They are groups of organs with a common function .They can share organs with other systems (The passing of blood through the body is part of which body function( .Growth .Metabolism .Responsiveness .Movement The simplest level of organization on the "structural ladder" is the( ) .tissue level .organ level .cellular level .chemical level Which of the following systems is involved in maintaining the boundaries of the body so that the inside ( ?remains distinct from the outside .Respiratory .Lymphatic .Integumentary .Endocrine (Metabolism is best described as( .the ability to transform substances into energy for the body .the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in the body .how the human body uses the food we eat .how fast the body uses energy (The spleen is usually found in which abdominopelvic region( .Left iliac region .Epigastric region .Left hypochondriac region .Left lumbar region (The mediastinum houses which of the following structures( .Liver .Urinary bladder

.Trachea .Spleen The ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal condition under changing external ( ) :conditions is defined as .negative feedback .positive feedback .homeostasis .hematopoiesis The elements of a physiological control system include( ) .a receptor or another kind of sensor .an effector or other response .a control center that determines output .All of the above ?The thymus gland is part of which of the following( ) .The endocrine system .The reproductive system .The lymphatic system .The cardiovascular system (Which of the following statements is/are FALSE( ?The correct anatomical position does NOT include which of the following positions .Palms facing backwards .Standing erect .Hands at the sides, and feet parallel .Head facing forward The dorsal body cavity is divided into two subdivisions. They are( ) .the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity .the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity .the cranial cavity and the thoracic cavity .None of the above ?Which of the following planes would separate the cranial cavity from the thoracic cavity( ) .Transverse plane .Median (midsagittal) plane .Frontal (coronal) plane .Sagittal plane .When standing in the correct anatomical position, the feet are ________ to the knees( ) proximal lateral medial distal Quiz 1 :((A group of cells of the same type form a(an( .organ .organism .atom .tissue .organ system ?Which system complements the circulatory system and involves the spleen( ) .The urinary system .The lymphatic system .The digestive system .The endocrine system .The reproductive system :(A group of tissues working together for a specific function form a(n( .organ .organism .positive feedback system .organ system .organelle

. :The ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal environment is referred to as( ) .equilibrium .homeostasis .metabolism .negative feedback .positive feedback The anatomical term meaning away from the midline is( ) .distal .inferior .lateral .medial .proximal :The anatomical term meaning close to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk is( ) .distal .inferior .lateral .medial .proximal :The anatomical term meaning farther from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk is( ) .distal .inferior .lateral .medial .anterior The anatomical term meaning toward the lower part of a structure is( ) .distal .inferior .lateral .medial .anterior The anatomical term meaning toward the midline of the body is( ) .distal .inferior .lateral .medial .anterior Growth, reproduction, and food use at the cellular level are partially controlled by hormones released by ( ?organs from which of the following systems that also act(s) relatively slowly .The digestive system .The reproductive system .The endocrine system .The nervous system .A and B :The scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure and shape is called( ) .anatomy .embryology .endocrinology .histology .physiology :The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT( ) .Body erect .Palms turned posteriorly .Arms at sides .Thumbs pointed laterally .Feet parallel ?Which body system is most closely associated with information assessment( ) .Endocrine

.Integumentary .Lymphatic .Nervous .Reproductive ?Which body system is most closely associated with the support and protection of the body organs( ) .Endocrine .Integumentary .Lymphatic .Nervous .Skeletal ?Which of the following statements regarding homeostatic control mechanisms is/are true( ) The effector is usually a type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the . .environment Information in homeostatic control mechanisms flows from the receptor to the control center via the .efferent pathway The control center determines the set point at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the .information it receives, and then determines the appropriate response or course of action .Information flows from the control center to the effector along the afferent pathway .A and B (Which body system is most closely associated with transport and delivery( .Cardiovascular .Integumentary .Nervous .Reproductive .Respiratory (Which body system is most closely associated with the production of offspring( .Endocrine .Integumentary .Lymphatic .Nervous .Reproductive Which body system is most closely associated with the slow (long term) control of bodily ( ) ?activities .Endocrine .Integumentary .Lymphatic .Nervous .Reproductive ?Which of the following best illustrates the increasing levels of complexity ( ) Cells; (2) Organs; (3) Organelles; (4) Organism; (5) Tissues; (6) Organ systems (1) .6 ,5 ,4 ,3 ,2 ,1 .6 ,1 ,5 ,3 ,4 ,2 .2 ,1 ,6 ,5 ,3 ,4 .4 ,6 ,2 ,5 ,1 ,3 .4 ,6 ,2 ,3 ,5 ,1 Quiz 2 .A transverse plane divides the body into _______ segments( ) equal right and left right and left anterior and posterior superior and inferior both right and left and anterior and posterior segments :Anatomical position is( ) .a term used by artists referring to facing front and posing .unimportant as a term of reference the position in which the body is erect, facing front with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides .with the palms facing forward .the position in which the body is lying prone (face down) with feet parallel and arms by the sides

the position in which the body is erect, facing forward with feet parallel and arms hanging at the sides .with palms facing backward .The cheeks are ____ to the tongue( ) proximal lateral medial inferior dorsal ?Which of the following statements regarding feedback mechanisms is/are FALSE( ) Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus and to push the variable . .farther from its original value In negative feedback mechanisms, the net effect of the responses to the stimulus is to shut off the .original stimulus or reduce its intensity ".Positive feedback mechanisms control infrequent events that occur "explosively .Blood clotting is an example of a typical negative feedback mechanism When the body is subject to physical trauma, such as in an automobile accident, which organs are ( ) ?(the most vulnerable to injury (homeostatic imbalance .Abdominal organs in the abdominal cavity .Pelvic organs in the abdominopelvic cavity .Heart and lungs in the thoracic cavity .The brain in the cranial cavity .The spinal cord within the spinal cavity :The axillary region is in the( ) .back of the knee .mouth .armpit .shoulder .knee :Metabolism is( ) .a broad term that refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body a term that refers to the chemical reactions where larger structures are made from smaller ones .((synthesis the term that refers only to the process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can .then be absorbed into the blood for delivery to all body cells .a term that refers to the chemical reactions where large molecules are broken down into smaller ones .the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them Which of the following is NOT an anterior body landmark ( ) .Coxal .Crural .Buccal .Olecranal .Acromial (_) _____ The _______ is the body's slow-acting control system and acts by means of endocrine system; hormones muscular system; contraction nervous system; hormones lymphatic system; lymphocytes and macrophages nervous system; electrical and chemical signals If you wish to make a drawing of a section through the human body that showed the )heart and ( ) (both of the lungs, your section could be in which of the following planes Frontal (coronal); (2) Transverse; (3) Sagittal (1) .only 1 .only 2 .only 3 .and 2 1 .and 3 2 .The right and left _______ regions flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs( )

epigastric hypochondriac iliac lumbar hypogastric (Place the following in correct sequence from simplest to most complex ( Molecules; (2) Atoms; (3) Tissues; (4) Cells; (5) Organ (1) .1-2-3-4-5 .2-1-4-3-5 .2-1-3-4-5 .1-2-4-3-5 .5-4-3-2-1 The term medial is( ) .a direction toward or at the midline of the body .a term referring to a direction away from the midline of the body refers to a direction farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the .body part .a term referring to the front of the body .a term referring to the superior (cranial or cephalad) direction (The thoracic body cavity( .is made up of the cranial and spinal cavities .is made up of two subcavities .is the superior cavity in the ventral cavity .is the dorsal cavity .is posterior to the dorsal body cavity (Which of the following is NOT a necessary life function( .Maintaining boundaries .Movement .Thinking .Responsiveness .Reproduction ?Which of these is found in the dorsal body cavity( ) .Liver .Brain .Kidneys .Heart .Lungs ?Which of the following statements is FALSE( ) .Tissues consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function .Atoms are the building blocks of matter, and combine to form molecules .The digestive system, reproductive system, and endocrine system are examples of organs .An organ is made up of two or more tissue types .Organ systems make up the living body or the organism (Which of the following is NOT true of a sagittal plane( A sagittal section is a cut made along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body . .dividing the body into right and left parts .A sagittal section divides the body into anterior and posterior parts .A midsagittal plane divides the body into equal right and left parts .A median plane is another name for a midsagittal plane .Both the sagittal and coronal planes represent a cut made along a lengthwise plane (Which of the following is NOT true of the skeletal system( .The skeletal system consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints .Bones are not necessary for efficient movement .The skeletal system has a protective function .Hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells) occurs within the cavities of the skeleton .The hard substance of bones acts as a storehouse for minerals Which term is defined as being close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a ( ) ?limb to the body trunk

.Superior, cranial, or cephalad .Intermediate .Distal .Proximal .Superficial CHAPTER 3 MCQ ON CELLS AND TISSUES All materials exchanged between the blood and the cell must first pass through the ______, which ( ) .surrounds all body cells Plasma membrane Lymph Interstitial fluid Sea water :The cells in the human body ( ) .all have the same structure .are varied in shape, size, and internal structure according to their function .have the exact same number of parts .all change shape as they grow :The advantages of being a multi-celled organism include( ) .the ability of the cell to perform specialized functions for the organism .the ability of the specialized cells to repair damaged parts with like cells the increased cellular surface area in relationship to the total volume of the individual allows .development of larger organisms .All of the above are true ?Which of the following is not true regarding cell membrane junctions( ) .They are used to pass nutrients and water into a cell's cytoplasm .They are found between adjacent cells .They are often fused tightly .They are used to prevent the cells from being pulled apart under normal conditions or wear-and-tear :All of the following statements are functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum EXCEPT( ) .fat metabolism .synthesis of cholesterol .synthesis of protein .detoxification :Human cells are always surrounded by( ) .a cell wall .a plasma membrane .a layer of wax .a protein called keratin :The cytoplasm of the cell is made up of( ) .cytosol, organelles, and inclusions .cytosol, a nucleus, and organelles .a cell membrane, a nucleus, and cytosol .organelles, a nucleus, and a cell membrane :The fluid contained within a lysosome is similar to( ) .sea water .digestive enzymes .strong alkaline solutions .distilled water ?Which of the following organelles serve(s) as the site for ATP synthesis within a cell ( ) .Golgi apparatus .Peroxisomes .Mitochondria .Centrioles :Cytokinesis is the name of the process within a cell that describes the( ) .division of the nucleus .movement of the centrioles .division of the cytoplasm .uneven division of the nucleus

:Somatic cell division includes all of the following EXCEPT( ) .Production of one daughter cell .Production of the mitotic spindle .DNA replication .Production of two daughter cells If you stir a tablespoon of sugar into a glass of water, the liquid which now holds the dissolved ( ) :sugar is known as the .solution .solute .solvent .somatic :The plasma membrane is designed to( ) .allow any material carried in the blood to enter the cell .keep all materials inside of the cell from leaving .keep all materials, except water, from entering the cell .allow some materials to pass into or out of the cell, while denying exit or entrance to other materials ?h of the following is/are phases of mitosis( ) .Interphase .Prophase .Metaphase .Telophase .Prophase, metaphase, and telophase (Which of following is CORRECT regarding endocrine glands( .They are ductless glands .They are glands that diffuse their products directly into the bloodstream to be carried to target tissues .They are glands that produce hormones .All of the above are correct statements ne part of the body produces a substance to be used by another part of the body, that substance is ( ) :called a/an .excretion .secretion .solution .discretion Which of the following is NOT a function of epithelial tissue( ) .Secretion .Filtration .Absorption .Allof the above ARE functions of epithelial tissue h of the following is NOT a type of epithelial cells( ) .Stratified squamous .Dense fibrous .Pseudostratified columnar .Simple cuboidal common characteristic of all connective tissues is the presence of( ) .large numbers of nerve endings .large amounts of extracellular matrix .little variation in the amount of blood supply .extreme flexibility (In general, connective tissue is( .only associated with epithelial tissues .the most widely distributed tissue type found in the body .always highly vascularized .never found without a thick matrix layer Which of the following is NOT a type of connective tissue( ) .Areolar .Adipose .Bone .Glandular

Which of the following connective tissues is characterized by a very limited blood supply( ) .Bone .Adipose .Loose areolar .Hyaline cartilage (All muscle tissues have the capacity to be( .extendable .striated .voluntary .involuntary Because of the elongated shape of muscle cells they are also called ( ) .fibrils .voluntary .muscle fibers .involuntary (Muscle tissues are highly specialized for which of the following functions ( .Contraction .Shortening .Protecting the body from harmful UV rays .Contraction AND shortening )Which of the following IS a characteristic of smooth muscle( ) .It is found in the walls of hollow organs .It is voluntary .It is found in the heart .It is always attached to bone tissue The function of neuroglial cells includes all of the following EXCEPT( ) .insulation of neurons .protection of neurons .support of neurons .transport of electrical signals along their membrane (The two major processes of wound healing are( .regeneration and fibrosis .fibrosis and tissue formation .ingrowth and granulation .regeneration and replacement )Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging in tissues( ) .Exocrine glands become less active .The amount of elasticity in the skin increases .The amount of collagen in the tissues decreases .Some endocrine glands produce decreasing amounts of hormones Neoplasm occurs when( ) .areolar tissues secrete hormones .exocrine glands divide via mitosis .the cytoplasm of a cell generates a new nuclear membrane .normal cells begin to grow uncontrollably Quiz 1 (All exchanges between cells and the blood are made through( .other cells .interstitial fluid .air .lymph .water (All neurons receive and conduct _______ from one part of the body to another( hormones muscle signals chemical messages electrochemical messages radio signals

)Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function are called( ) .multiple cells .tissues .epithelium .connective tissue .nervous tissue .In _______, adjacent plasma membranes fuse together tightly, like a zipper( ) tight junctions desmosomes gap junctions microvilli connexons In _______, the chromosomes are aligned at the center of the spindle, midway between the ( ) .centrioles, so that a straight line of chromosomes is visible prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis :In addition to replicating itself for cell division, DNA serves as the master blueprint for( ) .protein breakdown .protein synthesis .carbohydrate breakdown .carbohydrate synthesis .lipid synthesis Most connective tissue types are well vascularized, meaning they have a rich blood supply. Which ( ) ?of the following connective tissues represent an EXCEPTION .Dense irregular connective tissues .Tendons and ligaments .Bone .Blood .Loose areolar connective tissue Of the different types of muscle tissue only ______ is both involuntary AND contains intercalated ( ) .discs cardiac muscle visceral muscle skeletal muscle smooth muscle rough muscle During DNA replication, each nucleotide strand serves as a _______ or set of instructions for ( ) .building a new nucleotide strand dictionary template nitrogenous base adenine-thymine base pair double helix Solution A has triple the salt content of a normal red blood cell that is floating in solution. The ( ) ._______ solution is _______ and the cell will hypotonic; shrink isotonic; stay the same hypertonic; shrink or crenate hypertonic; expand and explode The _______ scattered in the lipid bilayer are responsible for most of the specialized functions of ( ) .the plasma membrane phospholipids cholesterol proteins nonpolar tails

nucleic acids The process whereby mRNA is made from the DNA in the nucleus is called _______. The process ( ) ._______ whereby information on mRNA is "decoded" at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm is called transcription; interpretation translation; transcription induction; translation transcription; translation transcription; identification The tendency of water to move down its own concentration gradient is a characteristic of the ( ) process called .diffusion .facilitated diffusion .fluid pressure .osmosis .pinocytosis Organelles are found suspended in the( ) .plasma membrane .chromatin .nucleotide .cytoplasm .nucleoli Which of the following statements regarding cytoplasmic inclusions is FALSE( ) Most inclusions are cell products and include pigments (such as melanin in skin and hair .cells), mucus and other secretory products .They are chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on the specific cell type Most inclusions are stored nutrients, such as the glycogen granules abundant in liver and muscle cells. They are the functioning units that store nutrients and include the lipid droplets common in fat cells . .Most inclusions include various kinds of crystals Which of the following cell organelles have double membranes and supply most of the ATP used ( ) by the cell .Peroxisomes .Mitochondria .Cytoskeleton .Lysosomes .Centrioles ?Which of the following statements does NOT describe a function of adipose tissue( ) .It stores fat .It insulates the body .It helps maintain blood pressure .It provides cushioning to some organs .It protects the body from extremes of heat and cold Which of the following is INCORRECT concerning cellular transport( ) .Small nonpolar molecules can be transported directly across the phospholipid bilayer . .Active transport requires chemical energy in the form of ATP .Water can be directly transported across the phospholipid bilayer .Molecules move from high to low concentration due to their own kinetic energy Which of the following represent(s) active transport( ) .Simple diffusion .Concentration gradient .Filtration .Facilitated diffusion .Solute pumps Which of the following types of epithelial tissue usually forms membranes where filtration, or ( ) ?exchange of substances by diffusion, occurs .Simple squamous .Simple cuboidal .Simple columnar .Pseudostratified columnar

.Stratified squamous Quiz 2 A cell in which the chromosomes are lining up at the center of the spindle midway between the ( ) ?centrioles is in which mitotic phase .Anaphase .Interphase .Metaphase .Prophase .Telophase Which of the following statements regarding adipose tissue is TRUE( ) .It contains large amounts of protein .It functions as an insulator and protector .It exists in three forms: gelatinous, red, yellow .It is composed of relatively small cells .It contains large amounts of extracellular material In an area where an epithelium is subjected to considerable wear and tear, you would expect to find( ) .simple squamous epithelium .transitional epithelium .simple columnar epithelium .stratified squamous epithelium .simple cuboidal epithelium In parts of the body, such as the urinary bladder, where considerable distension occurs, you can ( ) expect to find .stratified columnar epithelium .dense fibrous connective tissue .transitional epithelium .elastic cartilage .simple cuboidal epithelium It is generally agreed that plasma membranes are composed of( ) .a double layer of phospholipids with glycogen floating throughout the membrane .a double layer of phospholipids with proteins floating throughout the membrane .a triple layer of proteins with two layers of lipid separating them .a double layer of phospholipids with proteins floating on the outer layer only .a triple layer of phospholipids with proteins floating throughout the membrane Messenger RNA (mRNA) formed in the nucleus goes to the( ) .ribosomes .mitochondria .centrioles .chromosomes .peroxisomes Passage of materials across the plasma membrane from a region of high concentration to one of ( ) :lower concentration is termed .diffusion .osmosis .pinocytosis .phagocytosis .vesicular transport :Simple columnar epithelium can be found lining the( ) .liver ducts .kidney ducts .small intestine .esophagus .arteries The cell consists of certain organelles capable of the removal of cell parts and even of the ( ) :destruction of the whole cell by intracellular digestive enzyme action. These organelles are called the .centrioles .peroxisomes .microfilaments

.lysosomes .ribosomes The epithelium that forms serous membranes is called( ) .simple cuboidal epithelium .simple columnar epithelium .simple squamous epithelium .pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium .transitional epithelium The genetic material in the "resting" (i.e. non-dividing) cell is/are termed ( ) .chromatin .nucleoli .inclusions .rRNA .the cytoskeleton The modification and packaging of proteins and their transport to the cell membrane for secretion ( ) :is the role of the .centrioles .endoplasmic reticulum .Golgi apparatus .lysosomes .mitochondria The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is termed( ) .dialysis .diffusion .osmosis .phagocytosis .pinocytosis :The organelle responsible for the power supply (i.e. ATP production) of the cell is the( ) .(endoplasmic reticulum (ER .Golgi apparatus .lysosomes .mitochondria .nucleus Which is the correct sequence of the following events of protein synthesis( ) tRNA recognizes a complementary mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by binding via its .1 .anticodon to the codon .Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool .2 .mRNA attaches to the ribosome, and translation begins .3 .mRNA is made on the DNA template .4 .As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, a new amino acid is added to the growing peptide chain .5 .2-5-1-3-4 .3-4-1-2-5 .4-3-1-5-2 .3-5-4-1-2 .4-5-3-1-2 .The tissue that covers the body surfaces, lines its cavities, and forms glands is the _______ tissue( ) muscle connective epithelial nervous blood :The uptake of liquids that contain dissolved proteins or fats into a cell occurs because of( ) .phagocytosis .pinocytosis .diffusion .osmosis .passive transport

When the centromeres divide and the chromosomes begin to migrate to opposite poles of the ( ) :mitotic spindle, the mitotic stage is called .anaphase .interphase .metaphase .prophase .telophase ?Which of the following forms the mini-circulatory system in the cytoplasm of the cell( ) . Chromatin .Endoplasmic reticulum .Golgi apparatus .Lysosomes .Ribosomes Which statement best characterizes connective tissue( ) .It is always arranged in a single layer of cells .It is usually composed of a large amount of extracellular matter .It consists of cells arranged in many strata .It has one surface exposed to the exterior of the body or to the interior of a hollow structure .It is found connecting the brain to the spinal cord Chapter 4: Skin and Body Membranes (Which one of the following structures is NOT a serious membrane( .Peritoneum .Pleura .Pericardium .Perineum (The cutaneous membrane is( .the skin .the mucosa .the peritoneum .the pericardium (The two major categories of body membranes are( .cutaneous and serous .mucous and cutaneous .epithelial and connective .serosa and parietal ?Which of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of the serous membranes( ) .They are continuous with the external environment .They are always a paired membrane .They are filled with fluid to decrease friction .One layer of the membrane will adhere to an organ Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of mucous membranes( ) .Epithelia modified for absorption and/or secretion .Occasional secretion of mucus .Cushioning of organs .Moistness Where would you find a synovial membrane( ) .Lining the mouth .Lining the lungs .Lining the capsule surrounding a joint .Covering the bladder Which of the following is a function of the skin( ) .Control of body temperature .Production of vitamin D .Protection from mechanical damage .All of the above are correct (The outermost layer of the skin is composed of which type of tissues(

.Simple columnar epithelium .Stratified squamous epithelium .Areolar tissue .Dense fibrous tissue .collagen The protein that provides a water repellent and toughening quality to the skin is/are( ) .melanin .keratin .fibroblasts :The major layers of the skin are( ) .the dermis and epidermis .the dermis and hypodermis .the strata corneum, lucidum, and granulosum .the epidermis and hypodermis ?Which of the following structures are not derivatives of the skin( ) .Sebaceous glands .Hair follicles .Nails .Nerve receptors ?Which of the following statements best describes melanocytes ( ) .They produce keratin .They protect DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage .They produce a wide range of pigment colors .They protect DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage and produce a wide range of pigment colors ?Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the skin( ) .The skin becomes drier due to decreased oil production .The skin thins, making it susceptible to bruising and other injuries .The subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) thins, causing an intolerance of cold .The hypodermis thickens, causing an intolerance of heat Which of the following may be present in a newborn but normally will disappear within a short ( ) ?time .Lanugo .Vernix caseosa .Milia .Acne .Lanugo, vernix caseosa, and milia ?Which of the following factors do NOT affect the aging and appearance of our skin as an adult( ) .Chemicals .Wind and sun .Smoking .All of the above affect the appearance and aging of our skin Quiz 1 :A mucous membrane( ) .lines the digestive and respiratory tracts .lines all closed body cavities .lacks epithelial cells .covers the muscles .lines the heart ?A needle would pierce the skin of the forearm in which order( ) stratum basale; (2) stratum granulosum; (3) stratum spinosum; (4) stratum corneum; (5) stratum (1) lucidum .4 ,5 ,2 ,3 ,1 .1 ,3 ,2 ,5 ,4 .4 ,2 ,3 ,1 .1 ,3 ,2 ,4 ,5

.1 ,3 ,2 ,4 :As cells progress from the deeper portion of the epidermis towards the surface( ) .they divide continually by mitosis .their supply of nutrients improves .they tend to die .they divide continually by meiosis .they become dermal cells :Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes the skin to darken by stimulating the production of( ) .carotene .keratin .haemocyanin .melanin .sebum Glands usually associated with the skin of the genitals and the axillary region, and which secrete ( ) :fatty acids and proteins, are called .apocrine glands .arrector pili glands .sebaceous glands .eccrine glands .apocrine and eccrine glands ?Mitosis occurs in which layer of the epidermis( ) .Stratum corneum .Stratum basale .Stratum granulosum .Stratum lucidum .Reticular layer :Hair, nails, and the outer layer of the skin are made mostly of a tough waterproof protein called ( ) .Elastin .Collagen .Cerumen .Keratin :In the skin, arrector pili muscles are found mainly in the( ) .stratum basale .stratum corneum .stratum granulosum .dermis .stratum spinosum :Pacinian corpuscles( ) .are deep pressure sensitive receptors .are located in the very thick layers of the epidermis .are also known as Meissner's corpuscles .give rise to the elastic fibers in the skin layers .contain free nerve endings for the perception of pain :Sebaceous glands secrete( ) .oil .salty sweat .wax .melanin .cerumen ?Which of the following statements regarding the significance of alterations in skin color is FALSE( ) Jaundice usually signifies a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments are deposited in body . .tissues .Bruises reveal sites where blood has escaped from the circulation and become hematomas Blanching (or pallor) may signify anemia, low blood pressure, allergy, or impaired blood flow into an . .area .Erythema may indicate embarrassment, fever, inflammation, or hypertension .None of the above statements is false

:The papillary layer attaches to the( ) .nail bed .stratum corneum .hypodermis .hair cells .stratum basale and reticular layer :The structure that contracts to cause "goose bumps" is the( ) .dermal papilla .hair bulb .skeletal muscle .hair follicle .arrector pili muscle :The toughened outer portion of the hair is termed the( ) .cuticle .hair bulb .hair cortex .hair follicle .hair medulla :The type of tissue making up the bulk of the dermis is( ) .adipose connective tissue .dense (irregular) connective tissue .stratified squamous epithelium .visceral muscle .transitional epithelium .Two types of glands found in the skin are the _______ and _______ glands( ) pilous; sudoriferous. sebaceous; lunula. thymus; sebaceous. sudoriferous; sebaceous. sweat; basale. When assessing the extent of burns on the body using the rule of nines, the anterior and posterior ( ) ?trunk represents about what percentage of the body .9% .18% .27% .36% .1% When you scratch your skin, what comes off as white flakes are mostly cells from the ( ) ._______ stratum .basale .corneum .granulosum .lucidum .spinosum ( ) Which of the following vitamins is synthesized in the skin .Vitamin A .Vitamin D .Vitamin E .(Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin .Vitamin K :You can cut your hair without feeling pain because( ) .the shaft of the hair consists of dead cells .there are no nerves found within one centimeter of each hair .hair follicles develop from epidermal cells and the epidermis has no nerve endings .hair follicles have no source of nourishment and thus cannot react to being cut .a chemical in the hair papilla anaesthetizes the hair Quiz 2

Which of the following conditions is a staphylococcus infection characterized by pink, fluid-filled, ( ) raised lesions, usually around the mouth and nose, which develop a yellow crust and eventually ?rupture .Psoriasis .Carbuncles .Cold sores .Impetigo .Contact dermatitis .All epithelial membranes have a layer of _______ underneath them( ) muscle tissue. connective tissue. nervous tissue. epithelial tissue. .hyaline cartilage. Sebaceous glands are usually associated with( ) .nails .hair follicles .sweat glands .melanocytes .First and second-degree burns are referred to as _______ burns( ) .partial thickness. .full thickness. bad. three-layer. critical. :Most of the cells of the epidermis are( ) .melanocytes .keratinocytes .phagocytes .monocytes .lymphocytes .The cutaneous glands are a type of _______ glands( ) endocrine. sweat. exocrine. .sebaceous. .eccrine. :The deepest layer of the epidermis is called the( ) .stratum corneum .stratum lucidum .stratum granulosum .stratum spinosum .stratum basale The dermis is abundantly supplied with _______, which play a role in maintaining body ( ) .temperature homeostasis nerve endings. melanocytes. blood vessels. .lymphatic vessels. .phagocytes. The epidermis and dermis are normally firmly connected together. However, a burn or friction may ( ) cause these layers to separate, which results in a(n .sty .abscess .scratch .blister .pimple ._______ The layer of the skin that is made of stratified squamous epithelium is called the( )

epidermis hypodermis dermis subcutaneous fascia fat layer :The protein found in large amounts in the cells of the stratum corneum, the nails, and hair is( ) .keratin .collagen .melanin .elastic fiber .hemoglobin :The thick proximal nail fold is commonly called the( ) .lunula .nail matrix .cuticle .nail bed .free edge (_)___ The two types of sweat glands are _______ and large; small. eccentric; apocentric. eccrine; apocrine. tall; short. endocrine; exocrine. What chronic condition is characterized by reddened epidermal lesions covered with dry, silvery ( ) ?scales .Athlete's foot .Cold sores .Contact dermatitis .Impetigo .Psoriasis ?What is the least malignant and most common skin cancer( ) .Squamous cell carcinoma .Basal cell carcinoma .Malignant melanoma .Porphyria .Lymphoma ?What kind of membrane is composed of connective tissue but no epithelial cells( ) .Cutaneous .Mucous .Serous .Synovial .Parietal What kind of membranes line body cavities that, except for the dorsal body cavity and ( )) ( ?joint capsules, do not open to the outside of the body .Cutaneous .Mucous .Serous .Synovial .Visceral (Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of malignant melanoma( .Asymmetry .Smooth border .Border irregularity .Varied color .Diameter larger than a pencil eraser ?Which of the following is NOT a function of skin( ) .It insulates and cushions the body .It protects the whole body from mechanical damage

.It produces Vitamin C in the presence of sunlight .It plays an important role in regulating heat loss from the body It manufactures several proteins important to immunity and synthesizes Vitamin D in the presence of .sunlight Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding melanin( ) .Melanin ranges in color from yellow to brown to black .Melanin is produced by special cells called melanocytes The stratum basale cells phagocytize the melanin produced by the melanocytes and it accumulates .within them .Freckles and moles are seen where melanin is concentrated in one spot More melanin is produced when the skin is not exposed to sunligh . Chapter 5: The Skeletal System The bones of the skull and the ribs are classified as examples of( ) .flat bones .short bones .long bones .irregular bones :The cartilage found at the end of long bones to decrease friction at joint surfaces is called ( ) .condylar cartilage .synovial cartilage .elastic cartilage .articular cartilage .condylar cartilage ?Which of the cells found in osseous tissue are mature bone cells( ) .Osteoblasts .Osteocytes .Osteoprogenitors .Mesenchyme ?Which of the following is the first to form when a break occurs in a bone( ) .Fracture hematoma .None of the above .Cancellous callus .Fibrocartilage callus ?Which of the following statements about osseous tissue is false( ) .It is the site of blood cell formation .It functions in mineral homeostasis .It functions in support and protection .Bone is one of the four main tissue types :A fontanel( ) .is a hole in a fetal skull .is a fibrous joint between bones of the fetal skull .describes the small bones of the fetal skull .describes the spaces between facial bones of the fetal skull :A smooth, smallish, nearly flat surface on a bone is called a( ) .fossa .facet .head .crest :Spaces found within some bones of the skull that decrease the weight of the bone are called( ) .meatuses .orbits .sinuses .foramina ?Which of the following statements about cervical vertebrae is FALSE( ) .They have holes in the transverse processes .There are eight cervical vertebrae .One articulates with the occipital bone superiorly

.The first cervical vertebra is also called the atlas bone ?Which of the following is NOT a cranial bone( ) .rontal .Temporal .Maxilla .Occipital ?How many bones make up the cranium( ) .10 .6 .8 .4 :Together the clavicle and scapula bones form the( ) .shoulder blade .pelvic girdle .pectoral girdle .pelvis :The tibia is found in the( ) .femoral region .popliteal region .crural region .inguinal region ?Which of the following statements about the appendicular skeleton is FALSE( ) .The radius is the lateral bone of the antebrachial region .The tibia articulates with the femur, fibula, and the tarsals .The sacrum is part of this division of the skeleton .The bones of the pelvis (or os coxae) are included in this division of the skeleton ?Which of the following is NOT a bone of the upper extremities( ) .Humerus .Radius .Clavicle .Ulna ?Which of the following bones is NOT part of the os coxae( ) .Ischium .Sacrum .Pubis .Ilium :A joint found at the ends of long bones that are moveable, and contains a joint cavity would be( ) .a synovial joint .an epithelial joint .an articular joint .a synarthrotic joint :The elbow joint would be considered a type of( ) .pivot joint .hinge joint .saddle joint .plane joint Which of the following is defined as a highly movable joint( ) .Amphiarthrosis .Syndesmosis .Synchondrosis .Diarthrosis .:Joints can be classified in one of two ways. Functional joints are classified according to( ) .the amount of movement that can occur at the joint .whether or not they contain a joint cavity .the type of cartilage that holds them together .whether or not the joint contains protein fibers :The condition that causes a gradual weakening and decrease in bone mass is called( ) .osteoarthritis

.osteoporosis .osteochondrosis .None of the above The first "long bones" that develop in a very young fetus are formed of( ) reticular cartilage. fibrous membranes. hyaline cartilage. spongy bone. ?Which of the following is NOT considered an abnormal spinal curvature condition ( ) .Lordosis .Kyphosis .Scoliosis .Osteoporosis Quiz 1 ( ) ________ In a typical long bone, spongy bone is found in the diaphysis epiphyses periosteum medullary cavity tendon In embryos, the skeleton is primarily made of _______, but in the adult, most of the skeleton is( ) ._______ hyaline cartilage; bone elastic cartilage; bone bone; hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage; bone dense regular connective tissue; hyaline cartilage Name the canals that, in dense bone, are the communication from the outside of the bone to its ( ) .interior central canals .Haversian canals .Volkmann's (perforating) canals .Central canals .Canaliculi .Concentric canals .Single vertebrae are separated by _______, which cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks( ) intervertebral discs bony pad ligaments fatty pads loose areolar connective tissue The _______ bones form the lateral portion of the eye orbits, are lateral to the nose, and articulate ( ) with the maxillae zygomatic bones. palatine bones. maxillae. lacrimal bones. inferior conchae. ?Which of the following statements regarding bone formation, growth, and remodeling is/are false( ) Bones are remodeled continually in response to changes in blood calcium levels and the pull . .of gravity and muscles on the skeleton When blood calcium levels drop below homeostatic levels, the parathyroid glands release PTH, a . .hormone which activates osteoblasts in bones The process by which bones increase in diameter is called appositional growth, a process of long-bone. .growth that is controlled by growth hormone and, during puberty, by the sex hormones Except for flat bones that form on fibrous membranes, most bones develop using hyaline cartilage . ".structures as their "models The ___ bone is inferior to the mandible, superior to the larynx and does not articulate directly with ( ) any other bone

maxillary bone. palatine. hyoid. vomer. inferior concha. :The coronoid process, olecranon process and trochlear notch are all found on the( ) .humerus .radius .fibula .ulna .femur :The coxal bones (ossa coxae) make up the( ) .pectoral girdle .hip and thigh .pelvic girdle .vertebral column and sacrum .shoulder girdle The spinal curvatures in the _______ and _______ regions are referred to as primary curvatures ( ) .because they are present when we are born cervical; thoracic. thoracic; sacral. .thoracic; lumbar. cervical; sacral. cervical; lumbar. :The true ribs( ) .refer to the first five pairs of ribs .attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilages .attach directly to the manubrium .lack the sternal attachments are the five pairs of ribs that either attach indirectly to the sternum, or are not attached to the sternum .at all ?What are the names of the two types of bone tissue( ) .Compact and long .Compact and spongy .Flat and tall .Cartilage and irregular .Spongy and hematopoietic ?Which bone contains a neck, the greater trochanter and gluteal tuberosity( ) .Tibia .Femur .Radius .Humerus .Fibula ?Which of the following are paired bones found in the cranium( ) .Frontal and parietal .Parietal and maxillary .Frontal and occipital .Parietal and temporal .Sphenoid and parietal ?Which of the following bones is NOT a part of the axial skeleton( ) .Vertebra .Frontal bone .Clavicle .Sternum .Rib ?Which of the following bones has an acromion process and a coracoid process( ) .Scapula .Clavicle

.Humerus .Mandible .Sternum ?Which of the following structures is a part of the ethmoid bone( ) .External auditory meatus .Sagittal suture .Cribriform plates .Jugular foramen .Foramen magnum ?Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cervical vertebrae( ) .Presence of transverse foramina .Modified atlas and axis .Presence of facets for ribs .The dense process on the axis acts as a pivot for rotation .The vertebral artery is found in the transverse foramen ?Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a synovial joint( ) .Articular cartilage .Amphiarthrotic .Fibrous articular capsule .Joint cavity .Reinforcing ligaments ?Which of the following is NOT a function of bone( ) .Support .Breakdown of proteins into amino acids .Movement .Storage .(Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis Quiz 2 :In an osteon, bone cells are arranged in concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called( ) .marrow cavities .Volkmann's canals .Haversian canals .canaliculi .lacunae :Tissues that contain a blood supply, lacunae and canaliculi, are known as( ) .hyaline cartilage .elastic cartilage .fibrocartilage .bone tissue .dense (fibrous) connective tissue ?Which structure is contained within the lacuna of living bone( ) .Chondrocyte .Calcium salts .Matrix .Osteocyte .Simple squamous epithelium .The bones that make up the forehead are known as the ______ bones( ) frontal maxillary parietal temporal zygomatic ?Which of the following bones are components of the axial skeleton( ) .Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage .Pectoral and pelvic girdles .Vertebral column, and both the pectoral and pelvic girdles .Skull, vertebral column, and both the pelvic and pectoral girdles .Skull, thoracic cage, and both the pectoral and pelvic girdles

:The only diarthrotic (freely moveable) bone in the skull is the( ) .frontal bone .maxilla .occipital bone .temporal bone .mandible :The cell type that is responsible for basic bone formation is the( ) .chondrocyte .fibroblast .osteoblast .osteoclast .osteocyte .The foramen magnum is present in the _______ bone( ) frontal occipital parietal sphenoid temporal :The functional cell type that is found in mature compact bone is the( ) .mast cell .macrophage cell .osteocyte .chondrocyte .fibroblast :The glenoid cavity is located where the( ) .clavicle articulates with the scapula .clavicle articulates with the sternum .humerus articulates with the scapula .humerus articulates with the clavicle .humerus articulates with the ulna .The hard palate is composed of the _______ and _______ bones( ) maxillary; mandible. .maxillary; palatine. palatine; lacrimal. sphenoid; ethmoid. vomer; palatine. :The joint between the parietal bones and the occipital bone is called the( ) .lambdoid suture .squamous suture .coronal suture .fontanel .sagittal suture :The mandibular bone articulates with the( ) .maxillary bone .palatine bone .sphenoid bone .temporal bone .zygomatic bone .The mastoid process is part of the _______ bone( ) mandibular. occipital. parietal. temporal. zygomatic. :The pectoral girdle is composed of the following structures( ) .scapula and clavicle .ilium, ischium and pubis .clavicle and thoracic vertebrae

.scapula and cervical vertebrae .ilium, ischium, pubis, and sacrum :The anatomical term for the "breast bone" is the( ) .sacrum .sternum .patella .clavicle .hyoid .True ribs are attached to the _______ vertebrae( ) thoracic. sacral. lumbar. coccygeal. cervical. .The sagittal suture is located between the _______ and _______ bones( ) frontal; parietal. .left parietal; right parietal. .temporal; occipital. parietal; temporal. parietal; occipital. ?Which of the following bones contains the external auditory meatus( ) .Vomer .Temporal .Sphenoid .Frontal .Ethmoid ?The metacarpophalangeal joints are examples of which type of synovial joint, based on shape( ) .Plane joint .Condyloid joint .Pivot joints .Saddle joint .Hinge joint Chapter 6 MCQ The Muscular System (What is the anatomical term for wide, sheet-like tendons( ( ) .Endomysium .Tendons .Epimysium .Aponeuroses ?Which muscle tissue is branched, striated, and uninucleate( ) .Smooth .Skeletal .Cardiac .None of the above ?Which of the following is NOT a function of muscle tissue( ) .To produce movement .Creation of action potentials .Generation of heat .Balance, support and posture ?Which type of muscle tissue contains intercalated discs( ) .Cardiac .Skeletal .Smooth .Striated .The alternating dark ________ and light __________ give the muscle fiber its striated appearance( ) M line; H zone. H zone; A band. Z disc; M line.

?The thin filament is comprised of what three molecules( ) .Troponin, tropomyosin, actin .Troponin, tropomyosin, titin .Tropomyosin, titin, actin .Actin, myosin, troponin ?What is the functional unit of a muscle cell( ) .Sarcoplasmic reticulum .Sarcomere .Sarcolemma .Sarcoplasm ?What are the two myofilaments that slide past one another to allow muscle cells to contract ( ) .Myosin and collagen .Actin and myosin .Actin and troponin .Myosin and ATPase :During exercise, if there are sufficient oxygen molecules available in the muscle tissue( ) .glucose is converted to pyruvic acid and then to yeast, alcohol, carbon dioxide, heat, and ATP .glucose is converted to pyruvic acid and then to water, carbon dioxide, and ATP .glucose is converted to pyruvic acid and then to water, carbon dioxide, and heat .glucose is converted to pyruvic acid and then to lactic acid, releasing ATP :Isotonic contractions are( ) .the category of contraction that shortens or lengthens the muscle .contractions that maintain the same tension .the type most often used in a workout at the gym .All of the above :The sarcoplasmic reticulum( ) .releases calcium during relaxation .stores ATP during periods of relaxation .stores ATP during periods of contraction .releases calcium into the sarcoplasm during contraction ?Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the neuromuscular junction( ) .A synaptic cleft is found between the neuron and the muscle fiber .One sensory neuron may innervate many muscle fibers .This is the site of neurotransmitter release, specifically acetylcholine At this site, an action potential in the axon terminal generates the release of neurotransmitters from .the terminal :Movement of the jaw superiorly would be( ) .retraction .elevation .flexion .extension ?What does the term "biceps" mean( ) .Moves in two directions .Divided into two .Two insertions .Two origins ?What does the term "deltoid" mean( ) .Very strong .Near the shoulder .Near the arm .Triangle shaped ?What is the term for a muscle that helps a prime mover( ) .A secondary mover .A primary mover .A synergist .A fixator "?Which of the following correctly describes "pronation( ) .Placing one's hands flat on a table top

.Holding one's hands out in front so that someone can pour something into the hands .One's hand position when one is doing pushups .One's hand position when one is making a fist If one executes biceps curls, the contraction of the biceps brachii would produce the movement ( ) :considered as .flexion .extension .adduction .abduction Leg adductors( ) .move legs laterally .move legs anteriorly .move legs medially .none of the available choices :The intercostals are located( ) .between two muscles .between the radius and ulna .between the eyes .between the ribs ?What is the muscle that encircles the eye( ) .Orbicularis oculi .Orbicularis optical .Orbicularis oris .None of the available choices ?Which of the following is NOT a "hamstring" muscle( ) .Semimembranosus .Rectus femoris .Semitendinosus .Biceps femoris ?Which of the following is not an abdominal muscle( ) .External oblique .All choices are abdominal muscles .Transversus abdominis .Rectus abdominis Quiz 1 :The anatomical term for a muscle cell, in skeletal and smooth muscle tissues, is( ) .sarcomere .myofilament .sarcolemma .myofibril .muscle fiber :An aponeurosis( ) .is a collection of muscle fibers surrounded by a perimysium .is a collection of muscle fibers surrounded by an epimysium .is a flat, sheet-like connective tissue which attaches a muscle indirectly to cartilage .is the tissue covering a bundle of nerve fibers .is the tissue bed through which a nerve passes :The endomysium is a delicate connective tissue sheath that surrounds a/an( ) .skeletal muscle fiber .fascicle .entire skeletal muscle .bundle of smooth muscle fibers .bundle of cardiac muscle fibers :In general, skeletal muscle insertions are found( ) .at some stationary part of the skeleton .on the part that is to be moved .on other muscles .at some point close to the body axis

A tissue with striations and many flattened nuclei under the plasma membrane in each cell would( )) ( :be called .cardiac muscle .visceral muscle .skeletal muscle .smooth muscle In a skeletal muscle fiber, the sarcomere is a repetitive unit that consists of the entire region ( ) :between the .I-bands .A-bands .H-zones .Z-lines .M-lines ?((The proximal femur is the site of insertion for which of the following muscle(s( .Sartorius .Adductor muscles .Quadriceps group .Tibialis anterior :Muscles that are concerned with bracing actions are called( ) .flexors .extensors .pronators .antagonists .fixators :Myofibrils are primarily composed of( ) .actin and myosin .ADP and ATP .tropomyosin .troponin .myotomes :Smooth muscle fibers( ) .are long, tapering, multinucleate cells .form the contractile tissue of the walls of many hollow organs .possess prominent cross-striations along their length .contract in response to conscious will .contain striations and intercalated discs :The bending or movement of a limb towards the midline of the body is known as( ) .flexion .extension .abduction .adduction .pronation :The energy source that is directly responsible for muscle fiber contraction is( ) .glucose .glycogen .ADP .lactic acid .ATP :The muscle whose action is dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot is the( ) .biceps femoris .sartorius .rectus femoris .tibialis anterior .peroneus muscles :The muscle that facilitates flexion of the forearm is the( ) .biceps femoris .buccinator .biceps brachii

.triceps brachii .rectus femoris :The muscle that extends and adducts the humerus is the( ) .biceps femoris .latissimus dorsi .biceps brachii .triceps brachii .deltoid :The muscle that is mainly responsible for a particular movement is known as the( ) .synergist .pronator .fixator .antagonist .prime mover :The plasma membrane of a muscle cell is most usually termed a( ) .sarcomere .sarcoplasmic reticulum .sarcolemma .sarcoplasm .intercalated disc ?What is the BEST definition of the origin of a muscle( ) .The attachment of the muscle to a bone .The proximal attachment of the muscle to a bone .The distal attachment of the muscle to a bone .The attachment of the muscle to a bone that is relatively fixed .The attachment of the muscle to a bone that is relatively movable ?Which of the following can best be used to distinguish cardiac muscle from smooth muscle( ) .Cardiac muscle is involuntary .Cardiac muscle, unlike smooth muscle, has peripheral nuclei .Cardiac muscle has a single nucleus, smooth muscle has peripheral nuclei .It is striated ?Which of the following is a shared characteristic of cardiac and skeletal muscles( ) .Centrally-located nucleus .Striations .Intercalated discs .Both cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers are branched Quiz 2 .The "all-or-none" property of muscles is a phenomenon that occurs on the _____ level( ) cellular. tissue. organ. groups of muscles. sarcomere ?Which of these muscles is located in the abdominal region( ) .Rectus femoris .Latissimus dorsi .External oblique .Biceps brachii .Biceps femoris .The _______ does NOT facilitate movement at the knee joint( ) gluteus maximus. quadriceps group. hamstring group. sartorius. gastrocnemius. :The primary function of all muscle tissue is( ) .twisting .lengthening

.contraction or shortening .to generate heat .to stretch The nuclei of skeletal muscle cells are pushed aside by long, ribbonlike organelles called _______, ( ) .which nearly fill the cytoplasm myofibrils. sarcolemma. sarcomeres. myofilaments. sarcoplasmic reticulum. :The state of continuous partial contractions is called( ) .isometric contraction .muscle tone .muscle fatigue .oxygen debt .isotonic contraction What is the specific neurotransmitter that is released by motor neurons and stimulates skeletal ( ) ?muscle .Endomysium .Epinephrine .(Acetylcholine (Ach .Dopamine .GABA ?What specifically causes a muscle to contract( ) .The myosin heads fold down and myosin moves .Calcium returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum .When the myosin heads attach to the binding site, they pivot toward the center of the sarcomere .The myosin heads (cross bridges) attach to each other and move the myosin myofilament .The Z lines move farther apart When several muscles are contracting at the same time, the muscle that has the major responsibility ( ) :for causing a particular movement is called the .synergist .prime mover .fixator .antagonist .helper muscle ?Which of the following is a characteristic of cardiac muscle( ) .Multinucleated cells .Spindle-shaped cells .Two sheets or layers, one running circularly and the other longitudinally .Intercalated discs .Body skeleton attachment ?Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of skeletal muscle( ) .Skeletal muscle cells have single, centrally located nuclei, and are fusiform in shape .Another name for skeletal muscle is voluntary muscle .Skeletal muscle cells are striated Skeletal muscle tissue can contract rapidly and with great force, but fatigues easily and must rest after .short periods of relativity .Skeletal muscle is, with a couple of exceptions, under conscious control ?Which of the following is NOT a function of muscle( ) .Generates heat .Participates in the transport of oxygen in the blood to the tissues .Produces movement .Maintains posture .Stabilizes joints ?Which of the following statements is true regarding the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle( ) .Its insertion is on the second and third metacarpals .Its primary actions are to flex the wrist and adduct the hand

.Its insertion is on the olecranon process of the ulna .Its primary actions are to flex the wrist and abduct the hand ?Which of the following is NOT true of an action potential( ) .It is partially initiated by a temporary permeability to sodium ions which, rush into the cell .An action potential is a wave of electrical current .An action potential is an all-or-none phenomenon - once started, it goes to completion .The result of the action potential is the contraction of the muscle cell .An action potential can stop or change direction along its pathway ?Which of the following is one of the muscles of the abdominal girdle( ) .Latissimus dorsi .External oblique .Deltoid .Erector spinae .Biceps brachii ?Which of the following is the only muscle type that is nonstriated and involuntary( ) .Cardiac .Smooth .Epimysium .Skeletal .Muscle fiber ?Which of the following refers to one neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates ( ) .Neuromuscular junction .Synaptic cleft .Motor unit .Muscle fiber .Irritability and contractility ?Which of the following statements is NOT true( ) Tetanic contraction of muscles refers to a disease that causes total, sustained contraction of . muscles Tetanic contraction is normal and desirable, and is quite different from the pathologic condition of . tetanus When a muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen and the contractions are . completely smooth and sustained, the muscle is said to be in tetanus or in tetanic contraction Tetanic contractions of muscles are smooth and prolonged muscle contractions, which can be slight or vigorous depending on what work has to be done Complete tetanus is a smooth continuous contraction without any evidence of relaxation, and results . from a very rapid rate of stimulation ?Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding energy generation for muscle contraction ( ) One of the pathways for ATP regeneration is direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine . phosphate .Anaerobic glycolysis is not an energy source for muscle contraction At rest and during light exercise, ATP is regenerated almost entirely by metabolic pathways that use . .oxygen .Aerobic respiration refers to metabolic pathways that use oxygen The initial steps of glucose breakdown occur via a pathway called glycolysis, which does not use . oxygen, and is an anaerobic part of the metabolic pathway Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding muscle attachments and body ( ) ?movements The point of attachment of a muscle to the immovable, or less movable, bone is called the origin. Flexion is a movement that generally occurs in the sagittal plane and decreases the angle of the joint, . .bringing the two bones closer together .Abduction is movement away from the body, which occurs in the coronal plane .When the foot is dorsiflexed, the foot is flat on the ground .In circumduction of the arm, the distal end of the limb describes a cone


(The peripheral nervous system includes(

.receptors and nerves .the cranial and spinal nerves .the spinal cord and spinal nerves .the brain and cranial nerves Which of the following are spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, including dead brain cells ( ) ?and bacteria .Oligodendrocytes .Ependymal cells .Astrocytes .Microglia (Which of the following is FALSE concerning the divisions of the nervous system( .Afferent neurons carry information from the CNS .Afferent neurons are also called sensory .Efferent neurons carry information to effectors .Efferent neurons are also called motor .( ) ___ Motor efferent neurons carry signals from _____ to the peripheral nervous system; the central nervous system one brain region; another the CNS; the PNS one organ; another (A reflex arc is( .the neural pathway followed by rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli .the movement a person exhibits when stimulated .a quick response to a stimulus .None of the available answers In which of the following neuronal states does the inward rush of sodium through gated ion ( ) ?channels change the polarity of the neuron's membrane at that site .Repolarization .Depolarization .Hyperpolarization .Resting membrane potential ?What is the term for bundles of fibers (neuron processes or axons) in the central nervous system( ) .Tracts .Nuclei .Nerves .Ganglia The external face of a resting membrane is slightly ____, and its internal face is slightly ____. The ( ) chief extracellular ion is ____; whereas, the chief intracellular ion is ____. The membrane is relatively .impermeable to both ions positive, negative, potassium (K+), sodium (Na negative, positive, sodium (Na+), potassium (K negative, positive, potassium (K+), sodium (Na positive, negative, sodium (Na+), potassium (K (Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning a synapse( .At a synapse, the two structures synapsing do not touch .Vesicles found in the synaptic knob release neurotransmitters .Neurotransmitters are released at this site .All available choices are true How many components make up a simple reflex arc( ) .3 .4 .5 .2 (The motor cortex is located on the( .postcentral gyrus .central gyrus .central sulcus .precentral gyrus

:The primary somatic sensory area is located( ) .in the frontal lobe anterior to the central sulcus .in the parietal lobe anterior to the central sulcus .in the frontal lobe posterior to the central sulcus .in the parietal lobe posterior to the central sulcus Which structure makes up the floor of the diencephalon and is an important autonomic ( ) nervous system center, which plays a role in the regulation of body temperature, water balance, and metabolism .Pituitary gland .Mammillary body .Hypothalamus .Hippocampus (Which structure is responsible for the formation of cerebrospinal fluid( .Choroid plexus .Arachnoid plexus .Arachnoid villus .Arachnoid mater What is the name of the tight band of projection fibers that passes between the thalamus and the ( ) ?(basal nuclei (ganglia .Fornix .Corpus callosum .Anterior commissure .Internal capsule ?What is the term for a nerve that contains both afferent and efferent neurons( ) .Mixed .Dual .Sensory .Motor (Which cranial nerve innervates the inner ear( .VII .VIII .V .X Which cranial nerve supplies motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscle, which moves the eye ( ) ?laterally .(Trigeminal (N V .(Abducens (N VI .(Optic (N II .(Oculomotor (N III ?Which of the following is controlled by sympathetic innervation ( ) .Emergency AND fight or flight situations .Fight or flight situations .Digestion after a big meal .Emergency situations ?Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the spinal cord( ) .The brachial plexus innervates the shoulder and upper extremity .There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves .The intercostal plexus is found in the thoracic region .(The lumbar and sacral plexuses are united (share common nerves Which is the only cranial nerve that leaves the face and neck region and travels down to the ( ) ?heart, lungs, and stomach .X .XI .IX .XII (What does the development of motor control represent in infants( .Myelination of neurons .Increased maturation of the nervous system

.Development of increased interconnections and more developed neural pathways .All of the above Why is it possible that a mother who smokes may be predisposing her infant to possible brain ( ) ?damage .Because smoking decreases the amount of oxygen that can be carried in the blood .Because smoking increases the amount of carbon dioxide that can be carried in the blood .Because smoking increases the amount of nitrogen that can be carried in the blood .Because smoking increases the amount of oxygen that can be carried in the blood Quiz 1 ?A neuron cannot conduct another impulse until which of the following occurs( ) .Depolarization .Repolarization .Action potential .A graded potential .A nerve impulse ?Besides the accessory nerve (XI), which pair of cranial nerves extends beyond the head and neck( ) .(Facial (VII .(Vagus (X .(Oculomotor (III (Trigeminal (V. (Hypoglossal (XII. The _______ area that allows us to consciously move our skeletal muscles is anterior to the central ( ) .sulcus in the _______ lobe somatic sensory; frontal. primary motor; parietal. .primary motor; temporal. .primary motor; frontal lobe. somatic sensory; parietal. (The _______ area is located posterior to the central sulcus in the _______ lobe( autonomic; temporal. .primary somatic sensory; parietal. primary somatic sensory; temporal. voluntary motor; occipital. autonomic; parietal. The cell bodies of sensory neurons whose fibers enter the cord are found in the( ) .ventral root .autonomic ganglia .ventral root ganglion .basal nuclei .dorsal root ganglion The cells that produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are called _______ and in the( ) ._______ central nervous system (CNS) the cells are called Schwann cells; microglia .satellite cells; astrocytes Schwann cells; oligodendrocytes astrocytes; Schwann cells oligodendrocytes; Schwann cells :The central nervous system (CNS) consists of( ) .the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems .the brain and spinal cord .the brain and cranial nerves .the cranial nerves and spinal nerves .the spinal cord and spinal nerves The motor divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), sympathetic and parasympathetic, are( ) characterized by a two-neuron chain. The pre-ganglionic neuron cell body is found in the _______ and ._______ the postganglionic neuron cell body is found cerebellum; in ganglia in the PNS. central nervous system; in ganglia in the PNS.

.peripheral nervous system; in nuclei in the CNS. cerebral cortex; in ganglia in the PNS. spinal cord only; in ganglia in the PNS. (The sensory or afferent nerve fibers carry information( .away from the CNS .toward the CNS .away from the CNS to the ANS .away from the ANS .away from the visceral nervous system The three connective tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS structures are collectively ( ) .known as the _______. The _______ is the outermost, leathery layer periosteum; dura mater. .meninges; arachnoid. meninges; dura mater. endosteum; pia mater. .meninges; pia mater. ?What are groups of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS called ( ) .Tracts .Ganglia .Central area .Nuclei .Nerves ?What structure detects the amount of stretch or tension in skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints( ) .Cutaneous receptors .Proprioceptors .Heat receptors .Pain receptors .Pressure receptors (What is the minimum number of neurons that can be involved in a reflex( .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 :The deep groove that separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum is called the( ) .thalamus .longitudinal fissure .pons .cerebellum .central sulcus (Which of the following is/are examples of somatic reflexes( .The regulation of the activity of smooth muscles .Secretion of saliva .The stimulation of skeletal muscles .Change in the size of the pupils of the eye ?Which of the following is NOT a factor which determines the speed of nerve impulse conduction ( ) .Temperature .Pressure .Presence of myelin .Thickness of the axon .Stimulus strength Which of the following substances is/are NOT prevented from entering brain tissue due to the tight ( ) ?junctions that form the blood-brain barrier .Nonessential amino acids .Proteins .Essential amino acids .Urea .Potassium ions

?Which of the following is NOT a central nervous system glial cell( ) .Astrocyte .Neuron .Ependymal cell .Microglia .Oligodendrocyte (Which of the following is NOT TRUE about the patellar reflex( .It is also called the knee-jerk reflex It is rarely tested during a physical exam to determine the general health of the motor portion of the .nervous system .It is an example of a two-neuron reflex arc .The quadriceps muscle tendon is stretched .It is an example of the simplest type of reflex in humans The preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)( ) ?are located in the brain nuclei of which cranial nerves .III, VII, IX, X .VI, VII, VIII, IX .VII, VIII, IX, X .III, VI, VII, IX .III, IX, X, XI Quiz 2 :A neurotransmitter is released from the( ) .synaptic cleft .presynaptic terminal .postsynaptic terminal .synaptic bridge .dendrite An action potential: i) occurs when the local potential reaches threshold. ii) obeys the all-or-none ( ) rule. iii) proceeds with constant magnitude from one point to another. iv) is characterized by a series of .depolarizations/repolarizations along the membrane .All of (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) above are correct .Only (i), (ii), and (iii) above are correct .Only (i) and (iii) above are correct .Only (ii) and (iv) above are correct .Only (iv) above is correct :(Another name for a nerve impulse would be a(n( .membrane potential .resting potential .neural potential .action potential .axle potential ?Which of the following statements regarding the brain stem is/are FALSE( ) .The neurons of the reticular formation are involved in motor control of the visceral organ. The pons, a rounded structure that protrudes just below the midbrain, has important nuclei involved in. the control of breathing The medulla oblongata, in addition to containing many nuclei that regulate vital visceral activities, . plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles The corpora quadrigemina, located dorsally, are four rounded protrusions that are nuclei, which are reflex centers involved with vision and hearing .C and D :Between successive Schwann cells, there are gaps in the myelin sheath called( ) .Nissl granules .axon hillocks .nerve cell bodies .axons .nodes of Ranvier :Broca's area in the brain is associated with the ability to( ) .interpret sounds

.maintain a state of wakefulness .play a musical instrument .remember .speak ( )Damage to which cranial nerve(s) may impair the sense of taste( ) .(Facial (N VII .(Glossopharyngeal (N IX .(Hypoglossal (N XII .(The facial (N VII) and the glossopharyngeal (N IX .The _______ produce cerebrospinal fluid( ) adenohypophyseal glands crura cerebri choroid plexuses corpora quadrigemina meninges ( ) ________ The basic unit of the nervous system is the axon. dendrite. nephron. neuron. neuron cell body. :The brain is part of the( ) .autonomic nervous system .central nervous system .peripheral nervous system .somatic nervous system .splanchnic nervous system :The cerebellum aids in maintenance of( ) .balance and posture .binocular vision .emotional behavior .speech .visual acuity ?Regarding spinal nerves, which of the following statements is/are TRUE( ) .The lumbar plexus is formed by ventral rami from spinal segments L2-L5 .The cervical plexus is formed by dorsal rami from spinal segments C1-C5 .The sacral plexus is formed by ventral rami from spinal segments L4-L5 and S1-S4 .No plexus is formed from intercostal nerves, which run from spinal segments C5-T12 :The corpus callosum connects the( ) .lateral lobes of the cerebellum .right and left cerebral hemispheres .hypothalamus to the pons .cerebellum to the pons and medulla .hippocampi with the mammillary bodies (The dendrite of a neuron( .conducts nerve impulses towards the neuron cell body .conducts nerve impulses away from the neuron cell body .is the single main cell process of a multipolar neuron conducts nerve impulses away from the neuron cell body AND is the single main cell process of a .multipolar neuron Which of the following cranial nerves supplies motor fibers to the pharynx that promote ( ) swallowing and saliva production; and carries sensory impulses from taste buds of the posterior tongue ?and from pressure receptors of the carotid artery .(Vagus nerve (N X .(Hypoglossal nerve (N XII .(Facial nerve (N VII .(Trigeminal nerve (N V .(Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX

?Which of the following statements regarding the nerve impulse is/are TRUE( ) .During repolarization, sodium ions diffuse rapidly into the cell If a stimulus is strong enough, hyperpolarization causes membrane polarity to be completely reversed, .and an action potential is initiated .The external face of the resting membrane is slightly negative, and its internal face is slightly positive A stimulus changes the permeability of a "patch" of the membrane, and sodium ions (Na+) diffuse .rapidly into the cell Ionic conditions are restored after repolarization by the actions of the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) .pump, whereby two Na+ ions are ejected for every three K+ ions carried back into the cell The brain structure that functions in water balance, appetite, and regulating body temperature, is ( ) :the .cerebral cortex .cerebellum .hypothalamus .medulla oblongata .thalamus :The region of the brain that regulates heart rate is located in the( ) .cerebellum .cerebrum .medulla oblongata .superior colliculi .pons The tightly packed coil of the Schwann cell plasma membranes that encircles certain kinds of axons( ) :is termed the .myelin sheath .neurolemma .node of Ranvier .Nissl granules .ependymal cells ?Which of the following plays an important role in regulating voluntary movements( ) .Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe .Basal ganglia .Hypothalamus .Primary motor area of the frontal lobe .Cerebral peduncles Chapter 8 MCQ on SPECIAL SENSES (The three ossicles, in order of their stimulation by auditory stimuli, would be( .incus, malleus, and stapes .stapes, malleus, and incus .malleus, stapes, and incus .malleus, incus, and stapes Which of the following structures is last to be stimulated when the structures are arranged in order, ( ) beginning with a sound stimulus .Hair cells .Tectorial membrane .Ossicles .Tympanic membrane Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the sense of equilibrium( ) .Endolymph moves the tectorial membrane in the macula to mediate static equilibrium .Endolymph moves over the cupula to mediate dynamic equilibrium Static equilibrium provides information about body position in space and the orientation of the .head .This sense originates in the semicircular canals and the vestibule Which type of deafness is characterized by damage to receptor cells( ) .Conduction .Cochlear .Sensorineural .None of the available answers

Which inner ear structure is connected to the stapes of the middle ea( ) .Oval window .Cochlear duct .Round window .Auditory (pharyngotympanic) tube Refers to the fact that olfactory receptors become less sensitive to long lasting stimuli ( ) Equilibrium Innervation Accommodation Adaptation Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the sense of olfaction ( ) .Olfactory receptors are found in the olfactory mucosa .There are four basic smells .Olfactory receptors are bipolar cells .Supporting cells are also found in the olfactory mucosa (Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the sense of taste( .Several nerves innervate the tongue .Taste buds are also called papillae .There are four basic tastes .It is also referred to as gustation (Which of the following statements is FALSE( .Early responses to auditory stimuli are often reflexes .Audition is the sense that requires the most learning .Smell and taste are most acute when we are young .Hearing loss is a natural process of aging Which of the following statements is NOT a problem of aging associated ( ) ?with vision .Arteriosclerosis .Presbyopia .Mnire's disease .Glaucoma Quiz 1 Regarding visual fields of the eyes and the visual pathway to the brain, which of the ( ) 1 ?following statements is/are FALSE Each optic tract contains fibers from the lateral side of the eye on the same side and the medial . side of the opposite eye Each side of the brain receives visual input from both eyes, from the medial field of vision of the eye on its own side and from the lateral field of the other eye At the optic chiasma, the fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain .a and c .b and c (Focusing the light rays involves which of the following( 2 .Change in the shape of the lens .Change in the relative position of the lens .Change in the shape of the cornea .Change in the density of the aqueous humor .Change in the location of the optic disc A delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the part of the outer surface of( ) 3 :the eyeball is called the .lacrimal gland .cornea .conjunctiva .retina .choroid (The area of the retina containing only cone cells is the( 4 .choroid .optic disc

.fovea centralis .blind spot .The optic disc AND the blind spot :The auditory (or Eustachian) tube is located between the( ) 5 .throat and middle ear .throat and trachea .throat and larynx .throat and inner ear .middle ear and inner ear The conduction of a sound vibration from the middle ear to the inner ear is created by the ( ) vibration of the .malleus against the tympanic membrane .stapes in the oval window .incus in the round window .stapes in the round window .stapes against the tympanic membrane ( The crista ampullaris detects( 7 .sound waves and converts them into nerve impulses .static equilibrium information .the energy flow in the mitochondria .dynamic equilibrium information BOTH sound waves and converts them into nerve impulses AND the energy flow in the .mitochondria The malleus, incus, and stapes( ) 8 .are located in the inner ear .are surrounded by perilymph .are parts of the organ of Corti .form a bridge between the tympanic membrane (or eardrum) and the oval window .are located in the inner ear AND surrounded by perilymph (The olfactory cells are( 9 .located in the taste buds .specialized to respond to taste .found on the basilar membrane .ciliated neuroepithelial cells .are located in the taste buds AND specialized to respond to taste (The optic disc marks the( 10 .exit of the optic nerve, N II .most optically sensitive point of the retina .junction between the iris and the ciliary body .the region in the retina where the ganglion cells are located .the latest recording techniques on CDs (The outer ear consists of( 11 the pinna (1) the auditory tube (2) the external auditory canal (3) the tympanic membrane (4) .All of the above are parts of the outer ear .Only options (1), (3), and (4) above are correct .Only options (1), (2), and (4) above are correct .Only options (1) and (3) above are correct .Only option (1) above is correct choroid The outer white layer of the eyeball that is also called the fibrous tunic is the( ) ciliary body iris retina sclera (The photoreceptors in the eye are found in the( 13 .choroid coat

.cornea .lens .retina .sclera (The sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti are located on the( 14 .tectorial membrane .vestibular membrane .tympanic membrane .basilar membrane .vestibule The specific ear structure responsible for providing constant information of head position (static ( ) :equilibrium) is/are the .crista ampullaris .organ of Corti .maculae .semicircular canals .cupula The structure that is connected to the stapes and allows the transduction of sound ( ) 16 :waves to the organ of Corti is the .seminiferous tubule .round window .oval window .mastoid sinus .auditory tube ?(The tip of the tongue is very sensitive to which taste sensation(s 17 .Bitter .Salty .Sour .Sweet .Both sweet AND salty are correct (The transparent anterior portion of the sclera is the( 18 .choroid .ciliary body .cornea .iris .retina (When a bright light shines in the eye, what reflex response takes place ( 19 .Ciliary bodies secrete tears .Extrinsic eye muscles contract .Radial muscles of the iris contract .Ciliary muscles contract .Circular muscles of the iris contract (Where are the taste buds located that are the most sensitive to sour substances( .At the tip of the tongue .At the sides of the tip of the tongue .On the posterior lateral edges of the tongue .All over the surface of the tongue Quiz 2 A delicate membrane, the _______ lines the eyelids and covers part of the outer surface of ( ) 1 .the eyeball. It ends at the edge of the _______ by fusing with its epithelium endothelium; cornea. conjunctiva; cornea. conjunctiva; ciliary glands. arachnoid; cornea. conjunctiva; lacrimal apparatus. By age 60, a gradual deterioration and atrophy of the organ of Corti leads to loss in the ability to ( ) :hear high tones and speech sounds. The condition is called .presbyopia

.hyperopia .presbycusis .emmetropia .otitis media Electrical signals pass from the photoreceptors via a two-neuron chain: They pass ( ) .from _______ cells to _______ cells before leaving the retina via the optic nerve tripolar; rods. bipolar; ganglion. ganglion; bipolar. cones; ganglion cells. bipolar; stellate cells. (What is the function of the tarsal glands( .To make photoreceptor cells .To make mucus .To produce cilia to wipe dust away from the eye surface .To make an oily secretion to lubricate the eye .To promote blepharitis In which serious pathology of the inner ear do affected individuals become nauseated, and ( ) ?have vertigo so severe that they cannot stand up .Otitis media .Conjunctivitis .Sensorineural deafness .Rhinitis Mnire's syndrome The term for nearsightedness is called _______ and the term for farsightedness is called( ) ._______ myopia; hyperopia. hyperopia; myopia. hemianopia; hyperopia. myopia; emmetropia. presbyopia; hyperopia. Rods and cones are distributed over the entire retina except for the( ) optic disc. choroid. ora serrata. sclera. lens. (Which of the following statements regarding the ear is/are TRUE( 8 The bony labyrinth of the middle ear is a maze of bony chambers located deep within the . temporal bone, filled with endolymph, a plasma-like fluid When head position changes in an angular direction, inertia causes perilymph in the . semicircular ducts to lag behind, and as the cupula moves, it drags across the perilymph, bending the .hair cells in the opposite direction Each macula is a patch of receptor cells with their "hairs" embedded in the otolithic hair . membrane, a gel or jelly-like mass studded with otoliths .All of the available answers are true ?Which cranial nerves carry taste impulses from the various taste buds to the gustatory cortex( ) .Facial; glossopharyngeal; vagus .Vagus; glossopharyngeal; trigeminal .Facial; vestibulocochlear; glossopharyngeal .Vagus; accessory; hypoglossal .Facial; glossopharyngeal; hypoglossal The division of cranial nerve VIII carrying information from the maculae and crista is the _______ ( ) .branch optic. cochlear. vestibular. olfactory.

oculomotor. The maculae of the vestibule record _______ while the crista of the semicircular ducts record( ) ._______ light equilibrium, heavy equilibrium. static equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium. dynamic equilibrium, static equilibrium. flexion, extension. high balance, low balance. (The olfactory pathways are closely tied to which functional system( .Reticular activating system .Vestibular system .Limbic system .Optic system .Somatic motor system :The only special sense which is NOT functional when the child is born is( ) .hearing .taste .vision .smell .balance .The receptors for ________ and _______ are classified as chemoreceptors( ) taste; smell. sight; smell. pain; pressure. proprioception; pain. smell; hearing. What is the ability of the eye to focus specifically on close objects (those less than ( ) ?(20-feet away .Adaptation .Accommodation .Refraction .Indentation .Synthesis (What makes up the outermost tunic of the eye( .Choroid and sclera .Cornea and ciliary body .Cornea and sclera .Choroid and iris .Retina and ora serrata ?What part of the retina contains only cones and is the area of greatest visual acuity( ) .Ciliary body .Ora serrata .Fovea centralis .Optic disc .Iris When the eyes are suddenly exposed to bright light, the pupils immediately constrict. This is called( ) :the .accommodation pupillary reflex .stretch reflex .nociceptor reflex .photopupillary reflex .crossed-extensor reflex When there is degeneration or damage to the receptor cells in the organ of Corti, to ( ) :the cochlear nerve, or to neurons of the auditory cortex, the condition is called .infusion deafness .sensorineural deafness .temporal deafness .conduction deafness

.direct deafness Within the membranous labyrinth of the cochlea is the primary organ of hearing. It is called the ._______ and contains the hair cells associated with hearing organ of balance. semicircular canal. cochlea. tympanic membrane. organ of Corti. Chapter 9 MCQ . ENDOCRINE (Amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through( .directly targeting a cell's DNA .Ion fluctuation .Membrane permeability .Second messenger system cascades Chemicals which are secreted into extracellular fluid, travel through the ( ) :bloodstream, and regulate metabolic function of target cells are known as .hormones .Antibodies .Enzymes .Antibiotics (Steroid hormones enter target tissues and cause( .glycogen breakdown .Synthesis of glycogen .Increased blood pressure .Altered gene expression by targeting DNA directly Hormones that are protein-based find their target cells because( ) .they are secreted directly onto the body surface .The brain causes them to stop only at their target tissues .Secretions are released by the target tissue and the hormones follow their signal Only the target tissues have the correct receptors for the hormones in the plasma membrane of .their cells (Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes( .a decrease in water loss by the kidneys .An increase in water loss by the kidneys .Decreased blood pressure due to dilation of blood vessels .Increased water absorption by the large intestine (Insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is released( .in morbidly obese people .When the glucose level in the body rises .When the glucose level in the body drops .In response to physical exertion (Which element is required for the thyroid to function properly( .Magnesium .Zinc .Iron .Iodine Which hormone causes ovulation in women and stimulates the ovary to secrete progesterone( ) .Prolactin .Estrogen .Luteinizing hormone .(Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH Which hormone controls water balance by causing uptake of sodium ions, followed by water reabsorption in the kidneys .Antidiuretic hormone .Aldosterone .Calcitonin .Oxytocin How many hormones does the posterior pituitary store and release into the bloodstream( )

.4 .1 .3 .2 Which hormone(s) is/are responsible for preparing the breasts for lactation( ) Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. .Progesterone .(Human placental lactogen (hPL .Both progesterone and hPL Which of the following is/are non-endocrine in function, but secrete(s) hormones( ) .The kidneys .The thyroid .The adrenals .The pituitary As a result of an aging endocrine system, which of the following occur(s) at an ( ) ?increased frequency .Decreased immune system function .Lowered metabolism .Increased incidence of diabetes mellitus .All of the above (Which function is NOT associated with menopause( .Increased chance of heart disease .Osteoporosis .Mood changes .Increased risk of pregnancy In general, which of the following statements about our endocrine system is true as we age( ) .Our bodies tend to make more hormones as we age .Aging has no effect on our endocrine system .Target tissues tend to rapidly multiply as we grow older .As we get older, glands make fewer hormones, or their release is less reliable Quiz 1 (Which of the following statements regarding pituitary hormones is false( The hypothalamus makes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone, which are transported to . the posterior pituitary for storage Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), released by the posterior pituitary, causes urine volume to . increase as blood volume decreases Luteinizing hormone, an anterior pituitary hormone, triggers ovulation of an egg from the . ovary and causes the ruptured follicle to produce progesterone and some estrogens Hyposecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) leads to . sterility in both males and females (b) and (c) (( ______ Androgens are produced by the ovaries. testes. hypothalamus. islets of Langerhans. One of the two hormones made by the pituitary that help regulate reproductive cells ( ) ._______ is luteinizing hormone. The other hormone is Androgens. follicle stimulating hormone. epinephrine. norepinephrine. (Calcium level in the blood is regulated by the( .parathyroid and thyroid .Adrenal medulla and pancreas .Testes .Parathyroid and thymus

Each of the following is classified as a mixed gland, having both exocrine and ( ) :endocrine functions, EXCEPT the .ovary .Testes .Pancreas .Adrenal gland (Endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands in that( Endocrine glands are ductless and exocrine glands release secretions at the body's surface or into ducts .Endocrine glands release hormones, whereas exocrine glands release waste Endocrine glands are formed by epithelial tissue, but exocrine glands are primarily connective . tissue Endocrine glands are all interconnected; whereas exocrine glands act completely . independently (Estrogens and progesterone are produced by( .the testes .The ovaries .The adrenal glands .The hypothalamus Failure of the pituitary to stop producing growth hormone (GH) after body growth is completed ( ) results in gigantism. tetany. kidney failure. acromegaly. ( ) Receptors for steroid hormones are found .in the cell membranes of target tissues .In the interstitial fluid .On nutrient molecules, such as glucose .In the cytoplasm of the cells of target tissues Name the gland that is located at the base of the throat, just inferior to the laryngeal prominence ("Adam's ."(apple .Pituitary .Pineal gland .Hypothalamus .Thyroid (What gland is located just superior to the kidneys( .Pituitary .Adrenal .Pancreas Ovaries (Most of the endocrine system is regulated by( .negative feedback mechanisms .Positive feedback mechanisms .Hormone-receptor complexes .Hormone-gene complexes Nervousness, increased body temperature, and increased blood pressure are indications of( ) diabetes mellitus hypoglycemia. hypothyroidism. hyperthyroidism. ( The alpha cells of the pancreas secrete_______ which targets the( glucagon; liver. melatonin; liver. glucagon; kidney. calcitonin; thyroid. The growth hormone (GH) produced by the pituitary gland is known as( ) somatotropin.

prolactin. luteinizing hormone. follicle-stimulating hormone. ( ( The rate of metabolism of all body cells is regulated by parathyroid hormone. aldosterone. calcitonin. thyroid hormone. .negative maintained by ( )The relatively constant internal environment of the body is) feedback positive feedback. homeostasis. metabolism. The secretions from which of these glands differs between males and females( ) .Adrenal .Parathyroid .Gonadal .Pancreas ( The two regulatory systems of the body are the endocrine system and the( nervous system. immune system. circulatory system. respiratory system. skeletal system. Why can a single endocrine hormone produce a wider spread of responses in more of the body than a ( ) single nerve cell A single hormone can target many different responses, whereas a nerve only targets a single response. Blood can carry all of the same hormones throughout the body simultaneously, producing . responses all over the body; nerve cells only target a small number of cells Nerve cells and blood work together. The endocrine system has nothing to do with the nervous system. .Endocrine hormones only target a very small number of precise responses Quiz 2 ( A "fight or flight" situation does not stimulate the secretion of( adrenaline. noradrenaline. androgen. epinephrine. ( An enlargement of the thyroid gland is the condition known as( parathyroidism. acromegaly. Cushing's disease. goiter. Androgens, estrogens, and progesterone are classified as what type of chemicals( ) .Proteins .Amines .Peptides .Steroids ( Calcium level in the blood is regulated by the( .Thyroid .Parathyroid .Posterior pituitary .Adrenal medulla .Both thyroid and parathyroids (Glucagon is secreted by( .the alpha cells of the kidneys .the alpha cells of the pancreas .the liver .the pituitary gland

Regarding hormones produced by organs other than the major endocrine organs, ( ) ?which of the following statements is/are FALSE .Gastrin, a peptide, is produced by the stomach .Food stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich, as well as enzyme-rich, juices Prostaglandin molecules, derived from fatty acid molecules, are produced by the plasma . membranes of virtually all body cells Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a stimulus for the intestine to begin active transport of dietary . potassium across intestinal cell membranes (Most hormones of the endocrine system are regulated by a( .negative feedback mechanism .positive feedback mechanism .hormone-receptor complex .hormone-gene complex (Noradrenaline is the hormone that( .decreases blood pressure .stimulates cardiac muscle .increases conversion of glycogen to glucose .increases conversion of glucose to glycogen ( Structures that release their secretions through ducts are called( endocrine glands. exocrine glands. sweat glands. salivary glands. ( The clusters of cells in the pancreas that produce hormones are the( nodules. islets of Langerhans. pancreatic medulla. pancreatic cortex. The conversion of glycogen to glucose is stimulated by a hormone from the( ) anterior pituitary. pancreas. adrenal cortex. liver. (Which gland controls basal metabolic rate (BMR( ) .Thyroid .Parathyroid .Testes .Pancreas Which hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, whose target tissue is the ( ) ?mammary gland .Follicle-stimulating hormone .Luteinizing hormone .Prolactin .Thyroid hormone The hormone involved in rhythmic activities,such as day/night and seasonal changes is( ) calcitonin. melatonin. cyclin. estrogen. (The hormone that stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus is( .oxytocin .luteinizing hormone .follicle-stimulating hormone .prolactin The hormones of the pituitary gland reach their target cells through the( ) bloodstream. parasympathetic nervous system. sympathetic nervous system.

neurosecretory cells. (The hypothalamus is similar to an endocrine gland because( .it excretes only one hormone into the blood .it has special cells that function like a gland, but it is primarily nervous tissue .it interacts with all the organs of the endocrine system .it uses the hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (The posterior pituitary stores and releases( .growth hormone and prolactin .prolactin and oxytocin .(oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH .ADH and growth hormone The rate of metabolism of all body cells is regulated by( ) thyroid hormone (TH. calcitonin. parathyroid hormone. aldosterone. ( Two terms that are paired incorrectly are( cortisol-adrenal cortex. corticosteroid-adrenal medulla. tetany-parathyroids. calcitonin-thyroid.