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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE BEHAVIOUR OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE COLUMNS

by

Adnan R. Malik
B.Sc. Engg. (Hons), MEngSc.

A thesis submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

SCHOOL OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA

April 2007

PLEASE TYPE THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES Thesis/Dissertation Sheet Surname or Family name: Malik First name: Adnan Abbreviation for degree as given in the University calendar: PhD School: Civil and Environmental Engineering Title: An investigation into the behaviour of Reactive Powder Concrete columns Faculty: Engineering Other name/s: Rauf

Abstract 350 words maximum: (PLEASE TYPE) The research reported in this thesis was carried out in two phases to investigate the behaviour of reactive powder concrete (RPC) columns. In the first phase of this study, six steel fibre reinforced RPC columns of 150 mm square cross section were tested to failure under various loading eccentricities. The RPC mix contained 2 percent (by volume) of straight steel fibres with a concrete strength of about 150 MPa. The columns contained either 4 or 7 percent of longitudinal reinforcement but no tie reinforcement in the test region. All the columns failed in a controlled manner and no buckling of the longitudinal steel or cover spalling was observed, even well beyond the peak load. The tests revealed that stirrups can be significantly reduced for steel fibre reinforced RPC columns, which could lead to an increase in the speed of construction with an associated potential reduction in construction costs. In the second phase, 17 RPC columns were tested with 16 confined using carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP). The concrete mix contained either no fibres or 2 percent (by volume) of straight steel fibres with concrete strength of approximately 160 MPa. The columns contained no conventional steel reinforcement. For the concentrically loaded specimens, failure occurred at or close to the peak loading and the CFRP increased the strength by 19 percent compared with the unconfined specimen. The tests showed that the formulae developed to predict the peak strength of concentrically loaded FRP confined conventional strength concrete columns, in general, overestimate the load carrying capacity of FRP confined RPC specimens. The CFRP was shown to be effective in controlling the failure for the eccentrically loaded specimens. There was no evidence, however, that the use of CFRP in the hoop direction significantly increased the strength of the columns. Three dimensional nonlinear FE analyses of the test specimens were undertaken using the program DIANA. The FE analyses showed a reasonable comparison with the experimental results for the specimens tested under eccentric loading.

Declaration relating to disposition of project thesis/dissertation I hereby grant to the University of New South Wales or its agents the right to archive and to make available my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in the University libraries in all forms of media, now or here after known, subject to the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968. I retain all property rights, such as patent rights. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis or dissertation. I also authorise University Microfilms to use the 350 word abstract of my thesis in Dissertation Abstracts International (this is applicable to doctoral theses only).

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THIS SHEET IS TO BE GLUED TO THE INSIDE FRONT COVER OF THE THESIS

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and to the best of my knowledge it contains no materials previously published or written by another person, nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma at UNSW or any other educational institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in the thesis. Any contribution made to the researcher by other, with whom I have worked at UNSW or elsewhere, is explicitly acknowledged in the thesis.

I also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own work, except to the extent that assistance form others in the projects design and conception and linguistic expression is acknowledged.

Adnan Rauf Malik

Dedicated to my parents Abdur Rauf Malik and Kulsoom Malik

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My sincere thanks to my supervisor Associate Professor Stephen Foster for his support, advice, encouragement and friendly attitude throughout the course of my research. I have not only learnt academic thinking but you have taught me other important things to carry on in professional life. It has been an absolute pleasure working under your supervision. I would also like to thank my co-supervisor Associate Professor Mario Attard for his suggestions and comments.

There is no distance that keeps my heart and feelings away from you, your prayers, support and encouragement are always accompanying me, lots of thanks to my family.

I would like to sincerely thank all the technical staff in the Structure Laboratory. Thanks to Tony Macken, William Terry, Paul Gwyne, Chris Gianopoulos, Ron Moncay, and Frank Scharfe for their assistance in constructing and testing the specimens.

This study was funded via Australian Research Council (ARC) discovery grant DP0211516. The support of the ARC is acknowledged with thanks. The author was financially supported by the International Post Graduate Research Scholarship during the course of this study. The financial support of the University of New South Wales, Sydney is gratefully appreciated.

The support of MBT (Aust) Pty Ltd for the supply of resins and carbon fibre reinforced polymer sheets is thankfully acknowledged.

Finally, many thanks to my wife Saima, without whose love, patience, support, encouragement and understanding this thesis would never have been completed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgementsi Abstractvi Abbreviations.........................................................................................................viii List of Symbols........................................................................................................ix

1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1-1 1.1 General ................................................................................................... 1-1


Reactive Powder Concrete.......................................................................1-2 Fibre Reinforced Polymers ......................................................................1-2

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2

Objectives and Scope ...................................................................................1-3 Thesis Organisation .............................................................................. 1-5

1.3

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE...................................................................... 2-1


2.1

Introduction ....................................................................................................2-1 Reactive Powder Concrete..................................................................... 2-4


Principle and composition of RPC...........................................................2-4 Durability characteristics ........................................................................2-6 Advantages and applications ...................................................................2-8

2.2

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Confinement of concrete by FRP tubes and wraps................................ 2-9 Confinement by lateral steel reinforcement......................................... 2-43 Mechanics of cover spalling ................................................................ 2-51 Behaviour of fibre reinforced HSC columns ....................................... 2-53 Finite element analysis of confined concrete....................................... 2-56 Summary .............................................................................................. 2-59

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3 FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING USING DIANA ................................ 3-1 3.1 3.2


3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

Introduction............................................................................................ 3-1 Plasticity modelling for concrete in compression.................................. 3-2


General.....................................................................................................3-2 Plasticity modelling in DIANA.................................................................3-3 Drucker-Prager plasticity model .............................................................3-4 Equivalent cohesion c versus internal state variable ..........................3-8 Angle of friction( ), dilation( ) and yield surface............................. 3-10 Comments on expressions for c- , - and - proposed by Vermeer and De Borst (1984).............................................................................. 3-17

3.2.7

Concluding remarks on the plasticity model......................................... 3-19

3.3 3.4

Crack model for concrete..................................................................... 3-19 Modelling of fibre rienforced composite materials using layered shell elements ................................................................................................ 3-24

3.4.1 3.4.2

General.................................................................................................. 3-24 Yield crietria for FRP ........................................................................... 3-26

3.5 3.6 3.7

Steel reinforcement ............................................................................. 3-29 Solution procedures ............................................................................. 3-30 Conclusions.......................................................................................... 3-31

4 INVESTIGATION OF FR-RPC COLUMNS............................................ 4-1 4.1 4.2 Introduction........................................................................................... 4-1 Experimental Program ........................................................................... 4-2
Test specimens.......................................................................................... 4-2 RPC mix design and material selection ...................................................4-3 Mixing of concrete and material properties ............................................4-4 Steel reinforcement...................................................................................4-9 Fabrication............................................................................................ 4-11

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5

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4.2.6 4.2.7

Instrumentation ..................................................................................... 4-12 Casting .................................................................................................. 4-14

4.3 4.4

Testing Procedure ................................................................................ 4-14 Test Results and Observations ............................................................. 4-16
Presentation of test results .................................................................... 4-16 Details of test results............................................................................. 4-16 Test observations of each specimen ...................................................... 4-25 Specimen RPC1 .................................................................................... 4-25 Specimen RPC2 .................................................................................... 4-27 Specimen RPC3 .................................................................................... 4-28 Specimen RPC4 .................................................................................... 4-28 Specimen RPC5 .................................................................................... 4-31 Specimen RPC6 .................................................................................... 4-32

4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3

4.5 4.6

FE analysis of FR-RPC columns ......................................................... 4-33 Conclusions.......................................................................................... 4-39

5 INVESTIGATION OF CFRP CONFINED RPC COLUMNS ................ 5-1 5.1 5.2 Introduction............................................................................................ 5-1 Experimental Program ............................................................................ 5-1
Test specimens..........................................................................................5-1 RPC mix design and mixing of concrete ..................................................5-2 Material properties ..................................................................................5-3 Casting .....................................................................................................5-5 CFRP sheets and adhesive .......................................................................5-6 CFRP wrapping .......................................................................................5-9 Instrumentation ..................................................................................... 5-12 Test setup............................................................................................... 5-14

5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8

5.3

Test Results and Observations ............................................................. 5-17

5.3.1 5.3.2

Presentation of results ................................................................... 5-17 Details of test results ....................................................................... 5-17

5.4

FE modelling of CFRP confined RPC columns ................................... 5-36


Eccentrically loaded columns ............................................................... 5-36 Approach 1 ............................................................................................ 5-38 Approach 2 ............................................................................................ 5-38

5.4.1

5.4.2

Concentrically loaded columns............................................................. 5-45

5.5

Conclusions.......................................................................................... 5-47

6 CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................... 6-1 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction............................................................................................ 6-1 Concluding Remarks ............................................................................. 6-1 Recommendations for further Research ................................................ 6-4

REFERENCES....................................................................................................R-1 APPENDIX A ......................................................................................................A-1 APPENDIX B ...................................................................................................... B-1 APPENDIX C ......................................................................................................C-1 APPENDIX D ......................................................................................................D-1

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ABSTRACT

The research reported in this thesis was carried out to investigate the behaviour of reactive powder concrete (RPC) columns. The investigation comprised of two phases. In the first phase, experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to examine the behaviour of RPC columns without conventional steel ties in the test zone. In the second phase, an experimental and numerical study was carried out to study the behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) confined RPC circular columns without conventional longitudinal steel. In the experimental investigation conducted in the first phase of this study, six steel fibre reinforced RPC columns with 150 mm square cross section were tested to failure under various loading eccentricities. The RPC mix contained two percent (by volume) of 0.2 mm diameter by 13 mm long straight steel fibres with a concrete strength of about 150 MPa. The columns contained either four or seven percent of longitudinal reinforcement but no tie reinforcement in the test region. Experimental data on strength, lateral and axial deformations and failure mode was obtained for each test. All the columns failed in a controlled manner and no buckling of the longitudinal steel or cover spalling was observed, even well beyond the peak load. The tests revealed that stirrups which are traditionally used for the confinement of concrete and to avoid buckling of longitudinal reinforcement can be significantly reduced for steel fibre reinforced RPC columns, which could lead to an increase the speed of construction with an associated potential reduction in construction costs.

For the experimental study conducted in the second phase of this investigation, 17 RPC columns were tested with 16 confined using CFRP. The concrete mix contained either no fibres or 2 percent (by volume) of straight steel fibres with concrete strength of approximately 160 MPa. The column specimens contained no conventional steel reinforcement, either in the longitudinal or transverse direction with tensile forces carried by the CFRP. For the concentrically loaded specimens, failure occurred at or close to the

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peak loading with little or no residual capacity. Comparing the strength of the CFRP confined specimen with the unconfined specimen, the CFRP increased the strength by 19 percent. The tests conducted on concentrically loaded columns also showed that the formulae developed to predict the peak strength of concentrically loaded FRP confined conventional strength concrete columns should be used with caution for CFRP confined RPC specimens. The formulae, in general, overestimate the actual load carrying capacity of FRP confined RPC specimens. The transverse strains measured at the fracture of the CFRP for confined columns, were found to be significantly lower than the ultimate tensile strength reported by the manufacturer or obtained from the standard tensile coupon tests.

For the eccentrically loaded specimens, the CFRP was shown to be effective in controlling the failure of the specimens with considerable straining occurring beyond the peak loading. There was no evidence, however, that the use of CFRP in the hoop direction significantly increased the strength of the columns. The FE analyses of the RPC specimens tested in this investigation was carried out using software DIANA. The concrete was modelled using a Drucker-Prager plasticity approach in the compression regime and smeared cracking approach in the tensile regime. Second order effects were taken into account using total Lagrangian formulation. The CFRP wrapping was modelled using both cable and layered shell elements. The finite element analyses of the specimens tested under eccentric loading in the both phases showed a reasonable comparison with the experimental results. The study showed that the an angle of dilation of at least 20 degrees less than the value of friction angle, when used in conjunction with elastic-perfectly plastic Drucker-Prager plasticity model, is needed to capture the stressstrain response of FRP confined concrete columns. However, more experimental data is required for FRP confined RPC columns tested under concentric loading to check the suitability of these angles for predicting the stress strain response of concentrically loaded FRP confined RPC specimens. Based on the models proposed in the literature for confined concrete, it was found that the friction angle is used mostly as a factor to fit the experimental data rather than a material property.

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ABBREVIATIONS
CFRP CMOD CSC FE FRP FR-HSC FR-RPC GFRP HPC HSC LVDT NSC RPC carbon fibre reinforced polymer crack mouth opening displacement conventional strength concrete finite element fibre reinforced polymers fibre reinforced high strength concrete fibre reinforced reactive powder concrete glass fibre reinforced polymer high performance concrete high strength concrete linear variable differential transducer normal strength concrete reactive powder concrete (abbreviation used for both fibre and non fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete) SG strain gauge

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

Ac

area of the column core gross sectional area of a column area of the longitudinal reinforcement breadth of the column core measured to the centreline of the outer ties across the width of the section

Ag Ast bc

c C
Cp

cohesion distance between restrained longitudinal bars: a confinement parameter an empirical coefficient diameter of a circular column depth of the column core measured to the centreline of the outer ties across the width of the section

d dc

dn ds df D D Deq
e

depth of neutral axis diameter of tie reinforcement diameter of fibres elastic stiffness matrix diameter of a circular column diameter of an equivalent short column load eccentricity modulus of elasticity modulus of elasticity of FRP in 1-direction modulus of elasticity of FRP in 2-direction modulus of elasticity of FRP in 3-direction first slope of the bilinear confinement model by Almusallam (2007) second slope of the bilinear confinement model by Almusallam (2007) modulus of elasticity of concrete

E E1 E2 E3 Ea Eb Ec

E frp Es f fc f cc
/ f cc

modulus of elasticity of FRP tube or wrap modulus of elasticity of steel yield function concrete compressive stress confined concrete compressive stress peak compressive stress of confined concrete flexural tensile strength of concrete mean unconfined concrete compressive strength unconfined concrete compressive strength in-situ concrete compressive strength ultimate strength of confined concrete at failure double punch tensile strength of concrete tensile stress in FRP wrap at failure lateral confining pressure lateral confining pressure for elliptical section equivalent uniform confining pressure intercept of the second slope on the stress axis split cylinder tensile strength ultimate stress in steel steel yield stress tensile strength of concrete plastic potential function shear modulus of FRP in 1-2 plane shear modulus of FRP in 1-2 plane shear modulus of FRP in 1-3 plane fracture energy fracture energy based on CMOD control

f cf f cm
/ f co

f cp
/ f cu

f dp f frp fl fl / fle fo f sp f su f sy ft g G12 G23 G13 Gf G f , CMOD

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G f , mid h h k1 k3 ke

fracture energy based on mid-span displacement height of the specimen crack band width confinement effectives factor in-situ strength factor effective confinement factor for the columns confined by lateral steel reinforcement ( ke 1 )

lf M Mu n

length of fibre bending moment Moment at peak load parameter to control the curvature of the confined stress strain curve in the transition zone

N N Nc

transformation matrix axial load squash load capacity based on area of the column core: area bounded by the most external tie reinforcement

N uo Pdp P Pu s
s* t t frp
cr tn

squash load capacity based on gross cross-sectional area of column double punch failure load projection matrix

peak load
centre to centre spacing between ties clear spacing between ties thickness thickness of FRP wrap / jacket / tube crack normal stress - mode I crack shear stress - mode II crack shear stress - mode III

tscr ttcr

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v v12 v23 v13


w

Poissons ratio Poissons ratio of FRP in 1-2 plane Poissons ratio of FRP in 2-3 plane Poissons ratio of FRP in 1-3 plane clear distance between adjacent tied longitudinal bars diameter of the steel punch in the double punch test threshold angle aspect ratio of steel fibres scalar quantity which is a function of friction angle in the Drucker-Prager plasticity model

f g

scalar quantity which is a function of dilation angle in the Drucker-Prager plasticity model

shear retention factor scalar quantity which is a function of initial friction angle in the DruckerPrager plasticity model

axial mid

axial displacement mid-height lateral deflection or displacement total strain average strain across a section elastic strain plastic strain concrete compressive strain axial strain corresponding to unconfined concrete compressive strength axial strain at peak confined concrete stress failure strain of FRP wrap/tube radial strain volumetric strain

ave

e
p c co cc frp r v

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strain needed to degrade cohesion crack strain normal strain for mode I crack strain needed to mobilize friction angle strain at steel yield ultimate tensile strain of concrete shear strain for mode II crack shear strain for mode III crack equivalent plastic strain curvature angle of friction initial angle of friction volumetric ratio of fibres volumetric ratio of lateral steel reinforcement volumetric ratio of longitudinal steel tensile yield stress of FRP in 1-direction tensile yield stress of FRP in 2-direction tensile yield stress of FRP in 3-direction compressive yield stress of FRP in 1-direction compressive yield stress of FRP in 2-direction compressive yield stress of FRP in 3-direction axial compressive stress at the initiation of concrete cover-core interface cracking

cr
cr nn

f sy u
cr ns

cr nt


o f s st 1t 2t 3t 1c 2c 3c 3.cr fu r z 12

ultimate tensile stress of steel fibres stress in the radial direction stress in the axial direction yield stress of FRP in shear in 1-2 plane

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23 13

yield stress of FRP in shear in 2-3 plane yield stress of FRP in shear in 1-3 plane angle of dilation dilation rate a strain parameter that accounts for both axial strain and curvature components


y
I10

a strain parameter corresponding to the ultimate load as defined by rule ductility index plastic multiplier (non-negative scalar)