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AUTHOR

CAIRNS, JOHN, D.D

A-

j[

M.^A.^'

ROMANISM AND
RATIONALISM
...

PLA CE

LONDON
1863

DATE:

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M A N S M A N I) R A T N A L ISM AS OPPOSED TO PURE


I

'I'M

CHRISTIANITY.
JOHN CAIRNS,

D.D.

'^00

EXCHANC

^/7

Romanism

and

Rationalis M

AS OPPOSED TO PURE

CHRISTIANITY
r
,

'

ALEXANDER STRAHAN AM) CO


Lontloft
32,

Lmigate

Ilili.

Fiiinburgh.
lilnsgmv.
.

35,
I.

lla v<n>er Sttrtt.

Royal Batik rim f.

BY

JOHN CAIRNS,
BERWICK.

D.D.

ALEXANDER STRAHAN AND


LONDON AND EDINBURGIf.
1863.

CO.

K'

^
t

PREFACE.

..

<

'

lit

The

following Discourse or Lecture, recently defirst

. '

t

*
'

livered at the instance of kindred Societies,

in

Olasgow and then

in

Edinburgh,

is

now

published at

their joint request.^

Both Societies are made up of

the

Sons of Ministers of the United Presbyterian

Church,

who combine

chiefly

to

render

help

to

widows and

fatherless children

of their

own

class

and both have been already productive of no small

amount of good.

Their claims
least

may be pleaded
from the services
during
de-

on many grounds, and not

rendered
its

by the ministers of
to evangelical
is

that Church,
religion.

past history,
it

Few

nominations,
served
in

believed, have hitherto

been pre-

more

free

from the extremes of error described


;

the following Lecture

and as

this result,

under

Ciod,

can only be ascribed to Christian teaching,

there arises an obligation to remember, in the per-

O
t'

See Appendix,

p. 53.

282055

I >

I
I

. : :

^''

Preface.
faithful

lit! II, ,*,

I I

III

J 3

>

> , 1

I I
5

II

,
I I

, *

.
t

(I

>

.5
1

sons of their relatives, those


generally speaking received

men who have


earthly

no superabundant
If the

recompense of

their labours.

origin of this
> -

publication serve in any degree to attract denominational attention to a needful object, or


if

the matter

of
are

it

confirm any reader in those

vital

truths which

now

so rudely assailed from unexi)ected (juarters,

the writer will be abundantly rewarded.

In conducting the argument of the Lecture


it

itself,

will

be seen that no one author has been selected


It

Take

heed, and beware of the leaven oi the Pharisees and


of the Sadducees.'

for special animadversion.

has been judged better

Matt.

xvi. 6.

to deal in general principles,


to be
its

and

to leave the truth

own

HE

history of the

human

race, considis

witness.

ered as a religious development,


/Memfter 1862.
history^

the

of a struggle on the part of Un-

belief

and Superstition against each


which
is

other, or against that divine form of religion

appointed to supplant both.

Man

is

inexplicable,
afford

on any system of philosophy which does not


large
in

room

for
;

the working of a religious element

his

being

an element which, never long dor-

mant,

may

at

any time awake, and awe into subjec-

tion all the other principles of his nature. There cannot be a greater misconception of Christianity than to imagine that for the first time it introduces

the religious principle into the history of the race,

or the experience of the individual, and invests

it

with

authority.

There

is

belief in

the

super-

etc
c

<
f I

t
:

On Rcrnamsnt tn<i^Rational{s7n

as opposed to P7i7x Christianity.


was no longer known, and even
known,
if

natural; a
either
tion
is

I'iiitn

in

Aings inseen and


;

future before
revela-

He

had been

Moses or Christ
not to create
in

and the design of

He

would not have been loved through the

man

a religious nature, but

hardening influence of transgression,


tating eflect of penalties

and the

irri-

to rectify

and control

that

religious

nature which

upon
in

a disobedient nature.

the Fall has not destroyed, but only perverted and


cast loose

But the religious principle


as ever,

man remained
and
fear,

active

from

its

true centre.

The

religious ten-

and the

results of its operation,

under the
were the
theories

dencies and workings of fallen humanity may all be comprised under the one name of Superstition.^.
very unhappy nam.e, as
thing
if
it

twofold influence

of darkness

manifold forms of ancient idolatry.

Many

throws no light upon the


significant to us

have been framed to account


atry,

for the origin of idol-

itself,

but which
it

may become
its

such as these
they
;

that the gods were deified

men

we

regard

by a play upon

Latin etymology,
sur-

that

were personifications of the powers of

as denoting the

wreck of religion which has


Before
the
Fall,

nature
fancy.

or that they were the creations of a poetical

vived

the

Fall.

man's religious
'S

These theories are


This makes

all

radically worthless,

nature and tendencies rested in their proper object,

a
He
The

because they overlook the working of the superstitious


principle.
it

(;od

tnily

was

in

himself,

known, and loved both and in relation to the


sin,

for

what

inevitable that

man

creature.

should have a religion, and equally inevitable, since

introduction of

being the introduction of


de.

he cannot create a
the object
'\

religion in the strict sense, that

darkness and error into man's views of CJod,


stroyed love to

of his

worship should be

the

original

Him,

as seen
Fall

in

his

own proper
the

divine character, hidden indeed by ignorance,

de-

character;

and as the

also

necessitated

based to the likeness of


inferior creatures,

man

himself,

and even of

assumption of a hostile or penal attitude on the part


of God,
it

and withal darkened and overcast


its

disturbed the flow of grateful affection

by

fear,

but everywhere preserving fragments of


its

which
love,

his benefits

had before produced.

Light and
thus

original unity, vestiges of

deep

truth,

and shadows
I

the twin princii)les of i)rimeval religion,


fear,

of

its

awful majesty.

This view, which


length,
will

cannot
the

became darkness and


man's religion
in

the presiding spirits of


state,

here

develop

at

greater

explain

his

fallen

and the chosen him

idolatries of Egypt, of India,


classic

and the

East, of the

agencies whereby the dominion usurped over by the Tempter was confirmed. The true

nations of Greece and

Rome, and

likewise

God

the paganism of the Teutonic races, as so

many

mis-

On Romanism and Rationalism


and distorted
faith

as opposed
one
of
his

to

Pure

Christianity,

readings
aboriginal

reminiscences

of

the

successors, in relation to the

Greek paganism,
still

of humanity.

The

institutions

and of other philosophers who flourished


in

later

priesthood and sacrifice, and the

rites

of lustration
re-

the decline of the

Roman

Empire.
is

The lower
superin the
faith

and

purification,

which,

of course,

cannot be

unbelief again attacks even what


stition,
its

true in

ferred to man's religion before the Fall, are probably to be traced to the usages

fear,

its

sense of

guilt,

its
;

CJod

after the

Fall,

of worship appointed by which were practised by the

operation of unseen avenging powers


to retain

and not
in the

liking

God

in

its

knowledge, even

dwarfed
seeks
in-

founders of different nations according to tradition,

and degraded representations of


to

superstition,

and then handed down


misunderstood,

to their descendants to bJ

explode

all

faith

in

his

living

agency and

depraved,

and caricatured

fluential
in

connexion with men.


if

Such was the unthe rationalism,

the
belief,
or,

growing darkness.
reign of superstition the prevailing feature in the religious history of
nations.

you

will

again,

only
his

The development and

darker
i.^

and

more

ungenial,

of Epicurus

and

school, of the sceptics,


all

and of many eminent perin

But there gradually arises there exists in fact from the beginning an antagonist influence by which superstition is limited and
held
in

sons,

such as the elder Pliny,

the later ages of

ancient heathenism.

check.

This struggle between


side,

superstition

on

the

one

This

is

Unbelief

It

manifests
is

itself in

two

and
I

unbelief,

in

its

two forms, on the other,


field

ver>'

different forms.

There
false in

a higher unbelief which


;

which

have alluded to as waged on the

of

attacks what

is

superstition
is

and a lower

Greek and

Roman
the

paganism, has been carried on

unbelief which attacks what

true.

The

higher
itself

more or
is

less in

every false religion under heaven.

an
the

effort

of the religious principle to purify


It

by

Sometimes
.

one

side

has

triumphed,

some-

employment of reason.

*v

lays

open the incon-

times the other.

In the classical world, the pre-

sistency of the creed, of the rites,

and of the
deeper

cere-

valence of literature, on the whole, gave the victory


to unbelief,

monial of
principles

superstition

with
is

the

religious

and

this also
;

has been the case with the

on which

it

itself

based, and attempts

modem
serious
I)ugners.

Chinese

whereas the Hindoo system of


its

a religious reform by abridgment, or simplification,


or refinement of the vulgar faith.
belief, or, if

superstition

has kept

ground both against the


its

Such was the un-

and frivolous rationalism of


In
the

native imas
is

you

will,

the rationalism of Socrates and

Mahometan

religion,

well

On Romanism and Rationalism

as opposed

to

Pure

Clu^istianity.

known, there has been the same opposition of the devotees and the freethinkers, though the latter have
always been
Jews,
in

rested solely on tradition, has

done the work of the


irreli-

lower unbelief, and led the way to absolute


gion.

the minority.

Among

the ancient

Then

again, after a triumph of this kind

more

when

superstition,

adding to and corrupting


overlaid and
dis-

or less

extended, superstition has revived through

a divine

but
the

imperfect religion, had

the inherent necessity of satisfying in


the
religious

some shape

buried

it,

same

conflict arose

between the

principle

and by a natural reaction


it

ciples of superstition,

the Pharisees, and the leaders


;

against

the previous indifference,


fantastic,

has revived in
or

of unbelief, the Sadducees

of the latter of

whom we

form more

more

degrading,

more

and had the same keen sense of the errors of tradition which is displayed by the modern Karaites in rejecting the
Talmud.

cannot but believe that some at least were actuated, by higher than mere sceptical motives,

bloody than before.


voked, and the result
is

New

conflicts

are thus pro-

that superstition, frequently

wounded and sometimes slain and buried, puts forth more revolting excrescences in place of its lost members, or rises from the dead to perform more strange
and portentous
antics than ever

One

of

the

most melancholy features

in

this
reli-

upon

its

fresh grave.

struggle of superstition

and unbelief among the

In the midst of this

downward progress of

the an-

gions of nature,
series

is

the total impossibility,

by any

cient world, with a frivolous unbelief ever

becoming

of such collisions and reactions, of restoring

more impious, a generous unbelief ever more melancholy and despairing, and a superstition sitting over
against both, and, like the priests of Baal, invoking
its

the true knowledge


rationalism

and worship of
this

(Jod.

Before
nations,

could

effect

among such
:

two things would be necessar>'


stitious

first,

that a super-

gods with more fanatical


the great

cries

and barbarous

system should contain at least all the elements of the true religion, and then that reason should be able to separate these unerringly from
the

lacerations,
.'V

remedy was introduced, and


course.

the religion of Jesus, in the midnight of the world's


spiritual history,

began

its

'i

The

gospel was at

corrupt

admixtures

by which they were


is

overiaid.

once a perfect republication of the


the religion of

original religion

Kach of these conditions


and
it

manifestly imj)ossible,

man

as a creature

and was a

final de-

has even been found that the higher ration

velopment of the religion of mediation

the
;

religion of

alism,

however

justly applied,

by shaking the

faith

man as a sinner.

P^verything that was precious

among

of the vulgar

in religious

notions and practices which


vV\

the relics of superstition was preserved

while the

On Romanism and

Rationalism
human
heart for desupersti-

as opposed to
healing properties
Christian world,
;

Pnrc

Christianity.

yearnings and longings of the


liverance from sin and return to
tion could never meet,

and the history of the

so-called

God, which

is

mainly the histoiy of the joint

were gloriously

satisfied.

The

incarnate

Ood

attacks of superstition and unbelief


just as the history of the

upon

Christianity;
is

at

once revealed and reconciled the


the truth,

Father; and
life
;

world before Christ

the

became the way,

and the

history of their attacks


test

on one another.
anv

In this contruth

the Light of the nations, the universal guide of

we cannot allow we were

that either has

the erring into the paths of peace.

on

its

The moral
;

basis

side, as

willing, nay,

of superstition

bound

to do, before the

was thus taken away

and,

at

the

same
in

advent of the gospel.

P>ery true religious want of


;

time, while everything that

was well founded

man

is

met by Christianity

and there

the earlier unbelief was conceded, yet such was

superstition to enlarge with

its

is no room for human and incongruous

the

evidence,

both

external

and

internal,
it

of the
I

additions.

Every part of Christianity

is

divinely

divinity of the religion of Christ which


it

brought with
all

authenticated and symmetrically coherent, meeting

into the world, that scepticism also lost

rational

some
with

religious
its

want

and there

is

no room

for unbelief

foundation.
if,

Happy would

it

have been

for

mankind

when

negative criticisms and mutilations to take

the darkness thus i)as.sed

light shone, all

away and the true had been willing to walk in it and to


with

any part away.


superstition
as both

Hence we

shall unhesitatingly regard


in relation to Christianity,
;

and unbelief,

continue

in

it,

persuaded of the divine origin of Chrisits

perverted

manifestations

the

one being
fear
;

tianity, satisfied

simple method of reconcilia-

more the perversion of the heart through


other, the perversion

the

tion to (^od through the incarnation

and

sacrifice of
less,

His own Son


aiming
at

of the understanding through

and while contented with nothing

pride

and without going here into any more refined


and tendency,
shall

nothing more, than to pay the grateful debt of obedience to the God of redemption, and to walk
in the exercise

analysis of their nature

speak of

them as while both


yet mistaking
it

radically mistaking Christianity,

of love, and the performance of


all

spiri-

in oi)posite directions, the


it

one labour-

tual rites of

worship with

the brotherhood
sanctified.

who

ing

more

to corrupt
it

by

false

appendages, the other

had been thus enlightened and


the very depravity of

But alas

to destroy
plifications.

by unauthorized curtailments and sim-

human
upon

nature for which the

And

in the

remainder of
is

this lecture,

gospel was the cure, not only hindered the action of


that gospel, but reacted
it,

the plan which

I shall

follow

to select the salient

to

deteriorate

its

aspects of Christianity as a religion, and after show-

ftjMrWWiittwMMiihwyihliiii litiilBllfMiBaBaaBiait

0)1

Romanism and Rationalism


how
every one of these aspects meets
I.

as opposed
Look, then,

to

Pure

Clmstianity.

ing in general

first, to Christianity as

a system of

want of our nature, to exhibit the operation of the two hostile influences as equally
mistaking the gospel provision for the want in question, and as abridging it by defect or overlaying it by
excess.
I shall, in this lecture,

some

essential religious

Rez'elatiofi.
LI

If anything

can be regarded as proved


history of the

beyond reasonable dispute by the


world's religions,
it

is

the necessity of

some
all

revela-

tion that should dispel the uncertainties of

honest

forbear to speak of any

inquirers respecting God's nature

and designs, and

other superstition or unbelief than wears the Christian

man's duty and destiny, and correct those deplorable


mistakes into which few will deny that superstitious

badge and name.


chiefly,

Hence my

illustrations

must

be drawn

on the one hand, from the heresies

forms of religion have


voice of God,

fallen.

of the Christian Church, these being mostly products of that unbelief which, as arising from the
false applivital

some

oracle,

Inhere must be some some heaven-descended

truth superseding all

other oracles, prophecies,

or

cation of reason in rejecting what


to Christianity,
is

is

genuine and

alleged divine communications, by bearing visibly on


its

commonly

called Rationalism; and,

front that evidence of celestial birth

which they

on the other hand, from the corruptions of the Church of Rome, which is the finished development of Superstition.

cannot produce.
tion,

Now
its

Christianity
its

is

such a revela-

proved to be divine by

indubitable miracles
style,

It

is

not a sketch which

am

to attempt

and prophecies, by
the

godlike tone and

and by
its

of the struggle of pure Christianity with open infidelity, or with such foreign superstitions as Mahome-

superhuman

greatness, depth,
it

and wisdom of

contents.
tion should

Further,

was necessary that

this revela-

tanism or

Mormonism

but of the intestine war with her

be

in

a book, and that

book complete
defi-

each series of

evils within

own

pale.
laid

and
down,
I shall

entire, other\vise there

would have been no


change

According to the scheme thus

nite standard,

and no

security against

in the

now
view

i)roceed to consider the reaction of Rationalism


Christianity, in

transmission of the divine message from age to age.

and Superstition upon


;

four points of
;

Now

the Christian Scriptures form such a book,

at-

first, as

a system of revelation
;

secojuily,

as a

tested

by

sufficient

evidence to be the genuine, un-

system of mediation
or sanctification
tual association
;

thirdly, as a

system of morality
spiri-

corrupted, unmutilated depository of such a revelation.

and, fourthly, as a system of


fellowship.

And once

more,

it

was necessary that

this

book,

and

while refusing to bend to

capable of interpretation

human reason, should be by human reason, and that

On

Ro7na7iism

and Rationalism
with

as opposed to

Pure

Christianity.

of every individual man, as a message from God to him, for the understanding and right use of which he alone was responsible and such a book the Bible is,
;

some of our English


America
;

Unitarians, as well as with

their brethren in

and

it

almost seems as

if

asserting
its

its

own

the disciples of Priestley and Channing, who, whatever


their other shortcomings, at lea.st held Jesus for the

absolute
all

infallibility,
'

and yet leaving

interpretation to
read.'

who

seek out the law of the

Lord and

divinely-inspired prophet of immortality

and some-

supernatural communication, a
:

perfect canon, a self-interpreting Bible


to be the three great wants of
lation,
fully

thing more, were about to discard their old teachers,

these seem

and

to regard

the Saviour as divested not only of

man

in

regard to reve-

which Christianity, as a system of revelation, meets and satisfies.


at

divinity,
least

but

of divinely-enlightened

humanity,
in

at

humanity divinely enlightened

any other

Look, now,
Superstition

sense than were Socrates and Plato, or the idols of


the
in

way

in

which Rationalism and


dealt

have

modem

hero-worship, whose
in
is

names

shrink from

turn

with

these

three

pronouncing
heaven, and

conjunction with His

who comes from


and
in certain

foun(lation-i)rinciples of Christianity as a revelation.

Rationalism, even within the Church, has advanced so far as to deny that Christianity is a communication from (;od in any supernatural sense
at
all.

above

all.

While Rationalism has only


(juarters,

lately,

among which

grieve to have to speak of


to cast off altoit

1\,

this startling length

the

Church of England, proceeded


and

the divines of Geniiany, com-

called Rationalistic, while professing to believe Chri.stianity as from Cod, have, for more than half a century, now gone. It is the first time, so far as I am aware, in the history of Christianity, that such a denial has been connected with the Christian profession ; and that alleged disciples of Jesus

monly

gether the supernatural claims of Christianity,


long,
in

has

many

directions,

endeavoured to shake
all its

the authority of the received Bible as in

parts

an authentic record and perfect canon.


enter into details on this subject.
ing, for
it

I shall

not

Generally speak-

would be uncandid to make the assertion

and

his

apostles have maintained that he and they only spoke God's name as Zoroaster or Mahomet, or any other person of strong natural religious
in

universal, the denial of the canonical authority of certain parts of the Bible has

sprung from a reluctance


to

to accept their testimony

doctrines opposed

to

temperament
in-

and

sensibilities.

Rationalism.

Thus, as the Sadducees of old rejected

This denial of

all

miraculous

fluence at the birth of Christianity has found favour

the books posterior to those of Moses, because they

taught the doctrine of a future

life,

so the Ebionites of

20

On Romanism and Rationalis7n


own
is

as opposed
language.

to

Pui'c Clwistianity,
is

the second century disowned the opening chapters of

Matthew and Luke because they taught our Lord's


miraculous conception, which these reHgionists denied and nothing has been more common than for
;

What

supernatural and mysterious


testi-

in

danger of being explained away, and the

mony

of the Creator adjusted to the preconceived

notions of his creatures.

Thus how

often has

it

the so-called

Rational divines of Ciermany, though

been attempted even by Christian divines


the
fall

to explain

here there have been honourable exceptions, to set


aside books from the

of

man

as an allegory,
;

and the temptation of

canon

in the face

of

all

evidence,

our Lord as a vision

to account for the miracles of

because destructive of their tenets, just as a jur)man


is

Moses,

at least the

passage of the
in

Red

Sea,

and the

summarily challenged by a counsel because

sus-

descent of the
ciples
;

manna
resolve

the desert, on natural prin-

pected of an adverse leaning.


happily, Luther set an

Of

this practice, un-

and

to

such moral miracles as the

example

in rejecting
it

the epistle

conversion of Paul into the reaction of the mind from

of James, because he falsely supposed


sistent with justification

to

be incon-

one extreme
that

to the other.

It

is

matter of notorietv
in (Ger-

by grace

and

this

unwarrant-

eminent professors of Christian theology


after their kind,

able act of his in this department, like the burning

many, sincere

have represented our


a swoon
Ironi

of Servetus by Calvin, has drawn after


of
evils, his

it

a long train

Lord's death on the

cross
in

as only

name being employed

to sanction

on the

which he recovered
in

the grave, and that otiiers,

Continent such wanton ejection of books and parts


of books from the sacred Scriptures, as Luther would

some

respects

orthodox,

have

endeavoured
credible

to

render his

mighty works
to

more

by

sup-

have been the

last to

rank within the bounds of

fair

posing him
gift

be endowed with an extraordinary


magnetism.

inquiry and historical criticism.

of animal

Some

j^rophecies

arc
re-

But Rationalism not only denies the inspired authority

admitted to deserve the name, but others are


jected as recjuiring too great a strain on faith
;

of the Scriptures in general, or mutilates and

and
like

abridges

them by

false

j)rocesses

of criticism

it

everywhere the mental habit of these divines,


a spring pressed down, tends to throw
revelation externally cast
oft'

exalts reason to a place in the interpretation of

what

the load of
of

remains and
sistent with

is

acknowledged

to

be authentic, inconIf the


is

upon

it.

As an example

submission to the mind of (iod.


or

how

the peculiar doctrines of the Bible are likewise


it

starting-point

elementary

idea

of

revelation

diluted or rejected,

denied,

it is

not easy to allow the Bible to speak

its

eminent writer

De

Wette,

may be mentioned that the who latterly recoiled from


B

y<r!%i

22

On

Roma7iis7n aiid Rationalism


maintains that there can be no
is

as opposed to

Pure

Christianity,

23

his earlier extremes,

strained and unnatural constructions ever put by special pleaders


it,

atonement, because the Prodigal Son


as received without

represented

upon human laws have,


in

grieve to say
is

any

though he might quite as

been exceeded
called
still

these interpretations of what

well have maintained from that i)arab]e, that

men
at

reall.

still

the

Word

of

Cod
this

and the Christian

turn to (;od without any solicitation from

Him

Church
which

suffers
literal

from

refusal to accept the

So

is

it

with other doctrines


;

Satan

is

an oriental

ordinary and

meaning of Scripture as

that

metaphor

the Spirit of
;

God

is

a personification

and

God

intended,

when he made

use of

human
all

not a person

and

sin

is

a necessary transition from

language, and directed his inspired agents to use


plainness of speech.
If

a lower to a higher moral state, which,

when

it

has

served
all

its

purpose, shall be done away by Christ in

we now

turn from this misuse of die revealed

creatures.

Thus what we regard

as the plainest

Word, we

shall see

how

widely superstition has erred


If Rationalism leaves only a
in

doctrines of the

Bible are overruled

and counter-

on the opposite

side.

checked by violent inten)retation. Rationalism, for the most part, does not dare to say That is the Bible doctrine, and it is absurd for this is the watchword
'
;'

minimum
of

of inspiration, superstition
affords a sur|)lus.
far as Scripture

the

Church

Rome

The
is

fatal

error of that
in

Church, so

concerned, conssts

of

infidelity,

though even here Rationalism and


lately

infi-

claiming for the Church in

all

ages that inspiration

delity
'

have

shaken hands.
it

It

generally says,
;'

which only belonged to the days of prophets and


apostles.
site to

If that

were the Bible doctrine


it

would be absurd

Hence,

three signal mistakes exactly oppoYox^first^ the inspired


its

and then

proceeds to torture the plain language, to read between the lines, and to look at all the peculiarities

those of Rationalism.

Bible

is

received not on the ground of

own

sui)er-

of Christianity with the diminishing end of


until

natural evidence, but because the


it

Church vouches Church

for
in

mountains become moie-hills and the only remaining wonder is, that strains so
magnilo(iucnt should
to
l)e

the telescope,

as the

Word

of (Jod.

And
it

scavidly, the

the exercise of this usur|)ed |)ower has seriously cor-

employed by sacred

writers
re-

rupted the Bible which


to
all
it

professes to guard, adding

adorn such feebleness and commonplace as mains when the rugged grandeur of revelation
vanished.

the legends of the Apocryi)ha, and sanctioning

has

the errors and mistranslations of the Vulgate as

On

this subject a

volume might be

written,

of equal value with the original, and further exalting


to a

and

it

would be a very melancholy one.

The most

co-ordinate

rank

with

the

written

Word

the

24

On Romanisvt and Rationalism


in

as opposed to
(rod.

Pnrc

Christianity,
for

25
in

whole mass of tradition as floating


usage, or as
that the
infinite,

ecclesiasticaf

There

is

no remedy

these evils

the

embmlied

in

the canons of councils, sa


is

struggle of

Rationalism
will

and Superstition

w^ith

one

Romanist Bible

voluminous, unfixed, and


'}

another.

They

never compromise their

differ-

comparable almost
is

to a Serbonian

bog, in

ences

in

a just assent to the claims of the Bible as

which the true Scripture

dragged down and sunk,


to

the middle term between them.


in other

That

just assent

by the leaden and


attached.

eanhy matters
the

which

it

is

words. Christian faith


;

can only come from


God be poured

And

tliirMy,

Church denies

to this

a higher region

and

till

the Spirit of

Bible, thus placed


falsely

on a wrong foundation, and thus enlarged, all power of self-interpretation, and


and even her
it,

out to enlighten

men

in their

need of a message from

heaven, and to open their eyes to the claims of the

refuses to her laity

inferior clergy all

pure unadulterated Word, so long

will

Rationalism
sides,

unfettered liberty to read

and much more

to

judge

and

Superstition pass the Bible


it

by on opposite

of

its

meaning
oracle in

for themselves, reserving to the infal-

or only appeal to

to confirm the dictates of reason,

lible

the

Church, wherever that may be


determining
its

or to strengthen the foregone conclusions of authority.

situated, the exclusive ix)wer of

sense,

There

is this

point of accordance in their ap-

unbound by any
defence.
stition,

rules or principles of ordinar>^ interself-

parent conflicts
to the divine,

a common preference of the human


it

pretation which they are competent to apply in


It

and

would be

to take

an unphiloso-

thus appears that Rationalism and super-

phical view of

human

nature to imagine that these

starting

from diametrically opposite

i)oints,

forces will ever neutralize each other, like the height

tend to almost the same result so far as the


of revelation
i.s,

.strict

idea

of one wave and the hollow^ of another, so as to leave

is

concerned.
is

The

last

word of the one


last

a smooth sea whereon the bark of revelation may


glide along to convey
its

" 'I'he Bible


is,
''

not wanted f the


is

word of the
Both agree

heaven-sent treasures.

other

'I'he
its
it

Bible

not sufticient."
its

denying

authority,

perfection,

and
;

its

use.
I

Both invest
retract the
it

with the honours of royalty


it

and then

II. The second aspect of })ure Christianity in which now proceed to consider the joint effects of Rait,

homage, while they smite


its

and lacerate
it,

tionalism and Superstition upon

is is

as a system of

and pierce

most

sensitive organs, leaving

in-

Mediation.
Christianity.
l)v

The
'

mediatorial scheme

the essence of

deed, the

name

of a revelation, but denying


final

it

the

No man cometh
is

unto the Father but

reverence due to a

and conclusive message from

me/

To

us 'there

one Cod, and one Mediator

26

On Romanism and Ratmialism


God and men,
the

as opposed to

Pure

Christiaiiity,
threefold

27

t)etvveen

man
in

Christ Jesus.'

The
is

m&

cation

this is

the glorious

cord of the

deep-felt

want of mediation

the

human

breast is

Bible system of mediation.

Observe now how Ra-

written on the history of

all false religions,

and

the

tionalism loosens the fibres of that cord, and


Superstition, seeking to incorporate
fresh threads with them, their texture.
in eftect

how

great truth which they


intercessors,

all

embody.

Priests, sacrifices,

and interweave
e(iually destroys

solemn

rites

of prayer by selected indiviall

duals holier than their fellows, are

due

to this felt

And

first

of Rationalism.

derangement of man's relations to God, and are an


imperfect kind of
the neetl of
ity.
it

Rationalism denies and eliminates from the Bible


the true and proper basis of mediation

mediation a deep confession of


from the inmost heart of humansaid without

the divinity
forms of the

rising
it

of the Mediator.

Hence

result all the

Perhaps

may be

})resumption,
if it

Arian heresy, as

this prevailed in the fourth


;

and

fifth

that

no revelation would meet man's need,

did

centuries in the ancient churches

in the

beginning
in

not provide three things: a genuine scheme of mediation, a

of the eighteenth century in


;

England, both

the

scheme

visibly complete,

and a scheme

easily

Church and among Dissenters and on the Continent,


in

available.

These three

(qualifications
is

are united in

France, Germany, and Holland, to our


is

own

times.

the Bible system.

There

a genuine mediation by

Socinianism
mises,

but the logical result of the Arian preto Scripture,

the incarnation of the

Son of (k)d as God's delegate


There
is

and hardly does more violence


it

and man's
and

representative.

a visible com-

while

pays more homage to reason.

The modes
ecjually con-

I)leteness in his

work

as Mediator, for his

obedience

of belief which corrupt the great doctrine of the In-

sufferings stand in relation to (lod as a full

and

carnation are mnumeral)le.


rtict
it

But they

all

perfect sacrifice
is

and atonement, the

eflicacy of

which
as

with mediation in the true and proper sense.

\{

no

mystery-, but obviously rests

on

his dignity

be not

God

himself that has laid hold of humanity


is

(iod,

imparting to

his

righteousness

an
is

unlimited
the most
for

in the

person of Christ, the gulf


is

not overleaped.
is

vvorth for

man's redemption.

And

there

There

a show of mediation

but there

after all
for

direct availableness of this

work of the Mediator


it

nothing but higher creatures exerting themselves


lower,
either

acceptance with (lod, inasmuch as


the sinner,

is

the /?//// of

and they do not

efiectually

lay

their

hand

and not any more

difiicult

recjuirement

on the offended Ciod or the offending

sinner.

which

is

laid

down

as the

means of justification.

An

Further^ Rationalism destroys the visible completeness of Christ's mediation by mutilating the Scripture

incarnate (lod, a perfect righteousness, a free

justifi-

2^

On Romanism and Ratioiialism


This has been done
Either the atonement
in
is

as opposed to
a
in

Pure

Christianity,

29

doctrine of atonement.
great variety of ways.

author, there
its results.

is

no coherence between His work and

substance denied, and then Christ is a mere prophet or king, a sufferer but not an atoner, which is the

common

Socinian doctrine

or the atonement

is re-

The third essential property of the Bible scheme of mediation, as not only genuine and visibly complete, but likewise easily available, is also compromised by
a Rationalistic theology.
free justification,

presented as a display simply of love without any vindication of justice, which is the view of the German
divine Schleiermacher

Instead of immediate and on the ground of the atonement and

and

his followers,
;

and of Mr.
regarded
Cxod's
visible

righteousness of the Mediator, Rationalism brings in

Maurice and others among ourselves or


as a suffering for sinners accei)ted for

it is

more

difficult,
it

and, indeed, impracticable conditions.


;

them by
any

For grace,

substitutes merit
it

for faith,

works

mere good
reason
for

and

will
its

and

pleasure,

without

the less that


it

gives to the Mediator the

more does

employment, the opinion of many


last century.

ascribe to the sinner; either the performance of the

Knglish divines of the


that
in

Now,

it is

obvious

duties of a mitigated law, which Christ has died to


lower, or sincere obedience to the law as the means of being benefited by the work of Christ, or at least

all these cases, the essential property of atonement, the bearing of i)enal displeasure against

sin ])y a substitute qualified to bear it, is left out and not less the rendering of honour to the law by the
;

the

exertion
its

of faith as a meritorious work, which


virtue justifies the soul.

from

own

Thus
all

the avail-

obedience of such a substitute. The doctrine of a moral adaptation in the sufferings and obedience of
a divine person,

who

acts as a substitute for sinners,

from the beginning, and as requiring only a simple act of reliance to place every believer under its gracious
shadow,
is

ableness of Christ's mediation as open to

to lay the foundation of their escape

from wrath and


;

fatally interfered with

and the

essential

admission to
thus there
is

glor>-, is

repudiated or slurred over

and

freeness of justification, the living pulse of the apostolic Christianity,

no

visible

completeness
for

in the

Mediator's

and the

vital
is

breath of the revived

work,

no point of repose

a guilty conscience,
'

gospel of the Reformation,

nothing to justify the cry of victory on the cross,


is

so clogged and pressed

It

down by
the gosi)el

the dead weight of self-righteousness, that

finished

!'

or to

make

the

way
is

into the holiest of

becomes another

gospel,

all

more

and ceases

to

be

manifest.

Christ

the herald of reconit


;

the gospel of Christ.

ciliation,

but not the author of

or

if

the nominal

So much

for the blindness of

Rationalism to

all

that

JO
is

On

Ro7na7t{sm

and Ratmialism
in

as opposed to
expressed

Piux

Christianity,
to the

distinctive

and glorious
its

the gospel
its

scheme of
its

in the place assigned

priesthood.

mediation, as regards

basis,

essence, and

The
God,

felt

need of something human between

man and

mode
grand

of being turned to account.

Not

less injuri-

in addition to the

humanity of Jesus, obviously

ously does Superstition misconstrue and pervert this system. It cannot be said, indeed, that

discredits that humanity,

and thus

militates against

the true faith of the incarnation.

as the type of other superstitions, denies and sets aside in express words, the Mediator, any more than it denies and sets aside the Bible. Hut with its
all

Romanism, which may here be taken

Not
tor's

less

is

the visible completeness of the Media-

work

imi)erilled
I

and

vitally injured

by Romish

superstition.

need not dwell on a subject so well

uniform

fatal

ten-

known

as the so-called sacrifice of the Mass.


I

The

dency

to

add and su|)plement,

it

obscures and virtually

other mis-shapen features of that tenet

shall not

nullifies the

essence of Christianity.
in the entire

There

\<^

first,

touch on.

only remark that the doctrine of Tran-

fundamental doubt

Romish system of

the

substantiation,

which

is

so far a counterfeit of the

Kmuineriess of Christ's mediation, a doubt opposite to


that of Rationalism
;

mystery of the Incarnation, visibly imports that that


incarnation once for
offering
sacrifice
all

for while

Rationalism explains
mistrusts his
saints,

was not complete; and

that the

away the Saviours

divinity,

Romanism

up of
by a

this transubstantiated Christ in alleged

humanity, and introduces the Virgin, the

and

self-styled priesthood, as visibly imports

even the angels, as nearer and more familiar mediators than Christ, which would be utterly impossible if
the

that his offering of himself

on the cross once

for all
repeti-

was no valid and conclusive atonement.


tion of the sacrifice as

The

doctrine of his true

manhood were
IJible

held

in

its

fresh

under Judaism

is

a confession

simplicity, according to the

representations of

of

its

incompetency

and the so-called elevation of


is

the incarnation,
tion thus

'i'he

deepest principle of supersti;

the Saviour in the host

thus in truth his deepest


also, as the

comes

to

light distrust of Cod

and hence

degradation.

His righteousness
is

ground

(rodhead coming near in Christ arrayed in the living and wami attractions of human love is disbelieved

of justification,
to

fatally

trenched on by the ascription


merit, such as the

the

Church of a treasury of
;

and recoiled from, and the natural heart


l)reak the awful distance,
torial

still

seeks to

supererogatory works of saints


the sacrificial repetition, or
I

and

thus, partly

by

by throwing

in

other media-

had almost said travesty

agents at successive intervals.

On

another side
is

of His

own work, and

partly

by the juxtaposition of the


the glorious

the

same doubt of the genuineness of mediation

works of creatures with

his,

complete-

32

On Romanism and Rationalism


tion
;'

as opposed to
the Romanist,
'

Pure
Man

Christianity.
suffer

i^i^

ness of his divine atonement and obedience, as the essence of mediation and the basis of hope, is almost as entirely hid from view as in the systems of

must

for himself
is

ere

he

can be

saved.'

The

basis
;

of the one

Rationahsm.

groundless confidence before


other
is

God

the basis of the


;

Not
the

less mournfully,

perhaps even more

groundless fear before him

but they alike

so,

is

the

availablcuess of Christ's

displace God's
tute for
it,

Church of Rome.
is

mediation compromised in Something of the nature of a


recjuired
;

own scheme
more

of mediation, and substi-

as a

effectual expedient, the efforts

personal atonement

or the sufferings of

man

himself, thus recalling the

in

order to be

in-

terested in that of Christ

weak and beggarly elements of


sede and sweep away.

penance,

i)aganism, which the


suj)er-

fasts, austerities,

bead-rolls of prayer here, and purgatorial fires hereafter. Further, justification is adjourned to a distant day, until the sinner be advanced in goodness
;

appearance of Christ was designed for ever to

and

must first come Church before he can reach the Saviour and he can obtain the seed of grace which will grow up and issue in his justification through her
to the
;

order to afford the possibility of a beginning and continuance of this development he


in

^1^

III.

now proceed
still

to speak of Christianity in the

tJiird j)lace as

a system of Morality, and shall endea-

vour to be
heads.
is

more

brief than

under the foregoing

What man

needs, and what the Bible presents,

a system of morality which shall begin with ade-

sacramental

rites alone.

The most
utterly
is

(luate correctives to

man's

felt

depravity, which shall

superficial observer
this

can

dis-

cern

how

destructive

supply

irresistible

motives to obedience, and which


standard of excellence.
is

legal

and
:

ritual

justification
will

of the free grace of the gosi)el and notice how extremes meet the Rationalist re-

shall present a perfect rule or

coiling from the cross as needless,

The grand agent by whom depravity is corrected the Holy Spirit. The grand motive to obedience
the love of Christ.

is

and falling back on good works as his hope, the Romanist turning back from it as insufficient, and alighting

The grand

rule of perfection

is

the

moral law, enjoining supreme love to


><s^
1^

God and

e(}ual

same makeshift, which


our blinded nature.

is,

ui)on the indeed, the only resource of


into

love

to

man.

None

of these

grand principles of

Heathenism thus returns

evangelical Christianity but has suffered sore


at the

damage
and

Christianity under two kindred forms.


ist

hands both of Rationalism and Superstition.


I

The

Rationalsalva-

says,

Man

must obey God

Here

shall look at their effects simultaneously,

for his

own

not, as before, in succession.

34
The

On Romanism and Rationalism


influence of the

as opposed to
with regard to Christ.

Pure

Christianity.
is

Holy

Spirit as the only source

And

the result here

the

same
mass

of regenerate character, the only adequate corrective


of man's fallen tendencies, has been almost universally

as there, for superstition grasping at too

much

secures

nothing

and as the bloodless

sacrifice of the
its

denied or overlooked by a Rationalistic Christianity.


It

has no power to take away

sins, as

own

repetition

was so

in

the Pelagianism of the fourth century;

and

shows, so the regeneration of water has no power to

in that

period of English Church history which preceded

change the

heart, as the

absence of external

fruits,

Methodism, and of Scottish Church history known by


the

name

of Moderate, the same dei)lorable omission

and even the apostasy of persons thus regenerated notoriously testifies; and thus the likeliest eftect of the
o/>/^s

very generally })revailed.

The

Christian virtues were


;

opera turn, the legerdemain of the spiritual magiis

expected to grow upon the stock of nature

and any

cian,
It
is

to seal

up

its

subjects in unregenerate security.

change corresponding to the Bible ideas of conversion, such as a

hard to say whether a regeneration disclaimed

new

birth, a

new

creation, a resurrecin the


last

tion

from the dead, was decried as

degree

Superstition,
Christianity.

by Rationalism, or a regeneration materialized by is the most injurious misreading of pure

mystical, enthusiastic,

and

fanatical.

Now

this Bible

mystery which Rationalism then sought to cut away,

other sacraments of the Church of


the grace of the

The same remarks apply to all the Rome, in which


Holy
Spirit,

Romanism The need


Church
:

has unnaturally overlaid and exaggerated.


of such

admitted in words,

is

a change
it

is

not denied in that

ignored in practice, and a meaningless external cere-

on the contrary
it

is

insisted

on

but then

mony

called a sacrament, which renews nothing, coris

unhappily

is

bound and

tied

down

to the

outward
;

rects nothing,

dignitied with the

name of a channel

forms of the Church, more

esi)ecially

to baptism
is

of sanctification.
'.."J^.

and the dogma of baptismal regeneration


It is

the result.

The

influences of the Spirit, in their genuine sense,


its

not saying too


its

much

to affirm that this doctrine


for

1--

being thus al)slracted from Christianity,


holitiess fare

motives to

in all

parts,

which arrogates

an ai)ostolicallv
transmit

no

better.

The grand and stupendous


'

descended priesthood the ])Ower


the

infiillibly to
is

motive of gratitude which runs through the whole


Bible,

Holy Ghost by external channels,

as injurious

and

is

expressed in the words,


loved
us,'

We

love him,

a claim with regard to that blessed agent as the profession to transubstantiate bread

and wine

into the
is

m
'v. -'..!.

>X
r

because he
in

first

has almost no place, either


Rationalistic Chrisvirtue, the

.-

*>

Rationalism or Romanism.

body and blood,

soul

and

divinitv of the Saviour

.^^,
-

A
J.

tianity

can only expatiate on the dignity of

mi
.=M

1
f',">'-

-'

36

On Roma7iism and

Rationalism

as opposed
with a holy

to

Ptn^c Christianity,

37

prospect of reward, the certainty of punishment, and


other weak and inefficient commonplaces of pagan
ethics, or at best

God

in these exercises, their effect, so far


all

from being sanctifying, as

experience tesdfies,

is

borrow some gleams of

light

and

demoralizing, and relaxes even the hold of the other

warmth from the example and human sympathy of the


Saviour, which shed over the wintry scene
better than the

motives which

Romanism

still

retains.
at the influence of the

nothing

Look now
two
tianity.

here once

more

glow of a December sun, and cannot


While, on the other

false principles

on the moral standard of Chrisof rationalized


Christianity

break up

its

frost-bound rigours.

The tendency
to

hand, Romanism, though admitting the Saviour's work

has always been to bend the rigidity of the law into

on the

cross,

and even

in

its

hymns

celebrating his

accommodation
dox

love, ])laces its votaries at such a distance

from

its

that those divines

human weakness. It is no parawho have most exalted morality


Christianity,

warm
rites

breath, behind the

freezing barrier of

Church

as the alpha

and omega of

have taught a

and works of righteousness, that the impression


is

lower morality than the fanatics and enthusiasts

who

of gratitude
speedily
terrors

too faint to melt the heart, and

is

drew

their insi)iration

from the

cross.

The

duties of

overcome by the

severities of penance, the

of purgator)', and the

gloom of judgment,

man man

to to

which speak a j)ardon not yet bestowed, a heaven


not yet opened up by the shedding of Christ's blood.

systems

man have been exalted, while the duties of Cod have been forgotten and these moral have decided many questions of casuistry
;

with a dangerous laxness, which would have been

The
ence.

fatal
is

postponement of justification

in

the

Romish

impossible under the light of that awful revelation

system

destructive of grateful and childlike obediall

which comes from Calvar)% and under the prompting


of that finer moral instinct which
is

We
;

know what

l.uther

and others made of


this rci^ime of

formed

in the soul

the keeping of the law,

when under

by the indwelling of the


presents, at
first

Holy

Spirit.

Romanism

bondage
ist's

and

it

must be affirmed that the Rationallegal terror, are

sight,

a totally opposite spectacle.

legal hope,

and the Romanist's

There
all
it,

is

in this religion
flesh,

an apparent renunciation of

e([ually destructive of the loving, confiding impulses

terms with the


as

and an absolute victory over

of true Christian morality.


solution, too, of the

The

confession and abturn

we

see in the whole monastic system of mortifi-

Romish Church
no

away the
Christ

cation

and seclusion from the world, together with the


celibacy, poverty,

gratitude and confidence of her


to the priesthood
;

members from
is

vows of

and obedience

and the

and as there

direct contact

entire doctrine of saindy perfection

and works of

38

On Romanis)n and Rationalism


looks
at
first

as opposed to
very

Pure

Christianity.

39

supererogation

blush

like

the

be kept with heretics, and that the interests of the

chivalry of virtue the moral law carried forward to


its

heroic and golden age.

Church are paramount


tions.

to all other laws


results

and

obliga-

But alas

we

find here,

These are the

of worldliness rather

as ever>-where else in the history of superstition, that

than of superstition.
superstition, turning

excess in one quarter implies defect in another.

Only

it

cannot be denied that


sim})le duties

The

laity the vulgar, for


is

whom no

away attention from making


virtues

such sublime standard

erected are permitted

to

self-imposed

forms,

which God
laity

to rely

on the vicarious

never made, setting up one rule for the

morality of the saints and the perfected, or more than


perfected, ones and thus the unity of the moral law, which demands perfect obedience from all, is destroyed and further, human nature, unable to sustain
; ;

and

another for the priesthood, and teaching that the perfections of

one

class in

some sense cover

the shortall

comings of anodier,

does thereby confound


religion,

right

itself at

the sublime height to which it is carried, falls back into the abyss, and, as the abuses of the monas-

moral distinctions, and opens a door to excesses and


atrocities

under the mask of

which paganism

never equalled, and which

tic

system and of enforced celibacy too well attest, the apparent victory over nature ends in a more humiliaAfter
all,

make

the annals of

Rome's
for prehis-

supremacy, and

still

more of her contests


in the

eminence, one of the darkest pages


tory of the world.

moral

ting defeat.

the higher stages of virtue in

the

Church of

Rome

are purely imaginary.


exist.
It is

Works of
IV. In a few words,
I

supererogation cannot
to

impossible to pay
;

Ood

or to

and the very

man more love than the law demands idea that God can be satisfied with less
fatal laxity into the

shall

complete

this sketch

by turning your attention

to the action of Rationalism


sys-

than perfection introduces a

and Superstition upon Christianity considered as a

whole

moral system, so that here, as

tem oi

association ox fellowship.

Christianity

is

not a

at so many other points the exaggerations of Superstition and the extenuations

religion of isolated units, but of masses.

Man's nature
is

demands
most

a social religion

and Christianity
it

of Rationalism conspire to one result.

the

I will

not, in-

social of all religions,

because

deed, charge on the superstition alone of the Church

has the noblest

of

Rome

centre of attraction, and the most glorious power of

the
find

which we
that the

melancholy perversions of morality, in the pdiiy of that Church, such as


faith
is

gathering

all

around that centre.

The
which

Bible settles

end sanctions the means, that no

three great vital questions in regard to the Christian

to

society

Who

shall

belong to

it,

is

the ques-

40

On Romanism and Rationalism


;

as opposed
its

to Picj^e Christianity. the visible

41

tion of discipline

What

shall

be the relation of
is

and

internal,

identifies

members
office or
sist
in,

Church with the

to

one another, which

the question of

invisible,

and denies

in effect that there are Christians

government; and What


which
is

their

union

shall con-

before there

the question of worship.

sincrle

is a visible Church. Hence men do not enter the visible Church because they are Christians,

will show how seriously here, as ever)^vhere, the fundamental arrangements of Christianity have

glance

but enter

it

to

sequence, there

been encroached on or subverted.

become so; and, as a necessary con is no salvation out of the pale of the
certain

Romish Church, and


Christianity

salvation

Take

to

all

who

first the question of disciplwe.

remain
efficacy

in her

requires all saved persons to make a visible profession of their Christianity by joining the Christian society, and ordains that none who appear to be saved
shall

communion, and do not obstruct the of her rites by mortal sin. The tremendous

responsibility thus resting

upon the

visible

Church,

which has

talsely

claimed to be the only birthplace

be excluded.
resting on,
invisible.

This

is

the unity of the visible Church,

of souls, instead of the nurse of souls already born from

and pre-supposing the deeper unity of the

Now

above, acting upon the fears of superstition, has led the


visible

Rationalism attacks in

many

cases
It is

Church
and

to claim such i)rerogatives as


viz., infallibility,

would
effi-

this position

of the need of a visible Church.

guarantee salvation,
cacy,

sacramental

satisfied with silent conviction,

and

recoils

from con-

exclusive

catholicity.

Otherwise
visible

there

nexion with any external society, despising forms and


positive ordinances,

might be saints beyond the pale of the


or unsaved

Church,

and exalting the

invisible at the
in all ages,

persons

left

within

it,

both of which
This
as that

expense of the

visible.

This has been,

alternatives were excluded

by the supposition.

the danger of philosophizing

Christians.

In

this

superstitious exaltation of the visible


to

Church

spirit the Unitarians, and to some extent the Friends, otherwise remote enough from them, unite and of late the Plymouth Brethren have arisen to make this
;

which

all

true Christians

must

belong,
all

soon changed

to the formula

as that
is

by which

true Christians

must be made,
a

the

first fatal

error of

Romanism,

as

watchword, and to preach the demolition of the visible Church, as every^vhere in a state of apostasy.
their

Church, an

error generated before

Romanism was
in

On

formed into a system, an error as old as Cyprian


veloped
siveness,

the other hand, the

Church of Rome, with the


and intertwine the external

the end of the third century, but which soon deitself into
its

uniform tendency of superstition to materialize everything,

full-grown Popery, with


its

its

exclu-

and

to incorporate

false uniformity,

assumption of the

42

On Romanism and Rationalism


door of communion on earth only,

as opposed

to

Pure

Christianity.

43

divine prerogative to bind and to loose, to shut and


to open, not the

what should be called by the name.

Here, again,

Romanism

exalts, and,

by

exalting, corrupts,
It
is

what

is

but what on this theory comes to the same thing, the


gate of the

essential in Church-office.

led to this extreme

kingdom of heaven.
and both miss

Thus while Rationall

by the doctrine of the

visible

Church, just developed.


all its

alism slights the visible Church, Superstition


deifies
it
;

but

its

grand ends,

The

visible

Church indeed might wield

tremenoffice-

to rally
to

dous prerogatives without having any special


bearers,

Christians together

round a

common
and
to

standard,

or

at

least

any permanent ones,


Safety,

like

display their union to the world, and to enable


to

them
love

Committee of Public
hold of what

which changed

its

mem-

watch over each other's

souls,

walk

in

bers from time to time.


is

But superstition eagerly lays


;

in so far as they are agreed.

tangible and palpable

and, as the

Take now
According
gifts,

the nearly allied question oi

office,

or the

Christian Church began with the apostles, succeeding


office-bearers were exalted to their rank
;

relation of the

members of

the

Church

to

one another.

the decent
rite

to pure Christianity office rests


is

on

spiritual
,1

form of ordination was transmuted into a magical


-

and

simply the exercise of these, with the

believed to transmit supernatural virtue, and a priest-

consent of the Christian society, for mutual edification.

hood thus arose


God,

qualified,

as the representatives of

Order and
tion to the

liberty are

harmonized

in

willing subjec-

to dispense the salvation


in

which could alone be


visible

appointment of Christ, the only head and ruler of His Church. It is the tendency of Rationalism to set aside the appointments of Christ in these
matters, to adjust

V
*

found

connexion with the

Church.

The

superstition of the multitude

was wrought upon by

representing connexion with the Church as connexion

or create

offices

according to a

with these office-bearers


the

and

as the unity ascribed to

fancied expediency, or even to hand


control

them over

to the

Church

recjuired a centre in the eyes of superstiit

of a

worldly power,

in

return

for certain

tion to

which

might cling as with a death-grasp,


partly from the misunderstood
to

apparent advantages, to the detriment or destruction


of the free self-agency of the Christian body, according to the laws of Christ.

the Bishop of

Rome,

words of our Lord


'i^

Peter,

and partly from the

The extreme

of this

is

influence of the metropolis of the world, in which he

Erastianism, and

use the word in no party sense,

had

his seat,

became

the vicar of Christ

on

earth,

and

believing that enlightened Christians everywhere desire to

that spiritual despotism

was consolidated, which made


the uppermost links in a

repudiate the thing, though they differ as to

him and

his

successors

^.

44
grand
Its

On Romanism and Rationalism


electric chain of spiritual

as opposed to

Pure

Christianity,

45

despotism which sent

tingencies guarded against,


grace.

the certain channel of

heart of every slave of superstition to the extremities of the earth, and

vibrations

through

the

To

take part in the sacrifice of the mass,

was

the beginning and middle


ship,
is

and end of Romish wor-

believed to extend also to heaven and hell and the imaginary region that lay between. 71ius while Rationalism has slighted Church office,

to perform a saving act.

And hence
is

super-

stition

employs

in this service all that


its

imposing and

and

left

it

to

gorgeous to work upon


itself

own

feelings,

and make

be tampered with by foreign powers,


despotically magnified
it,

Romanism has
it

believe

its

own

illusion.

The

religious

shadow

so as to transform

from a

of temples, with the

dim

light of tapers, the


priests, the

slow and

ministry into a saving priesthood at once subverting ; the prerogatives of Christ, and lording it over his
heritage.

measured movements of

waving of censers,

the tinkling of bells, the chanting of solemn music,

with the pealing depth of the organ, the awe-struck

Look,

finally,

to

the ^vorship of the Church, as

prostration of every knee, while the symbol of a present deity


is

exhibiting another field for the agency of these corrupting influences. Christian worship is the expression of devotional feelings to God, and the exhibition of his truth to the world in certain forms

raised

on high,

all this,

in

minds

prerites?

possessed from their infancy in favour of these

must make a strong impression on the sense and


imagination, and
the natural religious sensibilities,

appointed

by himself, so as to secure the strengthening of right principles in Christians, and the extension of them to
others.

which

is

almost certain to be mistaken for pure de-

votion, the

more

especially that

it

may

contain some

Rationalism,

little

alive to the value of such


it

better elements.

Though
too
is

the jjrayers are in an un-

worship, has tended to discourage

by the coldness
fer-

known

tongue,

it

looked on as sacred and the


;

of

its

tone, has frowned

upon

its

frequency and
its

tongue of the whole Catholic Church


as they are

and, muttered

vour,

and

in

some

cases mutilated

parts

as, for

and inaudible

to the ear of the worshi})per,

examj.le, by denying the permanent obligation of baptism and the Lord's supper, or of the day on which Christian worship is commonly conducted The Church of Rome, again as before, exalts worslnp

they are the utterances of mighty and awful beings

who have power


liberate the

with God, whose incantations can


fires,

dead from penal

and whose words

of benediction can blot out the darkest sins of the


living,

so as to transform and destroy not only a means of grace,

its

character.

It is

not only from the records of conscience, but

but, certain

extreme con-

from the judgment-books of God.

Alas! this splen-

46
did

0)1

Roma7iism and Rationalisni


!

as opposed

to

Pure

Christianity.

47

shadow
!

to a superstitious
is
it

temperament, how

naturally a Rationalist

fascinating

what

but the fabric of a vision, or

pound of both
leaven

or a Romanist, or a comand though we may fancy ourselves


it,

rather a phantasmagoria, only too grateful to those


fallen beings

perfectly free from


still

there

is
all.

too
I

much

of the old

whose

interest

it is

to intercept the per-

cleaving to us

cannot enter into

sonal, intelligent, saving

communion
save

of the souls of

men

with

Him who

will

men

only by light and

the high denunciatory strain in which Rationalism and Popery have sometimes been attacked, as if they

knowledge, and who, as a


in si)irit

Spirit,

must be worshipped
like

were not so much the sins and errors of

men

as the

and

in truth

Thus, again, Romanism,

works of incarnate demons, which can only be traced


to deliberate irreverence, lying, or priestcraft

Rationalism, misses

its
is

aim

in

worship.
;

The one
the other

on the

expects

little,

and

not disappointed

part of their abettors.

This shows great ignorance

expects much, unsj)eakably too much,


at the altar,

for,

seeking

it

of ourselves

great want of fairness

and charitv
be,

to-

and not

at the Bible

and the Throne

ot
ot

wards our erring brethren!


fear
craft
is,

There may

and

grace,

it

stumbles on amid the gloom and shadows

much

perversity in Rationalism,
in

much

priest-

a worse than Levitical economy, and never attains


the deep and hallowed joy of those
to

and conscious tyranny


let

Romanism.

Where

who draw
evil

nigh
faith,

these are apparent,

us not shrink from condemnin<^

God

'with a true heart, in

full

assurance of

them
.^'

in

appropriate terms, after the example of


neither Sadducee nor Pharisee.

Him
let

having their hearts sprinkled from an

conscience,
r^-.

who spared

But

and
I
I

their bodies

washed with

i)ure water.'
in

us also think of the pride and unbelief of our

have thus endeavoured,


afraid, a

a very cursory, and,

minds, and of our


ir

own

difficulties in
;

own embracing some


let

am

too general manner, to survey somefield

of the doctrines of Christianity


l)elieve that the

and

us charitably

what of the vast


could add

embraced

in

my
me

subject.

Rationalism of not a few


difiiculties

may be

the

many
shall

general reflections of a practical


topic

ascendency of similar
*

not

yet in

their

nature, of which the


gestive.
I

before

is

very sug-

minds overcome.
our own
spirits

Let us think of the formalism of


to trust in external

content myself with two.


that Rationalism
divines,

of our readiness
let

First, T.et us

beware of supposing
to

things, in rites, in sacraments, in church privileges

and Superstition are confined


whether
to
in

any school of

of our remaining distrust of God's love and free grace


in Christ
;

Clermany or England on the one hand, or

and

us charitably think that the Ro-

Papal countries on the other.

Everv one of us

i^

manism of not

a few

may be

the lingering effect of

48

On

Roma?iis7n

and Ratio7ialism

as opposed to Piire C/iristia7iify.


journalists,
literature, as

49

similar tendencies, in

them more powerful, or from


has not yet set them
evils,
free.

and

which the
Let us
as

Spirit of

God
us

testify against
will
;

both

scoffs and mockeries of our lighter were current during the Papal aggression, in the present contest with

loudly and earnestly


the
truth
in

we

and are revived


tanism.

but

let

speak

Ultramonservice,

love,

in the spirit of Him whose words should never be forgotten They know not what they do.' Let the melting tones of compassion and prayer be
'

and

These may do valuable

political
;

may even
will

expel religious error for a time


;

but they

the

mingled with the stern controversies of the times

in

which we

live

and then the witness we bear


to

faith they will not keep door shut against the return of superstition. Nothing will cure the inevitable tendency of super-

not generate Christian

will

stitious

minds

not be less acceptable


in

to relapse into error but the pre-occu;

God, nor
are

less

effectual

reclaiming

those

who

pation and satisfaction of their hearts with the truth

ignorant and out of

and
is

if

the way.
Secondly,
It
is

a wide and prayerful diffusion of gospel truth


in

not attempted

the
its

present struggle

against

only by the establishment of God's

Popery, the tactics of


triumphant, and we

political antagonists

truth that Rationalism

and Superstition can be

may be

finally

overthrown.

As

have already remarked, though

mutually repellent, these antagonist powers are not mutually destructive. Errors never totally obliterate

may even seem to overrun the enemy's country and level his strongholds but we
;

shall

make no

stable conquests.

Those who expect


combinations
without relying

the downfall of Popery from

each other.
It

i)olitical
it,

That

is

the prerogative only of truth.

and unbelieving reactions against


on the Bible and the missionary,
disappointed
;

was confidently stated


infidelity

that

in the end of last century had conclusively abolished Poper>'


;

will

once more be

but

many have
all

and

if

we wish

at last to succeed,

we

lived to see the formidable reaction

must

which belies

strive to convert the political recoil of

such expectations

France

and

if

any ima-

and

Italy into

vital,

earnest,

gine that Poi)ery has


infidelity
will

now

and insuppressible
in

materially diminished the

religious reformation.

of the Continent by
\\\

Let us cherish interest also

way of
our

reprisals, they

be

that reaction against Rationalistic Protestantism which

ecjually mistaken.

own
is

country, as on
to

has been for years extending


e^o

itself

the Continent, no conclusive victory

both

in

France
in the

be gained

by fighting the battle against Popery with the weajjons of mere negation and protest, with such sarcasms of

and Germany.

Let us pray for the spread,

National Churches of these lands, of the revived

evangelism which

is

returning after

many

aberrations,

50

On
written

Roincinism

and Rationalism
is

as opposed to
to
at

Pure
to

Clwistianity.

not only to the Incarnate Word, but what


the

more

least

do something

accelerate their downfall,

Word

and seek

that

the
in

difficulties

and
shall

to introduce a happier age,

when

these shadows
field

which the revival

is

encountering

the land

of

not as

now be

cast far

and wide over the

Luther from a revived sacramental ism and superstition, may also be overcome. Let the Churches of
Britain be also i)repared for those contests with unbelief at

of living experience, but shall be reflected only from


the

dim and fading page of Church

history, as the

mists and vapours of morning, which the gathering


light

home which have come

so unexi)ectedly

upon

and heat of pure Christianity has

at length dis-

themselves, and which are so bravely waged by a multitude of loyal defenders of the faith in that

persed and chased away.

Anglican Church where they have begun

anrl let

them not only


gument,

strive
is

to

concjuer in the field of areasy,

which

comparatively

since

the
their

champions of Rationalism can only build up


counterfeit temple like Julian out of
its

own

repeat-

edly blasted ruins, but


difficult

let

them

aspire to the

more

success of reproducing the moral signs and

faith

wonders of the Bible before men's eyes, in works of and labours of love, which shall i)rove that the preis

sence of Israel's Ciod

in the

midst of us, a pillar of

heaven-descended
desert in which
in
it

and not an emanation of the moves. Thu- shall we be ecjuipped


glor)',

the armour of righteousness


left,

on the

right

hand ana

the

and

shall

not only guard our

bear the standard of salvation into

own lines, but new territories

and whatever be the

future struggles

and reactions

of Rationalism and Superstition, and of that kingdom of darkness and error which is wide enough and
catholic

enough

to

comprehend them both, we

shall

APPENDIX.
STATEMENT
for the

Societiks referred to

in

the

Preface.

SOCIETY OF SONS OF UNITED I'RESBVTERIAN


MINISTERS.
Instituted Septonber 20, 1854.)

OFFICK-BKARKRS.
President.
kev.

Jamfs Hakikk,

I).

D., Professor of Theology to the U.


/

P.

Church.

Icc-Prcsiiictits.

Rev. Rev.

John Smakt, D.D., John MACFAki.ANh",

Leith.
1-L. I).,

Llapham, London.

J/oiiorary Dinctors.
Rev. William .Anukr.son, LL. D., Glasgow. John .Scott Rrs.'^Ki.i., Esq., F. R.S., London. J.\.MKs Watson, Esq. of Riv.ilsgreen, Linlithgow.

Andrew Mi
Rev. R.
J.

Rev. Gkok(;k Gilkii.i.an, Dundee. tkk. Esq. of Milton, Glasgow.

IJRVCK, LL.L)., Uelfa.st. Esq. of Strathleven, .^LP., Glasgow. Esq., W.S., Edinburgh. JOH.N Lou.\N, Esq., Merchant, Glasgow.

H. E.

Cklm Ewing,

James Peddie,

Ordinary Directors.
David .M'Ew.w, Edinburgh. William Leckie, Escj., Cashier, Commercial Hank, Edinburgh. William Fraser, Esq., Town-Clerk, Inverkeithing. J(mN Anderson, Esq., Writer, Paisley.
Rev. Rev.
VV.M.

Brick, Edinburgh.

Andrew

Elliot, Esq., Publisher. P'.dinburgh.

Ale.xander Moncriekf, Esq.. .Advocate, Edinburgh. JoH.N Hl.^ck, Esq., Advocate, Edinburgh. W. H. M'Farlane, Esq., Lithographer, Edinburgh.

Mlngo Lauder,

Esi].,

Merchant, Glasgow.

54
Charles Ai
li>,

Appendix.
Esq., M.D., Greenock. A. H. Bryce, Esq., B.A., High Sch(K)l, Edinburgh. John Gokkie, Esq., Advocate. 89, Chancery Lane, London.

Appendix.
wherever they

55

Rev. R. S. I>RiM.Mf)ND, A.M., Glasgow. Rev. George W.aklace, Hull. E. Erski.ne Harj'KR, Esq Merchant, Leith.
,

Peter M'Leod,

Esq., Writer. GIa>i,'ow'.

Jame.s L<k;a.\ Mmr, Esq., Merch:iiu, Islington. London. J. Dick Pkddie, E.sq., Architect, Edinburgh. RiCHi). G. Ross, Esq., Engineer, Glasgow. John .Sommervili.e, Esq.. Merchant, Leith. Tho.mas Jkkkkev. Flsq., Merchant, Edinburgh. James ThjM.son, Esq., Accountant, Gla.sgow.
Stxrctary.
(;eok<;k

may be placed in life, though seas intervene or schisms separate them, this one connecting tie to their common parent may still subsist. Hence the origin of this Society. As regards its benevolent o])ject that of affording
may

I)ecuniary assistance to the families of ministers deceased or infirm placed in necessitous circumstances

M'Ewan,

Esi].,

Advocate,

34,

Dundas

.Street,

Edinburgh.

Treasurer.
J.

K.Nox Crawford,

Est|.,

.S.S.C.

*>,

North

St.

David

Street,

Edinburgh.

The Society was instituted at a ])ul)lic meeting called for the purpose, of the Sons of Ministers, held
in

**

Kdinlnirgh on

20th September
it

-%

1854.

The

con-

siderations in which
stated.

originated

may be

very briefly

The histor>- of the United Presbyterian Church has been one of progress. Throughout many years of political agitation and religious controversy, it has continued to maintain those distinctive principles
band who gave it its origin. growing .strength, however, there are relationships which are apt to be broken up and forgotten. Its sons are to be found in every station and in every clime but although they have been
that incited the small

Dissenting ministers are far \<\\\\ most it takes frugal care and management to meet the bare comforts and necessities of life and therefore it was not matter of surprise that now and again cases of hardship arise, of their children being left to the mercies of the world, with nothing for their support and education. As it was a difficult matter to meet these when they did occur, the provision for them instituted by this Society was at once oi)portune and commendable. It interfered with none of the schemes of the United Presbyterian Church in operation, and yet the most cursory investigation might convince ever)^body that it was a desideratum. The objects of the Society are thus set forth in its
class.
;

little need be said. from being a wealthy

constitution.
1. To afford pecuniary assistance to the families of United Presbyterian Ministers, who, by the death or infirmity of the head of the family, may be placed in necessitous circumstances. 2. To ])romote friendly intercourse among the Members of the Society.

Amidst

its

^
?-.

scattered over the world, or sej)arated from the de-

nomination by differences, they must ever feel a pleasure in their early attachment to it. At least such a feeling must remain strong in the hearts of ministers' sons in reference to the Church, and it is well and laudable for those who have so s|)rung from it, to testify their gratitude by linking themselves in a bond of brotherhood, animated by the common principles of sympathy and benevolence, so that

'*tp

3. To aid, by correspondence and counsel, the younger branches of United Presbyterian Ministers' families in prosecuting their views in life. And, in the event of any General Meeting of the Society

deeming the funds


4.

sufficient,

To

institute

one
sons

or

more Scholarships
United

for

students
"SI

who

are

of

Presbyterian

Ministers.

5^

Appendix.
Terms of Membership.
(lr..\.S(;ow

Appendix.

57

Society of Sons of Ministers of the

following are admitted as ordinary members of the Society on payment of a minimum annual sub'I'he

*M

United Presbyterian Church.


office-bearers,

scription of 5s., or a which constitutes life


1.

payment of not less than /q, membership, viz. :

'ftc-

1862-63.
Prcscs.

Sons of Ministers of the United Presbyterian Church.


(irandsons of do. Sons-in-Law of do.
\Mi-:s I!i

James Mitchell,
FoKKHsr

Writer, lilasgow.

2.

I'lcc-Pri'ses.

3.

F'rew, Manufacturer. Olasgow.

Strangers are admitted as extraonUnarx members, on payment of not less than l,ut' the officebearers are chosen from the ordinary members.

Secretary.
J

^5

KNS KiDSTON. Writer,

50,

West Regent

Street, Glasgow.

I'reasttrer.

Hc(;n HKidH. Merchant,

41, St.

Vincent Place, (ilasgow.

Operations of

Ordina ry Dirertorx.
the Soeiety.
S'^r

Andkevv Muter of Milton.


JoH.N Meikleh.am. Clyde Iron Work.s.

Smce
creased
roil

its
its

Society has steadily inmembership, and there are now on the


to

formation,

the

Robert
(iE()K(;K

JKKFK.A.V

Wai.kek, Merchant, Glasgow.

M'Faklank, Accountant, Glasgow.

245 members.

John

Kid.sto.x, Writer. Glasgow.

The permanent capital fund now amounts ^'500, ^!"i30o of which is invested in
securit).

about

heritable

subscriptions and interest but, in terms of the constitution, a large portion of the income must be applied in increasing the capital until it amount to the sum of ^5000. Although the annual distribution

The annual income from


ca[)ital

(iEoRGE RoH.sox, Accouutant, Glasgow. Merchant, Glasgow. (iEORiiE Coven TKv Uick, Comniission Agent, (ilasgow. Ai.EX. Henderson M'Lean, Tea Merchant, C;iasgf)w. H(h;h Moncrieff, Writer. Glasgow.

Wm. M'Ewen,

on

exceeds ^^loo

'I'he objects intended to be served by this Society, and the sentiments in which it originated, will be learned from the following extracts from an address

lor benevolent purposes is thus limited in the meantime, the Directors have for several vears disbursed the sum of annually.

^30

social meetings, conversaziones, etc., the Society is instrumental in promoting friendly intercourse among the members.

By means of

issued in pursuance of the resolutions of a meeting of Sons of Ministers, held on loth April 1854, when it was agreed that a Society should be formed in (ilasgow 'Our Church contains three liodies, long separate We have cause to rejoice that in all but now united. their divisions they ever maintained the one great Head of the Church, and the liberty of its members, His body. Many of us can recollect the time when each of the three Bodies composing the United Pre.s:

-.

-I

.life'

=;8

Appendix,
Appendix.
50
Church was

a separate Body. In these small communions every minister was the intimate friend of nearly ever>' other, and ministers' families were hereditary friends.

byterian

Constitution.

These days are gone, and have left behind them feehngs which can now be thoroughly appreciated by but a few. Let us only hope, as we truly believe, that
'

"A-

time after the issuing of this address, the Society was constituted. Its object and purpose, as declared by the constitution, is to contribute to the benefit of the families (children and widows), and to

Some

what we have lost in the ahiiost family intercourse which subsisted among the Ministers of our sei)arate churches, is more than compensated by our union.

The

feelings of those

among

us

who

are

more

ad-

advancement in life of children of ministers, whether deceased or living, of the United Presbyterian Church, or of any of the churches comprised in that body, and that by friendly sympathy, counsel, and
the

vanced in life are indeed changed, but only changed to be enlarged so as to embrace a greater number of those who hold the same faith and entertain the

moral influence, as well as by pecuniary aid, in circumstances in which it is required, so far as the funds
of the Society will admit. While the supi)ort of the Society is o])en to all, and all are invited to contribute to its funds, its membershij) is confined to Sons of Ministers. Life membership is constituted by the contribution of five guineas to the funds, and from the life members the Boanl of Directors is selected. With the view of interesting in the Society Sons of Mmisters who may not for the time be in a condition to become members, it was some time ago agreed to admit, as associates, such Sons of Ministers as might contribute five shillings annually to the funds. These associates have the privilege of being i)resent at general meetings of the Society, and thus have the oi)|)ortunitv of

same hope.
of Ministers of the United Presbyterian Glasgow are now numerous, and we think the time has come when they should, by the formation of an Association of their own, follow the example set to them by the Sons of Ministers of the Church
'

The Sons
in

Church

of Scotland. It is hardly necessary to plead, when speaking of Scodand, that Glasgow ought to be the seat of such a Society. Whether there should be kindred associations in other towns, it is for the Sons of Ministers resident in such towns to decide. But, obviously, the industrial capital of Scotland must continue to be the resort of young men having their way to make in life. Our Ministers have ever, out of their scantv means, striven to give their sons a good education. With such education, and personally maintaining in its purity, the religion taught in their fathers' homes, they may well be expected to succeed in such a city. But they are often subjected to difficulties in finding employment, and must feel the want of that counsel and kindness which, we trust, will now be sui)plied by those who have trod the path before them.'
'

becoming

ac(]uainte(l with its

members.

Operations of the Society.

The permanent
there
is

capital

amounts

to

^2300, and

a balance of cash on hand. Besides the imi)ortant object of making the Sons of Ministers known to and helpful of each" other in the intercourse and business of life, the Society has,

though to a

less extent than the Directors desired^ aftbrded pecuniary aid, either stated or incidental, in

60

Appendix,

LuDGATE Hill, December

1862.

\
Now
in course

various cases where it was much needed and highly appreciated. Their disbursements in this way were ^30 in the first year, ^^44 in the second, ^55 in the
third,

of Publication,

^75

in

have already been

the fourth, Q>o in the fifth, and they ^118 in the sixth year, which is

now

current.

STEAHAFS

Conclusion to the Statements for both Societies.

FAMILY LIBRAE!
OP

While there is an obvious delicacy and {)ropriety in the Sons of Ministers administering the affairs of such associations as the above, the duty oi supporting them
not more incumbent on them than on other members of the Church. To not a few of these, both associations owe a debt of gratitude, and the Directors feel assured that in aiding the Societies whose claims are above set forth, the members of our Church generally would acceptably and beneficially show
is

BOOKS AT ONCE CHEAP, VALUABLE, AND mSTKUCTIVE.


In Crown Svo Volumes, printed on toned paper, and elegantly bound,
Price
3. GJ. each.

their appreciation of

and sympathy with our excellent

ministry.

Directors of both Societies recjuest the miniour Church each to accept the accompanying copy of Dr. Cairns' Discourse, with this Appendix, intended to make known the existence, extend the operations, and enlarge the resources of these Societies. They cannot close these remarks without stating how deeply they feel indebted to Dr. Cairns for his admirable discourse, the publication of which, they are persuaded, will be beneficial not only to the Societies at whose retjuest it is published, and to the United Presbyterian Church, but to the Church of Christ at large.
sters of

The

All that the Publishers wish to say, by way of prospectus, is, that their aim in is not ignobly to interest, or frivolously to amuse, but to c-onvev the wisest instruction in the pleasantest manner. Tliey desire, in short, to produce H series of Books which will not only be w<rth reading, but will be wortli keepinc and which will fin.l their way to tens of thousands of British homes, to be well thumbed and dog-eared by the children and the grown people, on the journev an.l at the fireside.
this Library

The foUowing

axe a

few of the Books which will be


issued :

earliest

THE RECREATIONS OF

COUNTRY PARSON.
Origimlly published in Eraser's Magazine.
ir.

A
[Rvwii).

EDINiaRliH

T.

CONbl ABLK,

IRINTER TO

THE QIEEX, AND TO THE tMVKKSlTV

SPEAKING TO THE HEART.


Author of "

By THOMAS GUTHRIE, D.D., Plea for Ragged Schools," " The Gospel in Ezekiel,"

etc.

[Ready.

III.

VII.

PARISH PAPERS:
PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND CONGREGATIONAL.
By

THE GRAVER THOUGHTS OF A

COUNTRY PARSON.
By the
[Ready.
Autliov of " Recreations of a Country Parson."
[Rcadj/.

NORMAN MACLEOD,

D.D., of the Barony Parish, Glasgow.

'('

VIII.

JOHN EVANGELIST GOSSNER:


IV.

HIS LIFE AND HIS DEEDS.


By
the Rev. Dr.

PRAYING AND WORKING;


BEING SOME ACCOUNT OF

PROCHNOW,

Berlin.
[Shortly.

WHAT

MF:N

CAN DO WHEN

IN tL^RNEST.
IX.

By WILLIAM FLEMING STEVENSON.


[Ready.

OUT-DOOR ESSAYS.
By

ALEXANDER SMITH,
Author
of
**

Secretary to

tlie

University of Edinburgh,
etc.

The

Life

Drama," " City Poems,"

[Slwrtly.

V.

TRAVELS AND ADVENTURES PURSUIT OF SCIENCE.


By
Prf.fpssor C.

IN
rp

X.

A POPULAR EDITION OF

THE EARNEST STUDENT;


BEING MEMORIALS OF JOHN MACKINTOSH.
By

PIAZZI SMYTH,

Astronoiiu'r-Royal

fir

Scotland, Author of
etc.

" Three Cities of Russia," " The Peak of Teneiitfe,"

[Shortly.

NORMAN MACLEOD,

D.D., of the Barony Parish, Glasgow.


[Shortly.

XI.
VI.

NEW LIFE
By

IN

THE PARISH.
Berlin.
[Shortly.

THE HOUSEHOLD HYMNS OF GERMANY AND THE NORTH


Etliteil

the Rev. Dr.

BUCHSEL,

and Translated under the direction of Miss GREENWELL, Author of " The Patience of Hope."
[In preparation.

AKEXANDEK STRAHAN &


32,

CO.,

LuDOATE Hill, London.

SECOND EDITION
Two
Vols.

is

now
12.s.,

ready,

Crown

8vo, price

THE OLD LIEUTENANT AND


By

IIIS
ETC.

SON.

NORMAN MACLEOD,
THE DAILY NEWS.

D.D.,

ALEXANDER STRAHAN AND


RECENT PUBLICATIONS.

CO.'S

ONE or HER majesty's chaplains for SCOTLAND,

Lieutenant ami His Son' in the very tirst rank of religions flrtion. It contains reniarkable evitlcnce of tho author's great talent, and is un tlouhtedly one t)f the K'st -writ ten novels that has ai>i)eared for some time."
]la<-e tlie
'

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Wf

OM

THE PARTHENON.
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'

A good

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l>r. Machnd's intense earnestness su]>i>lies genuine. wliich allures tlie intellect and the feelings of the reailer alike. i)l>en the hook will close it with a sense of di.sapi>ointment."

is

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Beginning Life.
study, and

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THE NONCONFORMIST.
a lively and gra]>hic style of narration, well marked imliviihiality in the abundance of incident, sonnd gooil sense, and healthy sentiment Lieutenant and His eonstitute a good novel, then Dr. Macleod's story of the 8on is a good novel, as it is a thoroughly enjoyable book."

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'
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Tenth Thousand.
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'*

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;

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The Patience

of Hope.'

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Year of the Slavery Question.

Gctfrard, President of Hayti.

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Go and Come.
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Love
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An Hour among BvP. H. Gosse.

Sabbath

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L. ALKXAXDKH, D.D. DAVID HHnWX. D D FtKV. THOMAS MIXXKV Rev. W. M. PUNSIloN

JOIIX EADIK, LED., D.D. M. M'CULLOCH. D.D .1. H. MAiDUFF, D D


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What Have You Done?


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I*rof'ss<ir

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Dr.

Mkulk

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"

MAR.iAHKT Maria Gordon-. The Rfv. Hc.;n Stuwell Rroww. Pruiciital TrtLocH. The Rev. J. Dr Liffde, Ainstenlairi. Author of " The Pastorof Gegeuhurg."
Mis.

The Mi.lnight Mission. By L. By The Story of Ninian.


Shair)).

C. C. Professi>r

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"

Th.' Rev. J.

R Macdl'kf, D.D PnnciiMl Lkitch.

M'Farlane, Author

of

"The Night
F. Steven-

D.D.
Auroras.

Miss .MARsfr. The Rev. Xorman Ma'jleod, D.D.

By W.

Jack, of

St.

Peter's

Lamp." The Power


st)n.

of Prayer.

By W.

Among
Jame.s Archkr, R.8 a. Jamks Dki mmoni), R..S.A. Krski.ne N'mi R.S.A. GofKLAV STKtLL, R.S.A.

The Caravansary
Danish.

Hall, Cambridge. of Bagdad, from the

the Artists are W I.I.I AM

J.
I I

tRCHARDSON. .Maiwuirtkk.
g.
<

Cl.ARKNt K DoBKI.L.
I

Robert IIerdmav
C. A.

Clark Stantov.

DOVLE.

KeeleV HAL.SWELLE.

Bees and Bee-Hives. By John Cnmming, D.D. The Destroyed Cities of the Plain. By the Rev. Dr. Jamieson. By Professor Shairp, St. St. Columba. Andrews. Concerning ChiMhood. By Geo. Hume.
Illu.strations of Providence.

Among

By

Caiion
I

Ct)ncerning Each One's Religious History. By A. T. I. Saul of Tarsus a Chosen Vessel. Bv the Rev. Dr. M'Culloch. By the Rev. J. de The Little Screw. Liefde, Amsterdam, Autiior of "The Pastor of Gegcnburg." Pojtular Misa]iplications of Scripture. By Hujih Stdwell Brown. The Broken Link. By Airs. Margaret

the Contributions

are
10 Chapters,

GODS GLORY

I\ THE HEAVENS.
liy

Stowell. Doi-tor Siarrow.

]?y Adoli'h Sai)hir.

Maria Gordon. Old Jenny of Glen Immern.

By Nor-

A Summer's
Fernlover.
1.51.')

Study of Ferns.

By Miss

PRINCIPAL LKITCH.

COUNSELS FOR YOUNG MEN.


U.v

4 Chaptera.

XOH.\HX

By Dr. M. D'Aubigne. versus ISr.O. What has bet-n done" in the Fiji Islands. By Miss Farmer. By Principal Pi-otestantism in France.
By

m;in Mac]co<l, 1). I). In the Life i>f a Village School ma.ster. By W. F. Stevenstm. Bv Relle<'ti<uis of a Ritle Volunteer.
A. T.
1.

.\r.\tl,K(>l),

D.D,, tolToK.

B.V tlu.

MEDITATIONS ON HEAVEN. 7 Chapters. Rev. J. R .M.VCDLKF, D.D., ,,,.. M,,,i,,,


.^,.,,,,,r,,f
,,,,,,

Tulloch. The Fate of Franklin. A Summer Hovu- in

my

M. Garden.
J.

By

Svmbolism in the Christian Economv. "By John Caird, D.D. Journey by Sinai to Syria. By the Rev. Donald Maclcod.
Massacre of Christians
Professor
in

George Hume.

How

became

a Governess.

By Miss

Syrin.

By

i,^.,,^ ^.,,,,^^..

LADY SOMERVILLES MAIDENS. A Story.


By
the Author of the
*

29

Chapter.,

The Evils of Great Cities. By A. T. I. The Crowded Harbotir. By Miss Marsh, Author of "Memorials of Hedlcy
Vicars."

Author of J. L. Porter, " Munav's Han<l book of Palestine."

The LittleRift.

By

L. C. C.

Alexander von Humboldt. By the Rev. Dr. llollniaii. Royal Chaidain, Berlin.

Nut

Jirowii Maiils."

A Door Opened
,5

THE GOLD THREAD, A


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Stry

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Chapters

.N(>li.\HX .\HLI.EOD, D.D., Edttor.

By Profesin Heaven. sor David Brown. Highlanders at Home and Abroad. By Norman Maclcod, D.D. By W. LindProfes.sor George Wilson. .say Alexander, D.D.

An Autumn Psalm. By tlic Author "John Halifax, (icntleman."


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