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TENTATIVEPROGRAMME

ORGANIZINGCOMMITTEE
REGIONALCOMMITTEE
Dr.LeoOdongo,KenyattaUniversity. Chairman
MsMaryOpondo,KenyattaUniversity. Secretary
Dr.IsaacChepkwony,KenyattaUniversity. Treasurer
Dr.DavidMalonza,KenyattaUniversity.
Dr.IreriKamuti,KenyattaUniversity.
Mrs.EuniceMuchai,KenyattaUniversity.
Dr.JeconiaA.Okello,JomoKenyattaUniversity.
Prof.PatrickG.O.Weke,UniversityofNairobi.
Dr.SamuelKaroki,CatholicUniversityofEasternAfrica.
Dr.BenardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity
Dr.EdwardNjenga,KenyattaUniversity
Mr.ChristopherOuma,KenyattaUniversity
Ms.LydiaNjuguna,KenyattaUniversity
SCIENTIFICCOMMITTEE
Prof.EnricoRogora,UniversityofRomeLaSapienza,Italy
Prof.JohnO.Agure,MasenoUniversity,Kenya
Prof.JosephY.T.Mugisha,MakerereUniversity,Uganda
Prof.MosesM.Manene,UniversityofNairobi,Kenya.
CONFERENCEADDRESS:
TheChairman,RegionalCommittee
DepartmentofMathematics
P.OBOX4384400100,Nairobi,Kenya
Email:kumathematics@ku.ac.ke,mathsconference@ku.ac.ke
Website:www.ku.ac.ke/mathsconference

TENTATIVEPROGRAMME
DAY1: Wednesday8
th
June2011
08.0008.30 Registration
08.3009.30 OpeningSession:
Chairman/MC Dr.BenardKivunge
Dr.DavidMalonza ChairmanMathematics
Dr.LeoOdongo, ChairmanOrganizingCommittee
Dr.EuniceKairu DeanSchoolofPure&AppliedSciences
Prof.JohnOkumu DVCAcademics
Prof.OliveMugenda ViceChancellor,KenyattaUniversity
09.3010.10 KeynoteSpeaker:Prof.OluwoleDanielMakinde.
Title: ImpactofMathematicalSciencesResearchonNationalDevelopment.
CapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology,SouthAfrica.
10.1010.40 PhotoSessionandTeaBreak
SESSIONI
Chairman: Dr.JamesKahiri
Rapporteur: Mr.ChristopherOuma
11.0011.20 RongoroEnrico
11.2011.40 Viewsontheroleofmathematicsindevelopment.
JanPersens,WesternCapeUniversity,SouthAfrica.
11.4012.00 OnthecharacterizationofclassR1ofnonnormaloperatorsinaHilbertspace.
MileJustusKitheka,UniversityofNairobi.
12.0012.20 AMathematicalmodelforthespreadandcontroloftuberculosisonapopulationwith
temporallyimmunity.
CyprianTuryatemba,JuliusTumwiine,MbararaUniversty,Uganda.
12.2012.40 Toweightornottoweight.
EdwardNjenga,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
12.4013.00 AnIterativeProcedureforSolvingaCauchyProblemfortheHelmholtzEquation.
LydieMpinganzima,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.
13.0014.00 LunchBreak
SESSIONII
Chairman: Dr.IreriKamuti
Rapporteur: Ms.MaryOpondo
14.0014.20 Copulabasedrisksclassification:Asimulationstudy
J.K.Mungatu,S.M.Mwalili,JKUATandP.G.O.WekeUniversityofNairobi.

14.2014.40 FormulasforthecomputationoftheTuttepolynomialofagraphwithparallelclasses,
EuniceMphakoBanda,UniversityofWitwatersrand,SouthAfrica.

14.4015.00 Modelbasednonparametricestimationofthefinitepopulationtotalundertwostage
clustersampling.KarokiSamuel,CatholicUniversity,OdongoLeoandKahiriJames,
KenyattaUniversity.

15.0015.20 Splitoperatormethodforparabolicpartialdifferentialequation.
NthiiriJoyceKagendo,MaryOkombo,ShemAywa,MasindeMuliroUniversityand
MichaelOduorOkoya,MasenoUniversity.
15.2015.40 TeaBreak
15.4016.00 Anumericalsimulatortoestimatehydrologicparametersofafractureusingfluorescein
thermaldecaycorrection.
BensonWangombe,WillisAmbussoandPeterOmenda,KenyattaUniversity
16.0016.20 Necessaryconditionsforexistenceofafriendof38.
R.K.Gachimu,C.W.Mwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandI.Kamuti,KenyattaUniversity.
16.2016.40 ApplicationsofuidealsinBanachspaces.
KayiitaZ.Kaunda,BaratonUniversity,Kenya.

16.4017.00 AmodelformisclassificationerrorsinSingleStageclustersampling.
KahiriJames,Odongo

Leo,KenyattaUniversityandKarokiSamuel,CatholicUniversity.

DAY2: Thursday9
th
June2011
SESSIONIIIA MAINHALL
Chairman: Dr.EuniceMphakoBanda
Rapporteur: Mr.KennedyAwuor
08.0008.40 KeynoteSpeaker: Prof.CeciliaMwathi
Title: PureMathematicsasacornerstonefortechnologicaldevelopment.
JomoKenyattaUniversityofAgricultureandTechnology(JKUAT),Kenya.

08.4009.00 ExactMinimizerandDuality.
JaphetNiyobuhungiro,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.

09.0009.20 MACmodelforanelasticplate.
IgorNeygebauer,UniversityofDodoma,Tanzania
09.2009.40 Signmatricesforframesof2
n
onsunderSmithConwayandCayleyDickson
multiplications.
BenardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
09.4010.00 ANumericalMethodforImprovingShieldedThermocoupleAccuracy.
FredrikBerntsson,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.
10.0010.20 Amathematicalmodelfortransmissionandcontrolofbovinebrucellosisincattlepopulations.
GodwinRobert,MbararaUniversity,Uganda.
10.2010.40 TeaBreak

SESSIONIVA MAINHALL
Chairman: Dr.IsaacChepkwony
Rapporteur: Ms.LydiaNjuguna
10.4011.00 Ontheexistenceofprimenumbersinpolynomialsequences.
AcquaahPeter,UniversityofGhana,Ghana.
11.0011.20 Mathematicalmodelformalariaandmeningitiscoinfectionamongchildren.
LawiG.Owuor,OmoloOngati,MasenoUniversity,KenyaandMugishaJ.Y.T.,N.,
MakerereUniversity,Uganda.

11.2011.40 ASecuredHybridArchitectureModelforMobileFinancialServices:ACaseStudyof
Zimbabwe.
WestonD.GovereandDumisaniSibanda,MidlandsStateUniversity,Zimbabwe.
11.4012.00 AnalysisofunsteadyhydromagneticthermalboundarylayeroveraflatplatewithNavier
slipandaconvectivesurfaceboundarycondition.
OluwoleDanielMakinde,CapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology,SouthAfrica.
12.0012.20 Applicationoffourierseriesto1,2,3dimensionalsignalswithexamplesinmatlab.
EyramSchwinger,UniversityofGhana,Ghana.

12.2012.40Effectsofinternalheatgeneration,thermalradiation,andbuoyancyforceonboundary
layeroveraverticalplatewithaconvectivesurfaceboundarycondition.
OlanrewajuPhilipOladapo,CovenantUniversity,Nigeria.

12.4013.00 PrincipalcomponentandClusteranalysisanapproachtogoatmarketsegmentationin
MatebelelandProvinceZimbabwe.
GovereW.,ChinofungaP.T.,CharumbiraW.F.,ChikudoE,MidlandStateUniversity,
Zimbabwe.

DAY2: Thursday9
th
June2011
SESSIONIIIB HALL2
08.4009.00 Implicativealgebras.
K.Venkateswarlu,BerhanuBekele,AdisAbabaUniversity,Ethiopia.
09.0009.20 OnNcurvatureinheritanceinFinslerspaces.
J.K.Gatoto,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
09.2009.40 MakingMarkovchainmodelingofrainfalldataaccessible.
J.O.Ongala,TheGreatLakesUniversityofKisumu,Kenya.D.A.Stern,Maseno
University,KenyaandR.D.Stern,UniversityofReadings,UK.
09.4010.00AMathematicalcomparativemodelofHIV/AIDS,povertyanddevelopment.
CeciliaMusyoka,SouthEasternUniversityCollege,Kenya.

10.0010.20 TheroleofMathematicsindevelopmentofTechnicalandVocationalEducationand
Training(TVET)inthe21
st
century.
SamuelM.Mwangi,GusiiInstituteofTechnology,Kenya.
10.2010.40 TeaBreak

SESSIONIVB HALL2
Chairman:
Rapporteur:
10.4011.00 Onamoregeneralizedclassofboundedstarlikefunctionsofcomplexorder.
BiodunOladipupo,LadokeAnkintolaUniversityofTechnology,Nigeria.
11.0011.20 TheLimitationsintheConvectionalISBN10Code.
PeterWaweru,CeciliaMwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandBenardKivunge,Kenyatta
University.
11.2011.40 AcceleratedfailuretimefrailtymodelforCD4cellscount.
NyakundiWycliffeandMwaliliSamwuelJKUAT,Kenya.

11.4012.00 Demystifyingmathematics:Handlinglearningdifficultiesinmathematicsamonglow
achieversinKenyanschools.
GladysGakeniaNjoroge,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
12.0012.20 Completelyprimemodules.
Ssevviiri David and N. J. Groenewald , Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South
Africa.

12.2012.40ConvergenceofIshikawas'sIterationMethodforFiniteFamilyofPseudocontractive
Mappings.
HabtuZegeye,UniversityofBotswana,Gaborone,Botswana.

12.4013.00 SolutionofthethirdorderviscouswaveequationusingFiniteDifferenceMethod.
OgangaDuncanO,ShemAway,MasindeMuliroUniversityandMichaelO.Okoya,
MasenoUniversity.
13.0014.00 LunchBreak

14.0017.00 RoundtablediscussionforMARMparticipants HALL2

SESSIONV MAINHALL
Chairman: Dr.TitusKibua
Rapporteur: Mr.MutieKavila
14.0014.20 Amodelbasedinferenceoffinitepopulationtotalintwostageclustersampling.
OumaC.Onyango,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
14.2014.40 MovingteachingbeyondcalculationstowardsmathematicsthrougheLearning;a
casestudyofeStatisticsMadeSimple.
JamesMusyoka,ThomasMaworaandDavidStern,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.
14.4015.00 ModellingstraydogsinGweruurban.
CharumbiraW.F.,GovereW.,ChinofungaP.T.andBorerweT,MidlandStateUniversity,
Zimbambwe
15.0015.20 GeospatialmodelingonprevalenceofBuruliUlcerinAmansiedistrictinGhana.
DontwiI.K,Frempong,N.K.andBonyah,E,KwameNkrumahUniversityofScienceand
Technology,Ghana
15.2015.40 TeaBreak
15.4016.00 ComputationalGroupTestingStrategy.
K.L.Nyongesa,MasindeMuliroUniversityandJ.W.Mwangi,EgertonUniversity.

16.0016.20 Mathematicsasthekeyinstrumentinmoderntechnology.
JosephatItambu,UniversityofDodoma,Tanzania.

16.2016.40 Amathematicalmodelforthecontrolofbananabacterialwiltdisease.
KweyungaEliabHorubandTumwiineJulius,MbararaUniversity,Uganda.

16.4017.00 AutomatedTellerMachineReliability,ProblemsandRisks.
ChinofungaP.T.,CharumbiraW.F.,GovereW.D.,DzvukeG,MidlandsStateUniversity.

DAY3: Friday10
th
June2011
SESSIONVI A MAINHALL
Chairman: Dr.FredrikBerntsson
Rapporteur: Mrs.WinnieMutukuNjogu
08.0008.20 FuzzyRandomvariables.
EuniceMuchai,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.

08.2008.40 Adjustingrainfallforclimatechangescenariosasinputsforcropsimulationmodels.
MaworaThomasMwakudisaandDavidStern,MasenoUniversity.
08.4009.00 Rankandsubdegreesofthesymmetricgroup
n
S actingonorderedrelementsubsets.
RimberiaKagwiriaJane,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
09.0009.20 SequentialBayesiananalysisofbinomialopinionpolls.
KiingatiJeremiah,SamuelMwaliliandAnthonyWaititu,JKUAT,Kenya

09.2009.40 PricingAsiancurrencyoptionsinadevelopingfinancialmarket:Amodifiedlattice
approach.
OgutuCarolyneAdhiambo,UniversityofNairobi.
09.4010.00 Idealsofthepolynomialring | | x F ( ) 1 mod
n
x forerrorcontrolincomputer
applications.
OlegeFanuel&AywaShem,MasindeMuliroUniversity,Kenya.
10.0010.20 Investigatingthemaximaldeterminantofan n n matrix.
IreneOkello,CeciliaMwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandKivungeB.,KenyattaUniversity.

10.2010.40 TeaBreak

SESSIONVIIA MAINHALL
Chairman: Dr.BenardKivunge
Rapporteur: Ms.JaneRimberia
10.4011.00 Ontheunitgroupsofcompletelyprimaryfiniteringsofcharacteristicp.
OwinoMauriceOduor,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.

11.0011.20 SameandequivalentlinearcodesinrelationtocategorisingGoppacodes.
GovereWandSibandaD,MidlandStateUniversity,Zimbabwe.

11.2011.40 MathematicalmodelingforroaddesigninKenya.Themechanisticempiricaloption.
S.A.Nyakiti,D.A.SternandO.Ongati,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.

11.4012.00 Actionof

I on Z.
I.N.Kamuti,J.K.Rimberia,KenyattaUniversityandE.B.Inyangala
12.0012.20 Transformingattitudesandperformanceofmanagementstudentsstatisticaltraining.
BernardManyalla,SiayaInstituteofTechnology,DavidStern,MasenoUniversity.

12.2012.40Oncharacterizationof u idealsdeterminedbysequences.
MatuyaJohnWanyonyi,NarokUniversity,ShemAywaandAchilesSimiyu,Masinde
MuliroUniversity,Kenya.
12.4013.00 TheM
0
matrixcompletionproblemforselected4*4matrices,p=4andq=4;Digraphs
withoutcompletion.
PeterWaweru,CeciliaMwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandBernardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity.

DAY3: Friday10
th
June2011
SESSIONVIB HALL2
Chairman: Dr.LeoOdongo
Rapporteur: Mr.AnandaKube
08.0008.20
08.2008.40 Generalizedequationofviscousflowthroughnoncircularflowchannels.
GeorgeXyplagusStower,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
08.4009.00 Mathematicsisthekeytosustainabledevelopment.
TalibaCarolineandCyrusSsebugenyi,MakereUniversity,Uganda.
09.0009.20 OndecompositionofcurvaturetensorsinconformalFinslerspaces.
J.K.GatotoandS.P.Singh,KenyattaUniversity.
09.2009.40 MovingteachingbeyondcalculationstowardsmathematicsthrougheLearning;acase
studyofeStatisticsmadesimple.
KaleliJamesandMaworaThomas,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.
09.4010.00 SedenionExtensionLoopsandFramesofGeneralHypercomplexNumbers.
NjugunaLydiaN.,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
10.0010.20 Onbanachspaceidealproperties.
MusundiSammyW,ChukaUniversityCollege,Kenya.

10.2010.40 TeaBreak

SESSIONVIIB HALL2
Chairman: Dr.EdwardNjenga
Rapporteur: Mr.Wahome
10.4011.00 Lasertechnologyasatoolfordevelopment. OpondoMary,
KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.

11.0011.20 Solutionsofthethirdorderviscouswaveequationusingfinitedifferencemethod.
OtienoDuncan,MasindeMuliroUniversity,Kenya.

11.2011.40 OnthecharacterizationofclassR1ofnonnormaloperatorsinaHilbertspace.
MileJustusKitheka,UniversityofNairobi,Kenya.
11.4012.00 DistributedcontrollabilityofCochleamodel.
ChepkwonyIsaac,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
12.00 12.20 Oncommutants&spectralpropertiesof commutingoperators.
MutieKavila,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
12.2012.40Encouragingdialogiclearninginmathematicsclassdiscourse.
KahenyaPaul,AfricanNazareneUniversity,Kenya.
12.4013.00 Banachspaceidealstructuresinoperatorideals.
MakilaPatrickW.,AywaShem&SimiyuAchile,MasindeMuliroUniversity.

13.0013.30 ClosingSession MAINHALL


Dr.LeoOdongo
Dr.DavidMalonza
13.30 LunchBreak

14.30 Excavation,VisittotheNairobiNationalPark.

ABSTRACTS
KEYNOTESPEACH
ImpactofMathematicalSciencesResearchonNationalDevelopment.
OluwoleDanielMakinde,CapePeninsulaUniversityofTechnology,SouthAfrica.

Abstract:
Mathematicsplaysarapidlyincreasingroleasauniversallanguageforscience.Withoutit,scienceand
technologycannotaddressthecomplexissuesfacingthemodernworld.Itisthelevelofresearchin
mathematicalsciencesthatdeterminesthelevelofthescienceandtechnologicaladvancementofany
nation.Thefoundationofscienceandtechnology,whichisthebasicrequirementfordevelopmentofa
nation,ismathematics.Unlessacountryoragroupofcountriesarewellequippedwiththenecessary
mathematicalskillsandknowledgetounlockitsenormousscientificandtechnologicalpotentials,they
willbelaggingbehindintheraceofdevelopment.Thistalkisaimedatpromotinggreaterawarenessof
theimpactandutilizationofmathematicalscienceresearchfornationaldevelopments.
Toweightornottoweight.
EdwardNjenga,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Weightingbytheinverseofunitselectionprobabilityisthebasisofrandomizationinference.Inmodel
basedframework,probabilitydesignsareignorableandsoprobabilityWeightshavenoobviousrole.
UsingresultsfromsizebiasedsamplingandpenalizedSplineregression,itisshownthatrandomization
estimatorscanbejustified.TheproblemaddressedhereiswhetherprobabilityWeightshavearolein
modelbasedinferenceforsamplesurveysornot.
Copulabasedrisksclassification:Asimulationstudy
J.K.Mungatu,S.M.Mwalili,JKUATandP.G.O.WekeUniversityofNairobi.

Abstract:
Risksclassificationgenerallyformsthebasisofratemakinginpracticallyallbranchesofinsurance.
Similarrisksshouldbeassignedtothesameclasswithrespecttoeachvariable.Modernportfoliotheory
isbasedoncorrelationasameasureofdependencewhilethecriterionpresentedhereisbasedonthe
copulatheorywhichismoresuperiortothecorrelationasameasureoftheintrinsicrelatednessof
differentrisksundercertainconditions.Dependencebetweenrisksreducesthebenefitsof
diversification.Dataweresimulatedfollowingfourlossdistributions.Dependenciesareexaminedby
fittingcopulas,estimatingthedependenceparametersandlastlyusingdistancematricestoclusterthe
riskstogetherbytheminimumdistancecriterion.Copheneticcorrelationcoefficientisemployedto
choosebetweenthebestdistancestouse.TheManhattandistanceperformsbetterthantheEuclidean
distancesandsowebaseourclusteringontheManhattandistances.

Keywords:Copula,Measuresofdependence,Cluster,Linesofbusiness,Distances.

FuzzyRandomVariables.(Anoverviewpaper)
EuniceMuchai,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
TheconceptoffuzzysetwasintroducedbyZadehin1965.Sincethenthefuzzyconcepthasgrown.
Howeveritisnotablethatmanyfieldswhichwereexpectedtoapplythefuzzyconcepthavenotapplied
it.Thereasonforthisismaybethatpotentialusersarenotsufficientlyfamiliarwithfuzzyrandom
variables.Thisarticleintroducesfuzzyrandomvariablestostatisticianswhomaynotbeexposedtothe
fuzzyconcepts.Itishopedthatbydoingthisthentheycanapplytheseconceptsintheirareasof
specialization.
AcceleratedfailuretimefrailtymodelforCD4cellscount.
NyakundiWycliffeandMwaliliSamwuelJKUAT,Kenya.
Abstarct:
Theacceleratedfailuretimefrailtymodelwillbestudiedandinparticularweshalllookatthevarious
patientswithHIVAIDScoinfectionsduringthesurveillanceperiod.Firstly,weassessthetimeimpactof
thecoinfectiontypeonthesurrogateendpointoftheHIV,priortothedevelopmentofAIDSandthe
developmentoftheAIDScondition,inthiscase,theclinicalendpoint.Longitudinalmultivariatedata
withtheCD4countswascollectedfromtheWestlandsDistrictHealthFacilitieswithanassumptionof
theentrylevelbeingthetimeofinfectionoftheHIVcondition. Surrogateendpointsinthiscase
servetogeneralizethewholehealthofapatientinamedicaltrial.Randompurposivesampling
techniquewithconsiderationofallintendedstudyvariableswereusedtoselectthesampleof95
patients.
TodeterminetheimpactoftimeontheHIV/AIDSanditscoinfectionstheKaplainMeiersurvivalcurves
willbeused.TomodelthedatausingtheAFTmodelgivenas,
U BX
o i
t t
+
= ) ( ) (

thecovariateswhich
affecttheareintroduced.TheacceleratedfailuretimefrailtymodelwillanalyzetheCD4cellcounts
toreplicathelongitudinaldataobservationsatthesurrogateendpointinconsiderationoftheclinical
endpoint.
Modelbasedinferenceoffinitepopulationtotalintwostageclustersampling.
OumaC.Onyango,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract.
ThebootstrapapproachtomodelbasedinferencewasfirstproposedbyChambersandDorfman[2002].
OumaandWafula[2005]relookedattheconditionsandextendedthiswork.Bothcasesfocusedon
simplerandomsamplingincaseswheretheauxiliaryvariablesareknownfortheentirepopulation.
Recently,Oumaetal(2010)relookedatthesamekindofinferenceintwostageclustersamplingwith
unequalclustersizes.Howeverinallthesepreviouswork,theyassumedthatthesamplingdistribution
oftheparameterswerenormal.Thismaynotnecessarilybethecaseespeciallywhenthecharacteristics
ofsamplingunitsareheterogeneous.
Thispaperconsidersthesameapproachtoconstructingbootstrapconfidenceintervalsforthe
populationtotalbutunlikethepreviousworkthesamplingproceduretakesintoaccountthe
heterogeneityofthesamplingdistributionsofdifferentclusters.Thisconsiderationenablesustochoose
differentsamplingweightsindifferentclusterswithinthesamplingframe.Thisimprovestheefficiency
oftheestimatorofthepopulationtotal.
Keywords:ModelBasedSurveys,Bootstrapping,TwoStageclustersampling
GeospatialmodelingonprevalenceofBuruliUlcerinAmansiedistrictinGhana.
DontwiI.K,Frempong,N.K.andBonyah,E.KwameNkrumahUniversityofScienceandTechnology,
Ghana
Abstract:
Buruliulcer(BU)isadiseasecausedbymycobacteriumulcerans(MU).MUisapathogenicbacterium
thatcausesdermalulcersknownasBuruliulcer(BU)isfastbecomingadebilitatingafflictioninmany
countriesworldwide.Buruliulcerhasbeenreportedinover30countrieswhereithasnotyetbeen
recognized.IfleftuntreatedBUmayleadtoextensivesofttissuedestruction,withinflammation
extendingtodeepfasciaifpatientdonotreportearlyfortreatment.Thelargenumberofcasesandthe
complicationscurrentlyassociatedwiththediseaseaswellasitslongtermsocioeconomicimpactcould
haveasubstantialeffectontheruraleconomy.Knowledgegapsabouttheexactmodeoftransmission
andfactorsthatpredisposetoinfectionmotivatethisstudy.Thisstudyemployedgeographical
informationsystems(GIS)andgeostatisticstoestablishrelationshipbetweenBUandpostulatedrisk
factorsinasubdivisionofGhana.Semivariogramswerecomputedtodeterminethestrengthandspatial
dependencyofthepatternofdiseaseaswellassummarizethevariation.Theriskofdevelopingthe
diseasewasestimatedbykriging.Ordinarykrigingwaschoseninthevariogrammodeling.
TheBUdatasetsexhibitedahighlypositivelyskewedhistogramwithpossibleoutliers.Thelengthof
spatialautocorrelation(practicalrange)wasmuchlongerthansamplinginterval(lagsize).Thekriged
mapshowedthattherearelargepatchesofBUdiseaseinthesouthernpartofthestudyareawithfew
isolatedcasesintheotherparts.ThelargepatchesweregreaterwithtownsclosertoriverOffinthan
thatofriverOdainthesouthernofthestudyarea.Thisstudyhasidentifiedthepresenceofspatial
patterninthedistributionofBUinthestudyarea.Throughgeostatisticsprocedures,nonrandomnessin
thedistributionofBUandtheidentificationofunusualconcentrationofBUincidencehasbeen
identifiedandarsenicmaybeimplicatedintheBuruliulcerdisease.
Keywords:Variogram,kriging,geographicalinformationsystems,spatialpatterns,semivariograms
ComputationalGroupTestingStrategy
K.L.Nyongesa,MasindeMuliroUniversity&J.W.Mwangi,EgertonUniversity.
Abstract:
ScreeningofpooledurinesamplewassuggestedduringtheSecondWorldWarasamethodforreducing
thecostofdetectingsyphilisinU.S.soldiers.Recently,poolinghasbeenusedinepidemiologicalstudies
forscreeningforhumanimmunodeficiencyvirusHIV/AIDSantibodytohelpcurbthespreadofthevirus.
Poolingreducesthecostbutalsoandmoreimportantlyoffersafeasiblewaytolowerthe
misclassificationsassociatedwithlabelingsampleswhenimperfectstestsareused.Furthermore,
misclassificationscanbereducedbyretestinginthepooltestingprocedure.Thisstudywilldevelopa
computationalgrouptestingmodel;statisticalmeasureswillbecomputed.Theefficiencyofthedesign
willbecomparedwithindividualtesting.
PrincipalcomponentandClusteranalysisanapproachtogoatmarketsegmentationin
MatebelelandProvinceZimbabwe.
GovereW.,ChinofungaP.T.,CharumbiraW.F.,ChikudoE,MidlandsStateUniversity,Zimbabwe.

Abstract:
Zimbabwesgoatpopulationisestimatedtobe3million(SmallRuminantBreedsJ.L.Sikosana).Of
theseonly2%arefoundinthecommercialsectorand98%inthesmallholdersector(Sabine
Homann(2007)Goatproductionandmarketing).Thisreflectsthatmarketingconstraintsare
eradicatingcommercialmindsetofgoatfarmers.Scantattentionhasbeenpaidtodatetothese
marketingconstraintsandthereforearepoorlyunderstoodandincompetentlydocumented.This
paperseekstounveilkeymarketingconstraintsthatarebeingfacedbygoatfarmersacrosssix
districtsofSouthernZimbabwe.Thiswillbedonebydeterminingprincipalfactorsintermsof
marketvariablesofsixdistrictsthrough
factorreductionmethod.Thereaftersimilaritiesanddissimilaritiesthatexistinexistinggoat
marketinginfrastructureandstrategiesamongdistrictswillbedetermined.
Keywords:Principalcomponent,Clusteranalysis,marketsegmentation

Modelbasednonparametricestimationofthefinitepopulationtotalundertwostagecluster
sampling.
KarokiSamuel,CatholicUniversity,OdongoLeoandKahiriJames,KenyattaUniversity.
Abstract:
Adesignfree,modelbasednonparametricregressionestimatorforthefinitepopulationtotalunder
twostageclustersamplingisproposed.Asymptoticpropertiesoftheestimatorareinvestigatedby
derivingitsAsymptoticMeanIntegratedSquaredError(AMISE).Inparticulartheapplicabilityofthe
AMISEtothechoiceofbandwidthisexplored.Itisshownthatpluginmethodsforestimating
bandwidthbasedontheAMISEwillbeineffective.Theresultsofanempiricalstudyareusedtocompare
theperformanceoftheproposedestimatorwiththatofthelinearregressionestimatorandtwolocal
polynomialregressionestimatorsofthetotalincurrentuse.Itisobservedthattheestimatorperforms
better(intermsofefficiency)thanthelinearregressionestimatorifthereisamodelmisspecification
andcomparesfavourablywiththeothernonparametricestimators(thatusedesignproperties)in
mostsituations.Itisalsonotedthattheproposedestimatordoesnotrequiretheinclusionprobabilities
toimplementasisthecasewiththelocalpolynomialestimators.
Key words: Cluster Sampling: Nonparametric Estimation: DesignFree: Asymptotic Mean Integrated
SquaredError
ModellingstraydogsinGweruurban.
CharumbiraW.F.,GovereW.,ChinofungaP.T.andBorerweT,MidlandStateUniversity,Zimbabwe

Abstract:
ThispaperseekstomodelstraydogsinGweruurbanusingthelogisticmodels.Thedataforstraydogs
wassuppliedbyZimbabweSocietyforthePreventionofCruelitytoAnimals(SPCA).Twocontrol
measureswereconsidered;euthanasiaandsterilization.Modelsforeachofthesewereformulated.The
differentialequationsweresolvedusingtheMATLAB.Itwasrealizedthateuthnasiaismoreeffectivein
aperiodoflessthan8yearsthansterilization.
Keywords:straydogs,sterilization,euthanasia.
AmodelformisclassificationerrorsinSingleStageclustersampling.KahiriJames,Odongo

L.O,
KenyattaUniversity,KarokiSamuel,CatholicUniversityofEastAfrica,Kenya.
Abstract: Singlestageclustersamplingis
consideredwherethestudyvariableisbinaryandaffectedbymisclassificationerrors.Instudiescarried
outbefore,ithasbeenfoundthatpopulationunitscanconsistentlybemisclassifiedfromonecategory
toanother,resultinginasymmetricalerrors.Intheourmodel,correlatedmisclassificationerrorsare
assumed.Anempiricalstudyiscarriedouttoinvestigatetheeffectofmisclassificationerrorsonthe
estimateofthepopulationproportion.Itisobservedthatthebiasoftheestimateofthepopulation
proportioncanberelativelylargeforsmallpopulationproportions.
Keywords:Misclassificationerrors,simpleresponseerrors,correlatederrors.
SequentialBayesiananalysisofbinomialopinionpolls
KiingatiJeremiah,Dr.SamuelMwalili,Dr.AnthonyWaitituJKUAT,Kenya
Abstract:
Bayesianstatisticstakesapriorprobabilitystatementaboutapopulationparameterandthenmodify
thesepriorbeliefsinthelightofcurrentandrelevantdatainordertoarriveataposteriorknowledge
withlessuncertainty.OpinionpolldatachangefromtimetotimethereforeaBayesianmodelisthebest
optionsincethepreviousmeasurecanbeusedasthepriorofthecurrentmeasure.Inthispaperour
concernistomodeltheproportionofvotesbetweentwocandidates,incumbentandChallenger.A
BayesianmodelofourbinomialvariableofinterestwillbeappliedsequentiallytotheKopinionpoll
datasetsinordertoarriveataposteriorprobabilitystatement.
AutomatedTellerMachineReliability,ProblemsandRisks
ChinofungaP.T.,CharumbiraW.F.,GovereW.D.,DzvukeG,MidlandsStateUniversity,Zimbabwe.

Abstract:
Asmachinesanddevicesaremanufactured,engineersanddesignerstryashardaspossibletobe
perfectandproducedevicesthatperformtooptimallevels.However,nomatterhowgoodthedesign
is,itispronetofailureatsomestageinitslifetime.Thisisbecausedevicesaremostlymadeofmoving
parts,whichmaywearoutduetofriction,orelectroniccomponentswhichmaybeaffectedbythe
environmenttheyfunctionin.Thisbringsabouttheproblemofdevicereliability.Thispaperaimsat
comingupwithreliabilitymodelsforAutomatedTellerMachines(ATMs)thatcanbeextendedtoother
computerhardware.ExistingreliabilitygrowthmodelsliketheDuanereliabilitygrowthmodel,Weibull
distributedmodelsandExponentialmodels,wereusedasfoundationformodelformulation.
ComparisonsweremadebetweensimulateddataandactualdatacollectedovertimeatalocalBuilding
societyBankinZimbabwe.Theresultsindicatethatthevalueofthehazardratefunctionis0.02.This
meansthattheprobabilityoffailureinaverysmallintervaloftimeisverylowandweareunlikelytoget
afailureinsuchaninterval.Themeantimebeforefailure(MTBF)is28.704whichtranslatesto28days
beforeafailureatthestatedvaluesofk(theaveragefailurerateofthesystem)and,theinitialnumber
offailuresattime.Thisisafairlylargeperiodthatprovidessomeconfidencethatthesystemisreliable.

Keywords:Reliability,Failure
Anumericalsimulatortoestimatehydrologicparametersofafractureusingfluoresceinthermal
decaycorrection.
BensonWangombe,WillisAmbussoandPeterOmenda,KenyattaUniversity
Abstract:
Anumericalsolutiontomodeltheflowoffluoresceintracerinafracturedhightemperature
geothermalsystemispresented.Resultsofthisstudyshowthatcorrectingforfluoresceindecayat
elevatedtemperaturescanbeusedtoyieldreservoirhydrologicparametersandimprovethemethods
ofevaluatingeffectsofinjectedfluidsonreservoirtemperature.Thehydrologicparametersforthis
studyarebetterthanthoseobtainedusingothermethods.Thisoutcomewasobtainedbysolvingthe
materialandtracerbalanceequationsthatwerefullydiscretizedusingintegralfinitedifferenceand
solvedusingGaussSeidalrecursivemethods.Thisprovesthatcomputationalmethodssuchasthose
usedherecanbeusedforindustrialapplication.
OndecompositionofcurvaturetensorsinconformalFinslerspaces.
J.K.GatotoandS.P.Singh,KenyattaUniversity.
Abstract:
M.S Knebelman (1929) has developed conformal geometry of generalized spaces. R.B Misra (1967) has
obtained Bianchi identities satisfied by curvature tensors in a conformal Finsler space. The
decomposition of recurrent curvature tensors in Finsler space was studied by B.B. Sinha and S.P.Singh
(1972). The present authors (2001), C.K.Mishra and Gautam Lodhi (2008) have decomposed curvature
tensors in recurrent Finsler space . The object of the present paper is to study the decomposition of
curvature tensor fields
i
rjk
i
rjk
K H , in conformal Finsler space. In the paper several important theorems
areestablished.
AMathematicalmodelforthespreadandcontroloftuberculosisonapopulationwithtemporally
immunity.
CyprianTuryatemba,JuliusTumwiine,MbararaUniversty,Uganda
Abstract:
TheSEIRepidemicmodelforthespreadandcontroloftuberculosisstudiedincludesconstantinflowsof
newsusceptible,exposedsandinfectives.Thismodelalsoincorporatesacontactrateandadisease
relateddeathrate.Astheinfectedfractionoftheexposedandinfectioussubgroupscannotbe
eliminatedfromthepopulation,thiskindofthemodelhasonlytheuniqueendemicequilibriumthatis
globallyasymptoticallystable.However,intheabsenceoftheinfectedinflows,themodelwillhavea
diseasefreeequilibriumpoint.Weprovethattheendemicequilibriumpointisgloballyasymptotically
stablewhenthebasicreproductivenumber,R
o
,isgreaterthanunity.Whilethediseasefreeequilibrium
pointisgloballyasymptoticallystablewhenR
o
islessthanunity.Numericalsimulationsarealso
providedtoillustratetheanalyticalresults.
Applicationoffourierseriesto1,2,3dimensionalsignalswithexamplesinmatlab.
EyramSchwinger,UniversityofGhana,Ghana.

Abstract:
WhenJosephFourierderivedtheconceptoftheFourierseries,hewasonlyconsideringthesolutionof
theheatequation.Today,theFourierSeriesanditsgeneralization,theFourierTransformhavebecome
indispensable in the area of signal and image processing. The general solution of the heat equation is
theconvolutionofthedirichletkernelandtheinitialcondition.Ingeneral,signaldiffusionisachieved
by convolving one signal with an impulse response function. The problem with convolution is that it is
computationally expensive. Fourier transforms however give us a way out. With the Fast Fourier
Transform(FFT), we can perform Fourier Transform conversion as a O(N logN) problem and perform
elementwise multiplication which is faster. In this talk we apply Fourier transforms to 1dimensional
signals (sound), 2dimensional signals (images) and 3dimensional signal (3D images / volumes). We
lookathowmuchinformationwecanretrievefromsound_lesinthefrequencydomainandthetime
frequencyrepresentationofa1dimensionalsignal.Welookatsuchlowpassfilteringasaconvolution
withthegaussianandthe1and2dimensionalpulsesignalsandtheircorrespondingoperationsinthe
frequencydomainaselementwisemultiplicationwiththeFouriertransformrepresentationofthepulse
(sinc)andgaussiansignals,highpassfilteringasdiscretedifferentiationandasfrequencyspacefiltering.
Wewillalsolookatimagerestoration andenhancementinthefrequency domain,removalofperiodic
noise in signals using Fourier transforms and the application of the projection slice theorem to the
visualizationofthreedimensionalimages.

Amathematicalmodelfortransmissionandcontrolofbovinebrucellosisincattlepopulations.
GodwinRobert,MbararaUniversity,Uganda.
Abstract: Brucellosisisaninfectious,
contagiousdiseaseofanimalsandmancausedbyabacteriumofgenusBrucella.Thediseasecausing
organismisfoundinbloodandurineofinfectedanimalsandisabundantinfluidsandmembranesof
infectedabortinganddeliveringanimals.Itiscommunicabletomanbyinfectedanimalproductslike
unpasteurizedmilkandcheeseandpoorlypreparedmeat.Amathematicalmodelfortransmissionand
controlofbovinebrucellosisincattlepopulationsisconstructedtoprovideabetterunderstandingof
thediseaseanditsimpacttowardstheanimalpopulations.ThemodeldevelopedisbasedonSIRSmodel
.Modelanalysisiscarriedouttoestablishthestabilityoftheequilibriumpoints.Thethreshhold
parameterwhichisthebasicreproductivenumberRo,iscalculated.Theanalysisrevealsconditions
underwhichbrucellosiscanclear,whenRo<1orpersistinanimalpopulationswhenRo>1.Some
numericalsimulationsofthemodelarepresentedanddiscussed.
MHDboundarylayerflowofachemicallyreactivefluidoverahorizontalflatplatewithsuction,
IbrahimYakubuSeini

Abstract:
Ananalysisispresentedforamagnetohydrodynamicboundarylayerflowofachemicallyreactingfluid
overamovinghorizontalflatplatewithsuction.Theeffectofuniformsuctiononthevelocity,thermal
andconcentrationboundarylayersarepresentedusingthenewtonraphsonalgorismalongsidethe
rungekuttaintegrationscheme.Theskinfrictioncoefficient,therateofheatandmasstransferrates
arepresentedwithrespecttovariousvaryingparametersanddiscussedquantitatively.

MACmodelforanelasticplate.
IgorNeygebauer,UniversityofDodoma,Tanzania

Abstract:
ThemethodofadditionalconditionsorMACisappliedtotheboundaryvalueproblemsofmathematical
physics,wheretheclassicalsolutiondoesnotexistoranonphysicalgeneralizedsolutionisobtained.The
elasticplateunderatransversalforceappliedatsomepointinsidetheplanedomainoftheplatecreates
thesolutionwithsingularityinbendingmomentsandcorrespondingstresses.TheMACmodelis
introducedtoavoidtheabovenonphysicalsingularities.ThebeammodelisabasistocreatetheMAC
modelforanelasticplate.Usingtheprincipleofsuperpositiontheintegrodifferentialequationofthe
MACmodelisobtained.Theboundaryconditionsatthepointinsidedomaincouldbearbitrarythatis
nottrueintheclassicalplateproblem.

Splitoperatormethodforparabolicpartialdifferentialequations.
NthiiriJoyceKagendo,MaryOkombo,ShemAway,MasindeMuliroUniversityandMichaelOduor
Okoya,MasenoUniversity.
Abstract:
Inmanymathematicalmodelsdifferentialequationsofdifferenttypessuchasparabolicpartial
differentialequationsareintegratedintime.Thisisdonewiththehelpofoperatorsplittingmethods.
Thesplittingappliedissimpleandstraightforwardtoapply,independentoftheorderofthesplit
operators,sincethespatialvariablesinagivenequationcanbeeasilyidentified.Inthispaperweuse
operatorsplittingmethodtoobtainnumericalsolutionsofseepageparabolicpartialdifferential
equations.Thenumericalschemedevelopedusingtheoperatorsplittingtechniquehasadditionalmesh
pointsascomparedtotheknownstandardfinitedifferenceschemes.Thedevelopedschemethatis
implicitandthusstableforallvaluesofmeshratio,hasanincreasedorderofaccuracy.Numerical
resultswereobtainedusingMathematica,tabulatedgraphicalpresentationsmade.
Mathematicalmodelformalariaandmeningitiscoinfectionamongchildren.
LawiG.Owuor,OmoloOngati,MasenoUniversity,KenyaandMugishaJ.Y.T.,N.,MakerereUniversity

Abstract:
DiseasessuchasHIV/AIDS,malariaandtuberculosisareahindrancetoeconomicdevelopment,
especiallyindevelopingcountrieswherehugeresourcesarespentintreatmentandprevention.
Coupledwithpoverty,manypreventableinfectiousdiseasesareathreattochildsurvivalinthe
developingworld,whereaccesstogoodnutrition,sanitationandhealthcareispoor.Inthispaper,a
mathematicalmodelforthedynamicsofmalariaandmeningitiscoinfectionamongchildrenunderfive
yearsofageisdevelopedandanalysed.WeestablishthebasicreproductionnumberRmmforthe
model,whichisameasureofthecourseofthe
coinfection.Theanalysisshowsthatthediseasefreeequilibriumofthemodelmaynotbeglobally
asymptoticallystablewheneverRmmislessthanunity.TheCentreManifoldtheoremisusedtoshow
thatthemodelhasauniqueendemicequilibriumwhichislocallyasymptoticallystablewhenRmm<1
andunstablewhenRmm>1.Wededuce,fromthenumericalsimulations,thatareductioninmalaria
infectioncaseseitherthroughprotectionorprompteffectivetreatment,whichisdependentonthe
socioeconomicstatusofacommunity,wouldreducethenumberofnewcoinfectioncases.Thepublic
healthimplicationisthatthefightagainstmalariaandreemergingchildhooddiseasessuchas
meningitismaybewonbycomprehensivelaboratorytestingtoruleoutorconfirmcoinfectioncases.

AnIterativeProcedureforSolvingaCauchyProblemfortheHelmholtzEquation.
LydieMpinganzima,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.

Abstract:
AniterativeprocedureforsolvingaCauchyproblemfortheHelmholtzequationisproposed.Ineach
iterationoftheprocedurewellposedmixedboundaryvalueproblemsaresolved.Theproblemis
severelyillposedinthesensethatsmallerrorsinthedatamaycauseverylargeerrorsinthecomputed
solution.Whenourproposedmethodisusedtogetherwithasuitablestoppingcriterionweobtaina
regularizationoftheoriginalillposedproblem.Bothanalyticalandexperimentalresultsdemonstrate
thatthemethodworkswell.

ThisisjointworkwithVladimirKozlov,BengtOveTuresson,andFredrikBerntsson.Linkoping
University,Sweden.

AnalysisofunsteadyhydromagneticthermalboundarylayeroveraflatplatewithNavierslipanda
convectivesurfaceboundarycondition.
OluwoleDanielMakinde,SouthAfrica.

Abstract:
Thehydromagneticthermalboundarylayeroveraflatsurfaceisofinterestinseveralengineeringand
geophysicalapplicationssuchasgeothermalreservoirs,thermalinsulation,enhancedoilrecovery,
packedbedcatalyticreactors,coolingofnuclearreactors.Moreover,manyexperimentalresultshave
providedevidencestosupportthepossibilityofslipconditionatthefluidsolidinterface.Inthistalk,the
combinedeffectsofNavierslip,flowunsteadinessandmagneticfieldonboundarylayerflowofan
electricallyconductingNewtonianfluidoveraflatplatewithaconvectivesurfaceboundaryconditionis
examined.Bytakingsuitablesimilarityvariables,thegoverningboundarylayerequationsare
transformedintoasetofnonlinearcoupledordinarydifferentialequationsandthensolvednumerically
usingshootingalgorithmwithRungeKuttaFehlbergintegrationschemeovertheentirerangeof
physicalparameters.Theeffectsofkeyparametersonthefluidvelocity,temperature,localskinfriction
andNusseltnumberintheflowregimearedepictedgraphicallyandanalyzedindetail.
Effectsofinternalheatgeneration,thermalradiation,andbuoyancyforceonboundarylayerovera
verticalplatewithaconvectivesurfaceboundarycondition.
OlanrewajuPhilipOladapo,CovenantUniversity,Nigeria.

Abstract:
Inthispaperweanalyzetheeffectsofinternalheatgeneration,thermalradiation,andbuoyancyforce
onthelaminarboundarylayeraboutaverticalplateinauniformstreamoffluidunderaconvective
surfaceboundarycondition.Intheanalysis,weassumedthattheleftsurfaceoftheplateisincontact
withahotfluidwhileastreamofcoldfluidflowssteadilyovertherightsurfacewithaheatsourcethat
decaysexponentially.Similarityvariablemethodisappliedtothesteadystategoverningnonlinear
partialdifferentialequationsandwastransformedintoasetofcouplednonlinearordinarydifferential
equations,whicharesolvednumericallybyapplyingshootingiterationtechniquetogetherwithsixth
orderRungeKuttaintegrationschemeforbetteraccuracy.TheeffectsofPrandtlnumber,localBiot
number,theinternalheatgenerationparameter,thermalradiation,andthelocalGrashofnumberon
thevelocityandtemperatureprofilesareillustratedandinterpretedinphysicalterms.Acomparison
withpreviouslypublishedresultsonspecialcaseoftheproblemshowsexcellentagreement.

OnNcurvatureinheritanceinFinslerspaces.
J.K.Gatoto,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
S.B Misra and A.K.Misra (1984) have studied affine motion in RNP Finsler space. U.P. Singh and
A.K.Singh (1981) have defined Ncurvature collineation and discussed the existence of Ncurvature of
different types.in Finsler space. Recently S.P.Singh (2003) has introduced and studied projective
curvatureinheritanceinFinslerspace.J.K.GatotoandS.P.Singh(2008)haveinvestigatedanddiscussed
projective curvature inheritance in finsler space for the relative curvature tensor. C.K.Mishra and
D.D.Yadav(2007)haveinvestigatedanddiscussedprojectivecurvatureinheritanceinnormalprojective
Finsler space. In the present paper, the author has studied Ncurvature inheritance in Finsler spaces.
SomespecialcasesofNcurvatureinheritancearealsodiscussed.SeveralimportantTheoremsarealso
establishedandformulated.
ANumericalMethodforImprovingShieldedThermocoupleAccuracy.
FredrikBerntsson,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.

Abstract:
A shielded thermocouple is a measurement device used for monitoring the temperature in chemically,
or mechanically, hostile environments. The sensitive parts of the thermocouple are protected by a
shielding layer. In order to improve the accuracy of the measurement device we study an inverse heat
conduction problem where the temperature on the surface of the shielding layer is sought; given
measuredtemperaturesintheinteriorofthethermocouple.

MathematicallywecanformulatetheproblemasaCauchyproblemfortheheatequation,incylindrical
coordinates, where data is given along the line r = r1 and the solution is sought at r1 < r _ r2. The
problem is illposed, in the sense that the solution (if it exists) does not depend continuously on the
data.Thusregularizationtechniques
are needed. The illposedness of the problem is analyzed and a numerical method is proposed.
Numericalexperimentsdemonstratethattheproposedmethodworkswell.

This is joint work with Yves Nyalihama and Fidele Ndahayo, National University of Rwanda, Butare,
Rwanda.

Generalizedequationofviscousflowthroughnoncircularflowchannels.
GeorgeXyplagusStower,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Inthispaperthelengthscaleforaflowpassagewhosecrosssectionisnoncircularisobtained.An
attemptismadetogeneralizetheestimateofthedischargethroughirregularcrosssectionsby
introducingtheconceptofshapefactor,Faconstantforagivencrosssection,andthederivedformof
lengthscale.Poiseullesequationisfoundtobeaspecialcaseofthisgeneralizeddischargeequation
withF=1.Theproblemofslowviscousflowthroughapipeofrectangularcrosssectionissolvedand
thedischargeequationobtainedgivesashapefactorvalueofF=1.111.
Amathematicalmodelforthecontrolofbananabacterialwiltdisease.
KweyungaEliabHorub&TumwiineJulius,MbararaUniversity,Uganda.
Abstract:
Bananabacterialwilt,causedbyxanthomonascampestrispv.musacearumisaverydestructiveand
rapidlyspreadingdiseasewhichaffectsallknowngrownbananavarieties.Presentlythereisnocureand
noresistantbananacultivars.Inthispaper,adeterministicSIplantepidemicmodelhasbeenproposed
andanalyzed.Themodelisbasedontheintegrateddiseasemanagementcomponentofculturalcontrol
strategies.Culturalcontrolinvolvescontinuous(orperiodic)inspectionsfollowedbyremovalofdiseased
plants(calledrouging)andreplantingofhealthyplants.Theexistenceandstabilityofequilibriaare
determinedandanalyzed.KeyintheanalysisisthebasicreproductivenumberR
0
,thethresholdthat
determineswhetherthediseasewillpersistordieoutinthepopulation.Parameterestimationsand
computersimulationhavebeencarriedout.
Keywords:bananabacterialwilt,diseasemanagement,basicreproductivenumber,endemic
equilibriumandstability.
Actionof

I on Z.
I.N.Kamuti,E.B.InyangalaandJ.K.Rimberia
Abstract:
Let ( ) Z = I , 2 PSL ;themodulargroup.Theactionof Iontherationalprojectiveline { } =
.
Q Q
hasbeenstudiedbyseveralauthors.Jones,SingermanandWickshaveshownthat Iactstransitively
on
.
Qandthestabilizerofapointisaninfinitecyclicgroup.Inthispapersomepropertiesof

I
(stabilizerof )on Zhavebeeninvestigated.Ithasbeenshownthattheactionissimplytransitiveand
imprimitive.Somepropertiesofthesuborbitalgraphscorrespondingtothisactionhavealsobeen
determined.
ApplicationsofuidealsinBanachspaces
KayiitaZ.Kaunda,BaratonUniversity,Kenya

Abstract:
FirstintroducedbyCasazzaandKalton,uidealsaregeneralizationsofMideals.SupposeYisareal
Banachspace.WeshalldefinethatontheoptimalconditionwhenthecanonicaldecompositionX
X*isunconditional,asubspaceXofaBanachspaceYtobeauidealifthereisanhermitianprojection
P(respectivelyaprojectionPwith_I2P_=1)onYwithkernelX.Inthispaperweundertakeageneral
studyofthenotionofidealswhichwasintroducedbyGodefroy,KaltonandSaphar,extendthisconcept
touideals,wefurthercharacterizethestrictuidealsandthenconsidertheapplicationsofuidealsin
BanachSpaces.FortheapplicationsofuidealsinBanachspaces,inanyBanachspaceweshallconsider
thespacesXembeddedintheirbidualsthatisBanachspacesXwhichareuidealsinX.

Signmatricesforframesof2
n
onsunderSmithConwayandCayleyDicksonmultiplications.
BenardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Therehasbeenagreatdesiretodevelopdoublingformulasthatgivebetteralgebraic
structuresasthedimensionsofthealgebrassoformedincrease.Wheneverthesedoubling
formulasareapplied,severalinterestingloopandalgebraicpropertiesareobservedonthe
structuressoformed.TheCayleyDicksonformulaisgivenby ( ) c b da b d ac d c b a + = , ) , )( , ( while
theSmithConwaydoublingformulais

=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=

0 if ) ( ,
0 if ) , (
) , )( , (
1
b d b a b c b d b ac
b d a ac
d c b a .
AHadamardmatrixoforder nisa n n matrix H withentries 1 suchthat
n
T
nI HH = where
n
I
istheidentity n n matrix.Itisshownthatthesignmatricesfortheframemultiplicationunderthe
SmithConwayandCayleyDicksonmultiplicationsareskewHadamardmatrices.
Kroneckerproductsarealsointroduced,anditisshownthatthesignmatricesforthequaternionand
octonionframesareequivalenttoKroneckerproducts.
Rankandsubdegreesofthesymmetricgroup
n
S actingonorderedrelementsubsets.
RimberiaKagwiriaJane,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Theactionofthesymmetricgroup
n
S onorderedsubsetsfromtheset { } 1, 2, , X n = isanaspect
thatseemstohavereceivedlittleattentionforalongtime.Moststudieshavefocusedontheactionof
n
S onunorderedsubsetsleavingmanypropertiesaboutitsactiononorderedsubsetsunknown.Inthis
paper,wedeterminetherankandsubdegreesof
n
S actingon
| | r
X ,thesetofallorderedrelement
subsetsfromX.Particularcaseswhen 2, 3 r = and4willbeconsideredfirstandthenageneralization
willbemadeforanyvalueofrandn.Intheactionof
n
S

on
| | | | 2 3
, X X and
| | 4
X ,therankisshownto
be7,34and209respectively.Bygeneralizingtheseresults,wehavecomeupwiththeformulasforthe
rankandsubdegreesof
n
S actingon
| | r
X .Theresultsshowthattherankisafunctionofralone
provided 2 n r > whilethesubdegreesarefunctionsofbothrandn.Theactionof
n
S on
| | r
X isalso
showntobetransitivebutimprimitive.Wehavealsoformulatedtheconditionsforasuborbitof
n
S
correspondingtothisactiontobeeitherselfpairedorpairedwithanother.Aformulaforcomputingthe
numberofselfpairedsuborbitshasalsobeenderivedusingcharactertheory.
ExactMinimizerandDuality.
JaphetNiyobuhungiro,LinkopingUniversity,Sweden.

Abstract:
Denoising is one of the most fundamental problems in image processing. The problem of image
denoisingistofindaclearimage
n
S fromanoisyimage.TheRudinOsherFatemi(ROF)'sTVdenois
ingmodelisoneofthemostsuccessfulmethodsfordenoisingandsuggeststakingasanapproximation
to u a ut which minimizes the functional
|
.
|

\
|
+
e
=
BV
l
u t
u t u u
BV u
BV l L
2
2
, ,
2
2
1
inf
) , (
o
o
where BV
denotesthespaceoffunctionsofboundedvariationonarectangulardomain_R2.Inthispaperwewill
show what happens with the exact minimizer of Lt;u_ (l2;X) under the duality, where X is in general a
Banach space. With examples in concrete situations for
1
l X = and BV X = we show why it is
important to construct exact minimizer. Results connected with characteristics of exact minimizer are
alsoderived.
Keywords:Exact
Oncharacterizationof u idealsdeterminedbysequences.
JohnWanyonyiMatuya,NarokUniversity,ShemAywaandAchilesSimiyu,MasindeMuliroUniversity,
Kenya.
Abstract:
The area of ideals is important in the study of Analysis, algebra, Geometry and Computer science. The
varioustypesofidealshavebeenstudied,forexample m idealsand h ideals.The m idealsdefinedon
realBanachspacesarereferredtoas u ideals.Thenaturalexamplesof u idealswithrespecttotheir
biduals, are order continuous Banach lattices. Using the approximation property, we shall study
propertiesof u idealsandtheircharacterization.Wedefinethesetofcompactoperators ( ) K X on
X to be u ideal given that X is a separable reflexive Banach space with approximation property if
andonlyifthereisasequence ( )
n
T offiniterankofoperatorswith
lim
2 1
n n
I T

= and
lim
n n
T x x

= .
Weshallshowthat u idealscontainingnocopiesofsequences
1
arestrict u ideals.
Mathematicsasthekeyinstrumentinmoderntechnology.
JosephatItambu,UniversityofDodoma,Tanzania.

Abstract:
Mathematicsbeingakeyinstrumentinsciencesplaysabigroleindevelopmentofanysociety.Early
mathematiciansusedtorelatemathematicalconceptsinsolvingproblemswhicharedirectlyfacingthe
society.Nowadays,scienceandtechnologyisrapidlygrowingandallresearchrelatingsciencesand
mathematicsdealwiththedeterminationofefficientmethodsinsolvingsuchproblems.Theroleof
mathematicsasatoolfordevelopmentcanbeobservedifandonlyifthepositiveimpactonproblems
facingthesociety.InAfricaforinstance,mainproblemsinvolveeconomicanddevelopment
planning,diseases,poortechnologyandcommunicationskills.

Usingmathematicalconceptsandbytheaidcomputerprogramsmathematicalmodelscanlogicallybe
created.Thesecanbeusedfordifferentusessuchassolvingproblemsineconomy,finance,industrial
production,optimizationinbusinessandplanning.Similarlyusingmathematicsparticularlyincodesand
cryptography,wecanseupsecuritysystem.Moreover,inordertodealwithecological,healthand
environmentalproblems,mathematicsplaysafundamentalrole.

Mostofdevelopingcountriesarewithpoortechnologythatleadsthemnottodevelop.Poverty,
diseasesandignorancestillarecrucialenemiesofthesecountries.NaturallyAfricaisveryrichbuther
peopleareverypoor.Africanlandisfertileandhenceitisgoodforagriculturalactivities.Furthermore,
activitiessuchasfishingindustry,miningandtourismactivitiesmighthaveagreatchanceinthe
developmentofourcountries.Themainproblemisthelackoffacilitiesaswellasexperts.

Keyword:programming,simulation,cryptography,portfolio,optimization,biostatistics.

SedenionExtensionLoopsandFramesofGeneralHypercomplexNumbers.
NjugunaLydiaNyambura,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Thisresearchisonhypercomplexnumbers.Thesearenumberswhichareobtainedbyextending
complexnumbersusingvariousdoublingformulae.Theyinclude4dimensionalquaternions,8
dimensionaloctonions,16dimensionalsedenionsandthegeneral 2
n
dimensional 2
n
ons.
Considerthenonnegativenumbers
+
Z ={0,1,2,3,}.Nimadditiongivesawayofdefiningadditionin
+
Z tomakeitafieldofcharacteristic2.TheNimsumofanumberofdistinctpowersof2isthe
ordinarysumwhiletheNimsumoftwoequalnumbersisto0.Inthispaperweperformthe
multiplicationofbasiselementsofcomplex,quaternion,octonionandsedenionsplitextensionsusing
theJonathanSmithformula.IneachcaseweshowthatthemultiplicationisrelatedtoNimaddition.We
alsoshowthatthemultiplicationofsplitextensionsforgeneral
n
2 onscanbeviewedintermsofNim
addition.
Banachspaceidealstructuresinoperatorideals.
MakilaPatrickWanjala,AywaShem&SimiyuAchile,MasindeMuliroUniversity.
Abstract:
ThetheoryofoperatorIdealsisplayinganimportantroleinthestudyofthestructuresoflocallyconvex
spacessuchasBanachspaces.WeinourresearchaimtofocusonIdealsofoperatorsinwhichtheIdeals
ofcompactoperators(orfiniterankoperatorsornuclearoperatosorIntegraloperators),willbe
Ideals,uIdealsandhIdeals.ThiswillbeinthesensethattheyholdforeverypairX,YofBanachspace.Of
furtherinteresttoanyBanachspacespecialistisourdemonstrationthatsometimestheintrinsic
characteristicsoftheclassofoperatorsconsideredratherthanthestractureoftheunderlyingspaces
determinetheIdealproperties.
OnthecharacterizationofclassR1ofnonnormaloperatorsinaHilbertspace.
MileJustusKitheka,UniversityofNairobi
Abstract:
Thestudyofnormaloperatorsissosuccessfulthatmuchofthetheoryofnonnormaloperatorsis
modelledafterit.Inthispaper,wegiveacharacterizationofclassR1ofoperatorswhichwasintroduced
byPaulR.Halmosinthecourseofstudyingreducibleoperators.HalmosshowedthatR1containsthe
normalandisometricoperators.InparticularweshowthatifaboundedoperatorTisnormaloid,
spectraloid,paranormal,orhyponormalthenTisinR1.Also,ifTishyponormal,oriswiththesequential
G1property,orhastheG1property;thenforanycompactoperatorK,T+KisinR1.
Keywords:ClassR1,normaloid,spectraloid,paranormal,hyponormal,sequentialG1property.

Idealsofthepolynomialring | | x F ( ) 1 mod
n
x forerrorcontrolincomputerapplications.
OlegeFanuel&AywaShem,MasindeMuliroUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
AnonemptysubsetBofaringAiscalledanidealofAifBisclosedwithrespecttoadditionand
negativesandBabsorbsproductsinA.TheconceptofidealswasfirstintroducedbyErnstKummerwith
theaimofpreservingthenotionofuniquefactorizationincertainringsofalgebraicintegers.This
researchprovidesidealsofthepolynomialsring | | x F ( ) 1 mod
n
x associatedwiththe
codewordsofacycliccodeC.IfthesetofpolynomialscorrespondingtocodewordsisgivenbyI(c),an
idealof | | x F ( ) 1 mod
n
x ,weareabletoshowthatCisacycliccode.Principalidealsofcycliccodes
aredefinedfromanewviewpointinvolvingpolynomials.Thepotentialitiesofthesecodesforerror
controlincomputerapplicationsaredescribedindetail.
SameandequivalentlinearcodesinrelationtocategorisingGoppacodes.
GovereWandSibandaD,MidlandsStateUniversity,Zimbabwe

Abstract:
InrecentresearchithasbecomeclearthatthenumbersofextendedGoppacodesisfarfewerthatthe
numberofnonextendedGoppacodes.Forexamplethereare56Goppacodesoflength32(degree4)
butthese56codescollapsetoonly4codeswhenextended.Insomecases17codescollapsedtoone
codeandinanothercase5codescollapsedtoonecode.ThisisthecasewithotherclassesofGoppa
codes.SothepossibilityofcategorizingGoppacodesthroughtheirextendedversionsarises.Thisraises
manyquestions;howeverinthispaperwetrytofindthenumberofdifferentlinearcodesthatwhen
extendedgivethesamecodedistinguishingbetweensameandequivalent.
Keywords:Samelinearcodes,equivalentlinearcodes,Goppacodes
TheM
0
matrixcompletionproblemforselected4*4matrices,p=4andq=4;Digraphswithout
completion.
PeterWaweru,CeciliaMwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandBernardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity.
Abstract:
ArealmmmatrixissaidtobeanM
0
matrixifallitsprincipalminorsarenonnegativeandallofits
nondiagonalentriesarenonpositive.Inthispaper,weconsidertheM
0
matrixcompletionproblem.
Weshowthatanydiagraphforp=4andq=4whichiseitheracycleoracliquedoesnothaveM
0

completion.
Keywords:Matrix,M
0
completion,Diagraph,CycleandClique

Ontheunitgroupsofcompletelyprimaryfiniteringsofcharacteristicp.
OwinoMauriceOduor,MasenoUniversity

Abstract:
ConsideracommutativecompletelyprimaryniteringRwiththeuniquemaximalidealJsuchthatJ3=
(0),J26=(0).ThentheresidueeldR=JisisomorphictotheGaloiseldoforderprandthecharacteristic
ofRispk,where1k3forsomeprimepandpositiveintegerr:SupposeR0=GR(pkr;pk)isaGalois
subringofRsothatR=R0UVW,whereU;VandWarenitelygeneratedR0moduleswiths;t
andasthenumbersofelementsinthegeneratingsetsforU,VandWrespectively.Inthispaper,we
determineingeneralthestructureoftheunitgroupRofRforanypositiveintegers,t=1;1and
characteristicofRisp:
Keywords:unitgroups,completelyprimaryfiniterings
Necessaryconditionsfortheexistenceofafriendof38.
R.K.R.K.Gachimu,C.W.Mwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandI.N.Kamuti,KenyattaUniversity.
Abstract:
Thispapersetsoutto,systematically,usepropertiesoftheabundancyindexfunctiontoprovethata
friend of38mustbeanoddnonsquaremultipleof whichisnotdivisibleby3,andthatevery
primefactor of suchthat hasanevenexponentintheprimefactorizationof .Inaddition,
ifthepowerof19in is2,then inwhichcasethepowerof127mustbeeven,largerthan2and
notequal8,andifthepowerof19is6,both701and70841wouldbecompulsoryprimefactorsof ,
wherethepowerof701cannotequal1or3.Thepaperalsoestablishesthatitisnotpossibletohave8
asthepowerof19intheprimefactorizationof .
Keywords:abundancyindex,sumofdivisors,friend,primefactor,power.
TheLimitationsintheConvectionalISBN10Code.
PeterWaweru,CeciliaMwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandBenardKivunge,KenyattaUniversity.
Abstract:
TheInternationalStandardBookNumbersystem(ISBN10)whichwasinoperationuntil2007uniquely
identifiedeverybookpublishedinternationally.Thecodehadtheabilitytodetectandcorrectsingle
errors,todetectandcorrectsometranspositionerrorsandalsodetectmultipleerrors.Thispaper
discussessomemajorlimitationsinthecodeandshowshowerrordetectionandcorrectioncapabilities
affectedthetotaldictionaryonthecode.
Keywords:Code,Dictionary,ISBN10,Errordetection,ErrorCorrection.
FormulasforthecomputationoftheTuttepolynomialofagraphwithparallelclasses.
EuniceMphakoBanda,UniversityofWitwatersrand,SouthAfrica.

Abstract:
WegivearelationshipoftheTuttepolynomialsofgraphsinthesameparallelclass.Inparticularwegive
theTuttepolynomialofagraphwithsomesetsofparallelelementsintermsoftheTuttepolynomialof
itssimplificationandtheminorsofitssimplification.

Transformingattitudesandperformanceofmanagementstudentsstatisticaltraining
BernardManyalla,SiayaInstituteofTechnology,DavidStern,MasenoUniversity.
Abstract:
Withtheincreasinguseofcomputerbasedstatisticalteachingintheeducationalandtrainingdomain,
manyinstructorshaverecognizedthesignificanceofevaluatingitseffectsonstudentsoutcomessuch
aslearning,performanceandattitude.Often,theseoutcomesarecomparedtothoseofconventional
classroominstructioninordertodeterminewhichmethodofinstructionisbetter.ComputerAssisted
StatisticsTextbooks(CAST)thatmakeextensiveuseofinteractiveanddynamicdiagramstoteach
statisticsofferslearnersunparalleledmuchneededaccesstoinstructionalresourcesfarsurpassingthe
reachoftraditionalclassroom.ThispaperdescribestheuseofCASTinteachingmanagementstatistics
courseattheKenyaInstituteofManagementKisumu.TheKenyaInstituteofManagement(KIM)trains
abouttwentythousandstudentsayearinvariouslocationsthroughoutKenyaincourseswhichincludea
moduleonstatistics.Thismoduleistaughtaccordingtoastandardizedsyllabuswithacentrally
administeredexaminationInparticularthereissolidquantitativeevidencethattheteachingwithCAST
transformedthestudentsattitudetostatisticsandtheirperformanceintheirexaminationusingan
analysisbasedontheresultsobtainedbytheexperimenterbeforeandafterCASTusageovermultiple
examseriesanddifferentteachersusingidenticalsyllabuswherepotentialpossiblecausaleffectsare
accountedfor.
Keywords:Statistics,Computers,Education,Management

Adjustingrainfallforclimatechangescenariosasinputsforcropsimulationmodels,.
MaworaThomasMwakudisaandDavidStern,MasenoUniversity.
Abstract:
Cropsimulationmodels,suchasAPSIM(AgriculturalProductionsSystemssIMulator)areusedto
evaluatetheimpactofscenariosofclimatechangeonthegrowthandyieldofawiderangeofcrops.
Thesemodelsrequiredailyrainfallandtemperaturedataamongothers.Typicalscenariosarefor
minimumandmaximumtemperaturestoincreaseby2degreesandrainfallamounttoincrease,or
decrease,by10%.Calculatingtheadjustedtemperaturesisstraightforward,butrainfallcanbechanged
inavarietyofdifferentways.Theseincludechangingtherainfallamounts,butleavingtheraindaysas
before,orchangingthedays,andleavingtheamounts.Thispaperinvestigateshowthepatternof
rainfallcanbechangedandtheimplicationsofthesechangesoncropyields.
ASecuredHybridArchitectureModelforMobileFinancialServices:ACaseStudyofZimbabwe.
WestonD.GovereandDumisaniSibanda,MidlandsStateUniversity,Zimbabwe.

Abstract:
Mobilebankinghasmadeiteasytocarryoutpersonalorbusinessfinancialtransactionswithoutgoing
toabankandatanysuitabletime.Thisfacilityenablestosendandreceivemoney,regardlessof
whetheronehasabankaccountornot.Italsoenablecustomerstoperformservicetransactionssuchas
billpayments,airtimetopupandPointofSalepurchases.Thistransformationtoacashlesssocietyhas
beenenabledbytheadventofmobilephoneswhicharenowmoreaffordableandavailabletoanyone
anywhereworldwide.NetOne(Zimbabwe)hastakentheleadandrecentlylaunchedOneWallet
mobilebankingfacilityenablingcustomerstosendandreceivecashviaanSMSbasedtransaction.One
Walletalsoenablecustomerstotopuptheirairtime,topupanotherperson'sairtimeaccountandpay
utilitybillsviamobilephone.

AnothernotableexampleisCellCardbyKingdomBank.However,inordertomaintainprivacyandto
avoidanymisuseoftheseservices,itisnecessarytofollowasecuredarchitecturemodelwhichensures
theprivacyandintegrityofthetransactionsandprovidesconfidenceonmobilebanking.Inthisresearch
paper,asecuredhybridarchitecturemodelformobilebankingusinghyperellipticcurvecryptosystem
(HECC)andMD5isdescribed.Thishybridmodelisimplementedwiththehyperellipticcurve
cryptosystemanditperformstheencryptionanddecryptionprocessesinanefficientwaymerelywith
an80bitkeysize.Thevariousscreenshotsgiveninthispapershowsthatthehybridmodelwhich
encompassesHECCandMD5canbeconsideredinthemobilebankingenvironmenttoenrichtheprivacy
andintegrityofthesensitivedatatransmittedbetweentheclientsandtheapplicationserver.

Keywords:Mobilebanking,hyperellipticcurvecryptosystem,MD5,Authentication,Con_dentiality,
Integrity,Nonrepudiation,Privacy.

MakingMarkovchainmodelingofrainfalldataaccessible.
J.O.Ongala,TheGreatLakesUniversityofKisumu,Kenya.D.A.Stern,MasenoUniversity,Kenyaand
R.D.Stern,UniversityofReadings,UK.
Abstract:
RainfallisofcriticalimportanceformanypeopleinKenyaparticularlythosewhoselivelihoodsare
dependentonrainfedagriculture.MethodsofanalysisofdailyrainfallrecordsbasedonMarkovchain
modelshavebeenavailableformanyyearsandtheirvalueiswidelyrecognized.Howevertheyare
rarelyusedinKenyabecauseofthecomplexityoftheanalysis.Thispaperdescribeshowthesemodels
arebeingmademoreaccessiblethroughaseriesofspeciallywrittenproceduresandmenusinGenStat,
awidelyavailablestatisticspackage.
Keywords:MarkovModel,Climaticanalysis,Rainfalldata,GenStat

ConvergenceofIshikawas'sIterationMethodforFiniteFamilyofPseudocontractiveMappings.
HabtuZegeye,UniversityofBotswana,Gaborone,Botswana.

Abstract:
Let C beanonempty,closedandconvexsubsetofarealHilbertspace H .Let
, , , 2 , 1 , : N i C C T
i
= beafinitefamilyofLipschitzpseudocontractivemappingswithLipschtz
constants { } N i Li , , 2 , 1 : = .Letasequence { }
n
x begeneratedfromanarbitrary C x e
0
by
(0.1)

+ =
+ =
+ n n n n n n
n n n n n n
y T x x
x T x y
o o
| |
) 1 (
) 1 (
1

where
) (modN n n
T T = and { } { } ) 1 , 0 ( , c
n n
| o satisfyingthefollowingconditions:
(i) ; 0 , > s n
n n
| o (ii) ; inf lim o
n
n
> =

o o (iii)
, 0 ,
1 1
1
sup
2
1
>
+ +
< s
>
n
L
n
n
| |
for { } N i Li L , , 2 , 1 : max : = = .Itisprovedthatthesequence { }
n
x convergesstronglytoacommon
fixedpointof { } N i Ti , , 2 , 1 : =

providedthatinteriorofcommonfixedpointsisnonempty.No
compactnessassumptionisimposedeitheron T oron C .Moreover,computationofclosedconvexset
n
C foreach 1 > n isnot
required.Theresultsobtainedinthispaperimprovemostoftheresultsthathavebeenprovedforthis
classofnonlinearmappings.

Onamoregeneralizedclassofboundedstarlikefunctionsofcomplexorder.
BiodunOladipupo,LadokeAnkintolaUniversityofTechnology,Nigeria.
Abstract:
Usingthenewconceptofanalyticfunctions,wedenotetheclassofanalyticfunctionsofcomplexorder
intheopenunitdisk { } 1 : < = z z U by ) , , (
,
,
B A H
b
l m
e

definedbyanewextensionofSalagean
operator.Coefficientestimatesandotherpropertiesareinvestigatedforthisclassoffunctions.
Consequenceoftheparameterinvolvedarealsodiscussed.
PricingAsiancurrencyoptionsinadevelopingfinancialmarket:Amodifiedlatticeapproach.
CarolyneOgutu,UniversityofNairobi,Kenya.
Abstract:
Riskistheuncertaintyofanoutcomeanditcanbringunexpectedgainsbutcanalsocauseunforeseen
losses,evencatastrophes.Overtheyears,financialderivativeshavebeenpopularinfinancialsincethey
areconsideredverygoodriskmanagementtools.Currencyderivativesmarketsarethehallmarkof
industrializedcountriesbutthisisseldomtrueforlessdevelopedcountries.Eventhoughcurrency
forwardcontractsareavailableinthelessdevelopedcountries,theyareonlydeemedasforwardcover
insuranceschemes.
Afinancialderivativeisafinancialinstrumentwhosevaluedependsonotherfundamentalfinancial
assets,calledunderlyingassets,suchasstocks,indexes,currencies,commodities,bonds,mortgagesand
otherderivatives.Apathdependentfinancialderivativeisonewhosevaluedependsnontriviallyonthe
pricepathoftheunderlyingasset.Asianoptionsareanexampleofpathdependentfinancial
derivatives.Therearenoclosedformsolutionsforsomeofthesepathdependentoptionsespeciallythe
arithmeticaverageAsianoptions.Thusnumericalmethodshavebeendevelopedtocomeupwith
pricingsolutionsforthem.Onesuchmethodisthelatticemethod.
InthispaperIusethemomentmatchingtechniquetodevelopparameterizationforthetrinomiallattice
anduseanadjustedlatticetopriceEuropeanAsiancurrencyoptionsbasedonthearithmeticaverageof
theunderlyingcurrency.Then,Iwillthebackwardrecursiontofindtheoptionprice.
Keywords:Latticemodels,currencyoptions.
AMathematicalcomparativemodelofHIV/AIDS,povertyanddevelopment.
CeciliaMusyoka,SouthEasternUniversityCollege,Kenya.

Abstract:
Kenyaseconomicandtechnologicaldevelopmentpartlydependsonherabilitytosustainitselfin
diseasecontrolandeducation.Forherto
achievethe2030MDGsthechallengesexperiencedhavetobefacedheadon.Manyinterventionshave
beenimplementedontheeradicationoftheHIV/AIDSpandemic.However,theimpactsofthepandemic
remaintobefeltworldover.InKenya,moreoftenthannotmajorityoffemaleyouthwhobearchildren
attheirtenderagefleetheirhomesinsearchofemploymentinmajortowns.Becauseoftheirlowlevel
ofeducation,povertyandignorance,theyendupengaginginsexsoastoprovideeconomicsustenance
forthemselvesandtheirdependants.ThismakesthementerintotheclassofMostAtRiskPopulationof
HIV/AIDS(MARPS).Thispaperaimsatgivingacomparativestudybetweenpovertylevels,disease
(mostlyHIV/AIDS)prevalenceanddevelopmentusingamathematicalcomparativemodel.The
underlyingassumptionsarethatruraldevelopmentishighlycontributedbyfemalesandthat
developmentisdependentoneducationanddiseasecontrol.

Keywords:MARPS,HIV/AIDS,Education,poverty,mathematicalcomparativemodel.

Distributedcontrollabilityofacochleamodel.
IsaacChepkwony,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Thisarticleanalysesthecontrollabilitystructureofacochlea.Manycochleamodelsfoundinliterature
arebaseduponanincompressible,inviscidfluidinsidethecochleacavity,whichconsistsoftwo
chambersseparatedbythebasilarmembrane.Inthetwodimensionalmodel,thebasilarmembrane
becomesaonedimensionalelasticdivisionbetweenthetwofluidfilledchambers.Thebasilar
membraneismodeledasaninfinitearrayofsprings.Wellposednessresultsareobtainedforthemodel
inanappropriatefunctionspace.Theapproximatecontrollability,withcontrolactiveonanopenseton
thebasilamembraneisalsodemonstrated.
Keywords:distributedcontrol,cochlea,basilarmembrane.
SolutionofthethirdorderviscouswaveequationusingFiniteDifferenceMethod.
OgangaDuncan,ShemAway,MasindeMuliroUniversityandMichaelO.Okoya,MasenoUniversity.
Abstract:
Awavemotionisthetransmissionofenergyfromoneplacetoanotherthroughamaterialoravacuum.
Wavemotionmayoccurinmanyformssuchaswaterwaves,soundwaves,radiowaves,lightwaves
amongotherforms.Inthispaper,weconsidersoundwaves.Soundistransmittedthroughgases,
plasmaandliquidsaslongitudinal(compressionandrarefaction)waves.Throughsolidshowever,itcan
betransmittedasbothlongitudinalandtransversewaves.Longitudinalsoundwavesarewavesof
alternatingpressuredeviationsfromtheequilibriumpressurecausinglocalregionsofcompressionand
rarefactionwhiletransversewavesinsolidsarewavesofalternatingshearstress.

Inthispaper,wehaveaddressedthepropagationofsoundwavesinviscousfluids,whichisrepresented
bythethirdorderpartialdifferentialequation where isthedistance
alongtheaxisofpropagation, denotestimeand isthespeedofsoundintheabsenceofviscosity.

DeanDuffysolvedthenondimensionalizedversionofthisequationbyLaplaceTransformsandgota
solutionwhichisnoteasytointerpret.Forthisreason,wehavesolvedthesameequationsolvedby
Deansubjecttosameboundaryandinitialconditionsusingthefinitedifferencemethod.Thismethod
involvesreplacingtheequation,itsassociatedinitialandboundaryconditionsbytheirfinitedifference
analogues,analyzingthestabilityoftheresultingfinitedifferenceschemesandthensolvingnumerically.

WecameupwithtwoschemesnamelyForwardDifferenceSchemeandCrankNicolsonSchemeand
usedmatrixstabilityanalysismethodtoanalyzestability.Theresultsthatwehaveobtainedcanbe
interpretedeasily.

Demystifyingmathematics:Handlinglearningdifficultiesinmathematicsamonglowachieversin
Kenyanschools.
GladysGakeniaNjoroge,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
MathematicsisacompulsorysubjectinbothprimaryandsecondaryschoolsinKenya.However,poor
performanceinKenyanationalexaminationsyearin,yearoutremainsaseriousconcernforteachersof
Mathematics,parents,curriculumdevelopers,andthegeneralpublic.Thisisparticularlyworrying
becauseoftheimportanceattachedtothesubjectinnationaldevelopmenthencetheneedtofindout
whatcouldbeaffectingMathematicslearninginKenyanschools.
Theresearchonwhichthispaperisbasedsoughtto(i)examinethefactorsthatinfluenceperformance
inMathematicsinKenyanprimaryschools(ii)identifythecharacteristicsofMathematicslearning
disabilities(iii)determinehowthelearnerswithsuchlearningdisabilitiescanbeassessedandidentified
and(iv)suggestinterventionsforthesedifficulties.
ThetargetpopulationwasclassSixpupilsinselectedprimaryschoolsinNairobiCounty.Thetoolsused
fortheresearchwerequestionnaires,classroomobservations,focalgroupdiscussionsandan
IndividualisedEducationProgramme(IEP)developedbytheteacherwiththehelpoftheresearcher.
Thispaperthereforewillhighlightthefindingsfromtheresearch,discusstheimplicationsandsuggest
thewayforwardasfarasteaching,learningandassessmentofMathematicsinKenyanschoolsis
concerned.Perhapswiththeapplicationoftherightinterventions,poorperformanceinMathematicsin
thenationalexaminationswillbeathingofthepast.
Investigatingthemaximaldeterminantforan matrix.
I.A.Okello,C.W.Mwathi,JKUAT,KenyaandB.Kivunge,KenyattaUniversity.

Abstract: Itisknownthatforany
matrix ; , Therefore, isanupper
boundofdeterminantsofallmatrices whichsatisfiestheabovecondition.
Inthispaper,wedeterminedthemaximumdeterminantofan matrix where ,
,for 1,2,3,4and5usingthedeterminantfunctionformulaandexpansionusing
minors.Foran matrix,themaximumdeterminantsfor werefoundtobe
and respectively.Thenumbersofdistinct matricesattainingthemaximum
determinantfor are and respectively.
Keywords: matrix,maximumdeterminant,supremumdeterminant,minormatrix.
ViewsontheroleofMathematicsindevelopment.
JanPersens,UniversityoftheWesternCape,SouthAfrica.
Abstract:
Developmentassociatedwitheconomicandindustrialgrowth,canbestbedescribedandjudgedby
investigatingchangesinrealworldphenomena.Giventheinterdependenceandinterdisciplinary
natureofknowledge,especiallyinthisnewera,itissomewhatdifficulttoattributecertaincontributions
todevelopmenttoaparticulardiscipline.Sincethequestionisabouttheroleofmathematicsin
development,theconcentrationinthispaperisaddressingthistopic.Inadditiontoconsideringthe
intellectualcapacityinmathematicsinAfrica,thesocioeconomicrealitiesandgovernmentscapacityto
deliverinparticularways,arehighlighted.Inordertominimizeorevencombatthenegativestateof
developingeconomies,itissuggestedthatnetworksofcentersofexcellencein
mathematicalsciencesbeestablished.Inthiswayonecanensurecontinuedandmeaningful
contributionsofmathematicsindevelopment.Atthisstagetherearealreadyseveralsuchcentersin
Africaconcentratingonparticularmathematicalsubdisciplines.Investinginsuchcenterswillsecure
criticalmassesofexpertiseandcountertheoutflowofscarcefinancialmeansonlowstudentnumbers
andresearchers.Earlystartsinmathematicstrainingandtheintroductionofmathematicsofanapplied
typemayresultintheenhancementofproblemsolvingskillsatanearlierage.

Implicativealgebras.
K.Venkateswarlu,BerhanuBekele,AdisAbabaUniversity,Ethiopia.
Abstract:
TheconceptoflatticeimplicationalgebrasisoriginallyduetoY.Xu.Inhispaper,heintroducedthe
conceptoflatticeimplicationalgebraandquasilatticeimplicationalgebraasaboundedlattice
satisfyingasystemofaxiomsandstudiedcertainproperties.Inthispaperwehavegivenanequivalent
forlatticeimplicationbysimplifyingtheaxiomsofhisdefinition.Furtherwehaveintroducedtwomore
binaryoperationsonanimplicativealgebraandobtainthateveryimplicativealgebraisanautometrized
algebra.
EncouragingDialogicLearninginMathematicsClassDiscourse.
Kahenya,PaulNjoroge,AfricaNazareneUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Thelevelandqualityofthehumanresourcessignificantlydeterminesthethelevelsandrateofsocio
economicgrowthanddevelopmentofanynation.Educationplaysadominantroleasaninstrumentfor
largescaleachievementandrevolutioninmanyspheres(IEJDICT,2006).Humanresourcedevelopment
inanintegratedsenseencompasseseducationandtrainingACT/EMP(1997).Thequalityof
educationisthereforeparamountindeterminingthelevelofdevelopment.Thisimpliesthenthequality
ofinstructionatinstitutionlevelwillthereforedeterminethequalityofmanpowerdevelopment.Ithas
beencreditedthat,universitiesshouldbeconcernedwiththesolutionsoftheconcreteproblemsof
societaldevelopment,(Coleman(1994)citedinIEJDICT(2006)).
Inthisregard,theresearchlookedatencouragingdialogiclearningsoastopromotedeeplearningof
mathematicsandhenceimprovedunderstandingandapplicationofmathematicalconcepts.Thisis
hoped;itwillenablelearnerstoapplymathematicalconceptsinsolvingreallifeproblemsandalsoform
astrongbaseindevelopinginnovativetechnologiesincomputerscience.
Traditionally,classdiscoursehasalwaysbeingaonewayaffairdominatedbytheteachersorwhatis
referredtoasIRE;InitiationReplyEvaluation(Mehan,1978,1979;Cazden,2001andMacbeth,2003
citedinPolman,2004).Encouragingdialogueinclassdiscoursehasbeennotedtopromotemeaningful
learning(Alexander,2005;Polman,2004amongothers).Thisstudyaimedatidentifyingthenatureof
discourseinclassdiscussionsandintroducingstrategiesthatencouragesdialogiclearning.
Thestrategiesusedincludedbeginningclassdiscussionswithachallengingquestion;encouragingpeer
discussion;creatingafriendlyleaningenvironment;creatingaseatingarrangementthatencourage
dialogueandallowingsufficienttimeafteraskingquestions.
Thestudyfocusedatsecondyearcomputersciencestudents.Itfoundoutthatwithoutdialogue,the
mathematicallyablestudentsdominateclassdiscourse.Thesestudentstendedtoimposetheirviewsof
aconceptonothersirrespectiveofwhethertheconceptisrightorwrong.Thestudyfoundthat
encouragingdialoguerequiredavarietyofstrategieswhichcanbebroadlycategorizedintothree
namelylearneroriented,taskorientedandteacher/environmentorientedstrategies.
Thestudyalsofoundoutthatdialogueinclassdiscourse,amongothers,enhancedgroupcohesions,
improvedstudentsconfidenceinselfexpression,promoteddeeplearninganditismostlythelearners
orientedfactorsthatdeterminetheeffectivenessofdialogueinclassdiscourse.

MovingteachingbeyondcalculationstowardsmathematicsthrougheLearning;acasestudyofe
Statisticsmadesimple.
KaleliJamesMusyoka,ThomasMaworaandDavidStern,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Recentlytherehasbeenacalltorevolutionizemathematicseducationthroughtheuseofcomputers.
Theaimistofocustheeducationmuchmoreonstudentunderstandingofconceptsandmathematical
problemsandbeyondcalculationsbyusingcomputerstodothecalculations.Computersarethe
ultimatecalculatingmachine;theyarecapableofdoingextremelycomplicatedcalculationsalmost
instantaneouslyandwillalwaysgetaccurateresultsprovidedtheinputsandmechanismsarecorrect.In
statisticsthisrevolutionstartedfortyyearsagoandhasveryslowlygainedmomentum,theideasare
nowwellacceptedinternationallybutimplementationremainsaproblem.

RecentlyMasenoUniversity,incollaborationwiththeStatisticalServicesCentre(SSC)Universityof
Reading,pilotedanonlinestatisticscoursecalledeStatisticsMadeSimple.Thiscoursetargeted
professionalswhoneedtousestatisticsbutfeelthat,despiteanyprevioustrainingtheymighthave
received,theyneedacoursewhichassumestheydonotunderstandanystatistics.Theapproachtaken
isverypracticalfocusingonunderstandingandinterpretation;throughoutthecourseveryfewformulas
arementioned.ThispaperdescribesthecoursealongwiththeexperienceofgivingitinKenyaandthe
viewsoftheparticipants.

OnBanachspaceidealproperties.
MusundiSammyWabomba,ChukaUniversityCollege,Kenya.

Abstract:
Variousauthorsinaseriesofpapershavegivenavarietyofdefinitionsaboutanideal.Forinstancethe
notionofanidealinaBanachspacewasintroducedbyGodefroy,KaltonandShaperin1993.Aclosed
subspaceFofaBanachspaceEiscalledanidealinEifF?,theannihilatorofFinE,isthekernelofa
normoneprojectionPonE.InthiscasePiscalledtheidealprojection.Weshalldiscussessential
Banachspaceidealpropertiesasperthedenitions.ForBanachspacesXandY,wedenotebyL(X;Y)
theBanachspaceofboundedlinearoperatorsfromXtoY,andbyK(X;Y)itssubspacesofcompact
operators.AsubclassLw(X;Y)ofthespaceL(X;Y)isaBanachspacewithrespecttoasuitablenorm
strongerthantheuniformoperatornorm,butcoincideswiththeuniformnormonthespaceK(X;Y)of
compactoperators.IthasbeenshownthatK(X;Y)isanidealinLw(X;Y).Weshallalsoinvestigate
conditionsorequivalentnormsonL(X;Y)underwhichstrongeridealpropertiesoperatorsofK(X;Y)will
hold.

Mathematicalmodellingforroaddesigninkenya:themechanisticempiricaloption.
S.A.Nyakiti,D.A.SternandO.Ongati,MasenoUniversity,Kenya.

Abstract:
Thedesignofpavementsisanintegralpartoftheroadmanagementprocessandcontributes
significantlytotheeconomicdevelopmentofaregion,sincewelldesignedroadslastlongerensuring
easeofmovementoflabourandgoods.Presently,Kenyahasitsroadsdesignedrelyingontime
honouredmanualswhosebasesarepurelyempiricalmodelsandprocedures.Whilethesehaveserved
wellthusfar,newresearchbasedevidencepointtotheirlimitationinaccuratelyforecastingthefuture
responseandperformanceoftheroadsasafunctionoftrafficgrowth,environmentalinfluencesand
newconstructionmaterials.Thispaperexploresthenoveldesignparadigm,themechanisticempirical
(ME)approach.TheMEmethodtakesthepavementdesignprocessintotherealmsofmathematics,
andsupplementstheexistingengineeringproceduresinaccuratelypredictingtheresponseand
performanceofroads.Thisisachievedthroughdynamicmathematicalmodellingofthestateoftheroad
atanytimethroughoutitsdesignlife.WeassessthereadinessofthecountryforadoptionoftheME
design,examinetheexistingchallengestothis,outlinetheeconomicbenefitsKenyawillaccruein
adoptingit,andhighlightthemathematicalformulationsandmodellinginherentinME,inparticular
therigidityintheinputsrequiredforitsclimaticmodels.Thepaperconcludesbyproposinga
mathematicalsolutiontheroadagenciesinKenyacanemploybothinthemediumandlongtermsto
ensureasuccessfultransitiontotheMEdesignmethod.

Keywords:MathematicalModelling;MechanisticEmpiricalDesign;PavementDesign;Pavement,
Performance;EconomicDevelopment.

LaserTechnologyasatoolforDevelopment.
Opondo,MaryA,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya
Abstract:
Gaseouslasersespeciallythecarbondioxidelasershavefoundextensiveapplicationsandoffernew
solutionstothescientific,medicalandindustrialproblems.Thecarbondioxidegaslaserhaslasing
transitionsatseveralwavelengthsintheinfraredprincipallyaround9.6 and10.6 .To
accommodatetheincreasingnumberofapplications,avarietyoflaserresonatordesigns,powerlevels
andmodelconfigurationsareneeded.Alllasersproduceunwantedheatandasthepowerlevelofthe
laserincreasestheproblemofgettingridoftheheatalsoincreases.Sincetheunwantedheatis
generatedinthegas,theproblemisoneofcoolingandreplacementofthegasandmoreeffective
meansofcoolingthegaswithoutinfluencingtheelectricalexcitationareneeded.Inthispapervarious
factorsthataffectthelaseroperatingefficiencyandwaysofincreasingtheoutputpowerarediscussed.
ThepaperemphasiseshowMathematicaltechniquescanbeusedtodesignlasermodelsthatare
suitableforparticularapplications.
Keywords:Carbondioxidelasers,newsolutions,powerlevels,operatingefficiency.
TheroleofMathematicsindevelopmentofTechnicalandVocationalEducationandTraining(TVET)in
the21
st
century.
SamuelMuchiriMwangi,GusiiInstituteofTechnology,Kenya.
Abstract:
The21stcenturywearelivinginischaracterizedbyatechnologybasedsocietywhichrequires
individualswhoareabletothinkcriticallyaboutcomplexissues,analyzeandadapttonewsituations,
solveproblemsofvariouskinds,andcommunicatetheirthinkingeffectively.Inthispapertheroleof
mathematicsindevelopmentoftechnicalandvocationaleducationandtraining(TVET)inthe21
st

century,isdiscussed.ItisindicatedthatthestudyofmathematicsequipslearnersinTVETinstitutions
withknowledge,skills,andhabitsofmindthatareessentialforsuccessfulandrewardingparticipationin
atechnologybasedsociety.ItisobservedthatMathematicshasnotattractedmuchattentionasatool
indevelopmentofTVET.Concretestepsaresuggestedtostepsrequiredfortrainingmathematiciansto
meetchallengesofdevelopmentinTVET.
Keywords:Mathematics,Development,TechnicalandVocationalEducationandTraining.
CompletelyPrimeModules.
D.SsevviiriandN.J.Groenewald,NelsonMandelaMetropolitanUniversity,SouthAfrica.

Abstract:
Wegeneralizeanotionofcompletelyprimeidealsinringstosubmodulesinmodules.Thisnotionis
comparedwiththatofprimeandclassicalprimeformoduleswhichalreadyexistinliterature.
Completelyprimeimpliesclassicalprimebutnotconverselyingeneral.WhenMisdefinedovera
commutativering,completelyprimeandclassicalprimeareindistinguishable.Furthermore,whenMis
definedoveracommutativering,primeimpliescompletelyprimebutnotconversely.Ingeneral,(when
Risnotcommutative)primedoesnotimplycompletelyprime.InanymoduleoveraringRcompletely
semiprime semiprime classicalsemiprime.WhenRiscommutativethethreenotionsof
semiprimenesscoincide.

Mathematicsisthekeytosustainabledevelopment.
MsTalibaCarolineandCyrusS.Ssebugenyi,MakerereUniversity,Uganda.
Abstract:
Mathematicsisadisciplinethatseeksanunderstandingofthepatternsandstructuresofconstructsof
thehumanmind.Understandinghasnoendtoitsdepth,andmathematicsseeksthehigheststandards
ofunderstandingbydemandingrigorinitsfoundationsandinitsdevelopment.Rigorisachievedby
responsibleattentiontotheprinciplesoflogic.Therefore,mathematicsoccupiesacrucialandunique
roleinthehumansocietiesandrepresentsastrategickeyinthedevelopmentofthewholemankind.
Theabilitytocompute,forexample,isrelatedtothepoweroftechnologyandsocialorganisation.
Geometricalunderstandingofspacetime,thatisthephysicalworldanditsnaturalpatterns,showthe
scientificandculturalroleofMathematicsinthehistoryofcivilisationandinthefuturedevelopmentof
theInformationSociety.Mathematicshasplayedandwillcontinuetoplayamajorroleforthe
developmentofanincreasinglyglobalworldandcivilisation.
Oncommutants&spectralpropertiesof commutingoperators.
MutieKavila,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.
Abstract:
Let
( )
B H denotetheBanachalgebraofboundedlinearoperatorsonacomplexHilbertspaceHandlet
( )
, A B B H e satisfytherelation AB BA = for e .Weinvestigatetheconditionsunder
which
( ) ( )
e e
AB BA o o = and
( ) ( )
e e
A B o o = where ( )
e
A o denotestheessentialspectrumofA.Also
giventhat ( , ) C A B and ( , ): ( ) ( ) R A B B H B H by ( , ) = C A B X AX XB and
( , ) = R A B X AXB X weshowthatifAisoneoneandBhasdenserangethen
2 2
( , ) 0 = C A B X and
3 3
( , ) 0 = C A B X imply ( , ) 0 = C A B X forsome ( ) e X B H .Similarly,if
2 2
( , ) 0 = R A B X and
3 3
( , ) 0 = R A B X then ( , ) 0 = R A B X forsome ( ) e X B H .

Keywordsandphrases:Puredominant,Compactoperators,Commutant,QuasiaffinityandNormal
operator

StanleydecompositionofcoupledN333system.
GachiguaGrace,KimathiUniversityCollegeandDavidMalonza,KenyattaUniversity,Kenya.

Abstract:
Thenormalformofasetofsystemsofdifferentialequationsatequilibriumwithnilpotentlinearpart
hasthestructureofamoduleofequivariants,andisbestdescribedbygivingaStanleyDecompositionof
thatmodule.Weuseanalgorithmbasedonthenotionoftransvectantsfromclassicalinvarianttheoryin
determiningtheformofStanleyDecompositionoftheringofinvariantsforthecoupled
333
N systems
whentheStanleyDecompositionoftheJordanblocksofthelinearpartarerepresentedseparately.The
StanleyDecompositioncanthenbeverifiedbydevelopingatablefunctiondenotedby
3n
T ,where3nis
thedimensionofthelinearpart.

OnConjecturesinPrimeNumberTheory.
PeterAcquaah,UniversityofGhana,Ghana.

Abstract:
Itisgenerallybelievedthatforeverypositiveintegern,thereisalwaysatleastoneprimenumber,p,
suchthat
2 2
) 1 ( + < < n p n .Weshallprovideastrongsufficientconditionforthefollowing
statementstobetrue.(a)Foreverypositiveintegern,thereisalwaysatleasttwoprimenumbers,
), ( , q p q p < such
2 2
) 1 ( + < < < n q p n .(b)Forall e k n, N, , 1 , 1 n k n s s > thereexistsaprime
number ) , ( k n p suchthat . ) 2 ( ) , ( n k k n p kn + < < Inparticular,theinterval ( ) n n n ) 2 ( ,
2
+ contains
twodistinctprimenumbers.(c)If
n
p is e n nth ( , N)primenumber,then
. 1 , 1 2
1
> + + s
+
n p p p
n n n
(d)If e = b a b a , , 1 ) , gcd( Z,thentheset { } N n bn a e + : contains
infinitelymanyprimenumbers.

Keywords:Primenumbers,Andrica'sConjecture,Legendre'sconjecture,shortintervals.

HowthedensityofleucocytesdeterminethelifespanofHIVpatientsonantiretroviraldrugs.
Casestudy:KakamegaProvincialGeneralHospital.
LeonardDavidLukhafwa,ProfShemAway,MasindeMuliroUniversity
Abstract:
PatientssufferingfromHIV/AIDSresponddifferentlytoantiretroviral.Thecausativevirus(HIV)livesin
thewhitebloodcells(Leucocytes)ofhumans.Thisgenerallyinterfereswiththenormalfunctioningof
theimmunesystemofthepatient.
Bloodisafluidthatisinconstantcircularmotionthatisaidedbythepumpingoftheheart.Pressurein
fluidsgenerallydependonthedensity,heightandgravitationalforcearefluidie.P=phg.Naturally,the
heightandgravitationalforceareassumedtobeconstantinbloodinitsentirely.However,introduction
ofantiretroviraldrugsinthebloodsystemaltersthemassandvolumeoftheleucocytes.Thisleadstoa
changesindensityandconsequentlyaffectthebloodpressure.
Thereisthereforeadireneedtostudytherelationshipbetweenthebloodgroupandtheeffectof
specificantiretroviraldrugsinordertoreducetheoverallbloodpressureinortoelongatethelifespan
ofthepatientunderthesedrugs.