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CONTENTS

Definition of Underpinning Purpose of Underpinning When Underpinning is Required? Methods for Underpinning

DEFINITION OF UNDERPINNING In general, underpinning means material or masonry used to support a structure or foundation. underpinning means the rebuilding or deepening of the foundation of an existing building to provide additional or improved support underpinning is the installation of temporary or permanent support to an existing foundation to provide either additional depth or an increase in bearing capacity
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DEFINITION OF UNDERPINNING
underpinning is the process of strengthening and stabilizing the foundation of an existing building or other structure Foundation underpinning is a means of transferring loads to deeper soils or bedrock.

PURPOSE OF UNDERPINNING To obtain additional foundation capacity To modify the existing foundation system To create new foundations through which the existing load may be wholly or partially transferred into deeper soil

PURPOSE OF UNDERPINNING
Underpinning is generally used for remedial purposes To arrest the excessive settlement

WHEN UNDERPINING IS REQUIRED?


Underpinning is required when: Construction of a new project with deeper foundation next to an existing building. Change in the use of structure The properties of the soil supporting the foundation may have changed or was mischaracterized during planning. To support a structure which is sinking or tilting due to ground subsidence or instability of the super structure

WHEN UNDERPINING IS REQUIRED?(contd..)

As a safe guard against possible settlement of the structure when excavating close to or below its foundation level. To enable the foundation to be deepened for structural reasons e.g to construct the basement beneath the building To increase the width of the foundation to permit heavier loads to be carried e.g when increasing the story height of the building

NASTY RESULTS OF POOR FOUNDATIONS

REQUIREMENT OF AN UNDERPINNING DESIGN


The art of underpinning requires an engineer to: Analyze the existing structure Determine the loads Determine the bearing capacity of the soils Design an underpinning system to support the structure with minimum of settlement

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METHODS USED FOR UNDERPINNING


Pit Underpinning Push Piers System Helical Pier System Pile Underpinning Other Methods Chemical Grouting Microfine Grouting Micropiles

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PIT UNDERPINNING The most common and oldest method of underpinning Accomplished by installing piers under a structures foundation, filling them with concrete and wedging up to transfer the load to the new piers Requires careful and skilled work as loss of ground will cause building settlement
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PIT UNDERPINNING
Columns/ walls above the affected footing should be braced as much as possible A pit of 3 wide, 4 long and 5 deep is excavated in front of the footing to be underpinned

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PIT UNDERPINNING

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PIT UNDERPINNING

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PIT UNDERPINNING Pit is extended laterally to reach under the foundation to be underpinned The foundation is then deepened to the required depth Vertical formwork is built in the pit and then is concreted up to the foundation

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PIT UNDERPINNING

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PIT UNDERPINNING

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PIT UNDERPINNING

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Push Pier systems utilize high-strength steel pier sections that are

hydraulically driven through heavy-duty steel foundation brackets to reach deep down to competent load-bearing strata.

The piers have the ability to reach far below the problem soils and do not rely on friction for capacity.

Foundation Support works Push Piers effectively stabilize settling

foundations and provide the best opportunity to lift your structure back to a level position.
Push pier systems are an easy, economical solution providing with a

long-lasting result. Manufactured with industrial-strength, galvanized steel, Foundation Support works piers have a high resistance to corrosion.

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Push Pier Advantages:

Piers reach greater depth than other options Long life span galvanized steel is resistant to corrosion Does not require the use of invasive equipment In most cases can lift foundation back to level position

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PUSH PIER INSTALLATION


Step 1: Footing is exposed and prepared for the bracket. Step 2: Foundation secured to the footing. Bracket is

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PUSH PIER INSTALLATION


Step 3: Steel pier sections are hydraulically driven through the bracket to competent soil or bedrock Step 4: The weight of the home is transferred through the piers to load bearing strata. Home is lifted back to level if possible.

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Helical piers are used to support foundation of existing structures. Piers are drilled under the affected foundations to a specified depth with the help of a hydraulic motor attached to a backhoe.

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Damaged Foundation

Repaired Foundation

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Excavate down to the footing at each designated pier location Notch out foundation footing to accommodate support bracket Screw piers into excavated site to a desired depth using a hydraulic motor attached to a backhoe Connect bracket to base of foundation and the top the pier Backfill all excavated pier locations
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Fast installation Economical Can be installed in confined space Minimum disturbance to site Immediate loading All weather installation Applicable for saturated soil conditions

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This technique is used to overcome the extremely difficult working circumstances encountered when pit underpinning action become unsuitable. Piles are installed either side of a wall are connected by needle beams which pass transversely through the wall.

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A series of holes are drilled along the length of the existing foundation. Some hand working is done to create a bearing surface under the old foundation. Say every second or third one is partly filled with concrete. After the concrete in these holes is set a small but powerful hydraulic jack is used to lift the existing foundations. The machine that augers the holes, quite often has the jack as an accessory and it is drive by a hose connected to the machine hydraulic system.

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Perforated pipes are drilled into the ground at spacing and a solution of Sodium Silicate is pressure-injected into the ground and then Calcium or magnesium chloride is injected as the pipe is withdrawn. The two chemicals react to form a gel that binds the soil particles into a mass similar to sandstone If some other method has lifted the structure, then pressure injection of grout into the voids formed by the lifting process will greatly improve the repair strength.
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A perforated pipe is drilled into ground and fluid grout mixture is injected by pressure The mixture consist of - water + Cement - water + cement + fly ash or lime

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WHAT ARE MICROPILES Piles with a diameter less than 300 mm are called micropiles. The first micropiles, Pali radice (root piles), were invented for underpinning in 1952 in Italy, micropiles are also called root piles, pin piles, and minipiles.
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ADVANTAGES They can be used where there is insufficient head space for a conventional piling rig They are applicable to all foundation conditions if drilling is possible They can be arbitrarily installed at any angle of inclination Vibration and noise during construction can be limited to the minimum extent.

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When underpinning is installed to a stratum that is competent and capable of supporting the structure, it will stop downward movement of the area of the foundation that is supported. Underpinning is generally not designed to keep the foundation from moving upward if the original support clays swell due to an increase in moisture. Subsequent upward movement will often occur, which will result in a distorted foundation and cracking in the finishes

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THANK YOU

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