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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 54, NO.

2, APRIL 2012 343


Bilinear Transform Implementation of the SC-PML
for General Media and General FDTD Schemes
Xu Zhuansun and Xikui Ma
AbstractWith the complex-frequency-shifted perfectly
matched layer (CFS-PML) implemented based on both the
stretched coordinates and the bilinear transform method as
the absorbing boundary condition (ABC), a novel unied
nite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is developed
for general FDTD spatial schemes and general media. The
proposed FDTD-PML algorithm employs a general expression
for the permittivity of arbitrary linear dispersive media and also
takes the nonlinear effects into account. The bilinear transform
used in this paper has better accuracy than the frequently used
forward, backward, and central difference schemes. Compared
with the recursive convolution implementation of the CFS-PML,
the bilinear transform implementation involves much simpler
FDTD expressions and has better absorbing performance with
the same computational cost. Several two-dimensional (2-D) and
3-D simulations involving the anisotropic media, the Debye media,
the Drude media, and the Kerr nonlinear media have been done
to validate the presented algorithm, and indicate the advantages
of the bilinear transform implementation of the CFS-PML.
A simulation involving the Lorentz media calculated with the
proposed algorithm adopting the wavelet-based high-order FDTD
scheme is also included to validate the accuracy and effectiveness
of the developed method.
Index TermsAnisotropic media, bilinear transform, dispersive
media, nite-difference time domain (FDTD), nonlinear effects,
perfectly matched layer (PML).
I. INTRODUCTION
T
HE development of the absorbing boundary conditions
(ABCs) for the complex media in the nite-difference
time-domain (FDTD) [1][3] method has attracted much atten-
tion in recent years [4], [5]. The rounded computational systems
established based on these ABCs and the FDTDmethods for the
complex media can be applied in various areas of interest to the
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) society, such as the com-
plex printed circuit boards (PCBs) design [6], the analysis of
the absorption characteristics of absorbers [7], the simulations
of metamaterials [8], and the FDTD chamber model [9].
A three-dimensional (3-D) FDTD algorithm with the split-
form perfectly matched layer (PML) as the ABC was presented
for linear dispersive media in [10][12]. This method extended
the recursive convolution (RC) [13] and the piecewise linear RC
(PLRC) [14] approaches to general linear dispersive media. It
Manuscript received April 26, 2011; revised August 12, 2011; accepted
November 1, 2011. Date of publication December 8, 2011; date of current
version April 18, 2012. This work was supported by the National Nature Sci-
ence Foundation of China under Grant 50877055.
The authors are with the State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation
and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xian Jiaotong
University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049, China (e-mail: zhuansunxu@yahoo.cn;
maxikui@mail.xjtu.edu.cn).
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TEMC.2011.2175229
has already been stated in [15] that the RC techniques require
complex arithmetic and assume that the medium is linear. The
stretched coordinate PML (SC-PML) has been applied to the
dispersive media in [16]. But only the conventional PML metric
was adopted and complex Z transform (ZT) operations have to
be performed for different linear and nonlinear FDTD formu-
lations. An FDTD-PML algorithm for general dispersive media
has been presented in [17]. It has been pointed out that this
method needs different auxiliary equations for different types
of linear dispersive media [18]. By adopting the generic expres-
sion template consisting of complexconjugate pairs of simple
residues, some researchers developed a unied PML for FDTD
modeling of dispersive optical materials [18]. But this method
requires a heavy computational cost since several complex do-
main operations have to be performed in every time step of the
FDTD algorithm [19], and it also requires complex arithmetic.
In some other reported studies, different PMLs were applied to
the dispersive media [20][22]. But only simulation of special
medium was treated in each study. Among all the developments
of the ABCs for the complex media, only a few studies have
been done for truncating anisotropic media mainly based on the
Berengers split PML formulations [23][25].
In recent years, high-order FDTD methods such as the
wavelet-based high-order schemes have been applied to the
dispersive media [26], [27]. These high-order schemes can re-
duce the number of discretization points due to the smaller
numerical dispersion error as compared to the standard FDTD
method. Among all of these studies, the ABCs used for the high-
order FDTD method are mainly the conventional uniaxial PML
(UPML) [27], [28]. But the conventional PML has been proved
to be ill-posed [4]. It will suffer from long-time instability and
late-time reections [29], [30].
In this paper, we adopt the bilinear transform for the im-
plementation of the SC-PML formulations with the complex-
frequency-shifted (CFS) metric to construct a unied FDTD-
PML algorithm for arbitrary dispersive media and anisotropic
media. To the best of our knowledge, the SC-PML with the CFS
metric is rst applied to the wavelet-based high-order FDTD
schemes by this algorithm. The SC-PML formulations in this
paper are given as D-H formulations. Thus, they are material-
independent, and these formulations can easily be extended to
media with arbitrary permittivity and permeability by adopting
the D-B formulations. The proposed method avoids complex
arithmetic, involves simple FDTD expressions, shows high ef-
ciency, and is versatile to implement.
II. CONSTRUCTION OF UNIFIED FDTD-PML ALGORITHM
We adopt a D-H formulation to make the SC-PML indepen-
dent of the computational domain. In the SC-PML regions [31],
0018-9375/$26.00 2011 IEEE
344 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2012
the modied Maxwells equations in the frequency domain are

s


E = j

H (1a)

s


H = j

D (1b)
where the operator
s
is expressed as

s
= x
1
s
x

x
+ y
1
s
y

y
+ z
1
s
z

z
(2)
where s
i
(i = x, y, z) are the complex SC variables or metrics,
and the electric ux density

D is given by

D = ()

E (3)
where () is the permittivity of the FDTD computational
domain. With the CFS scheme [32], the complex coordinate
stretching variables are dened as
s
i
=
i
+

i

i
+ j
0
, i = x, y, z. (4)
By setting
i
= 0 in (4), the conventional SC-PML metrics can
be obtained as
s
i
=
i
+

i
j
0
, i = x, y, z. (5)
We will discuss the implementation of the SC-PML with the
CFS metric (4) in general.
A. Implementation of the SC-PML Using the
Bilinear Transform
In this section, we give the implementation of the SC-PML
with the CFS metric by using the bilinear transform, referred
to as the ZT-CPML. When the conventional SC-PML metric
(5) is used, this implementation is referred to as the ZT-PML.
The bilinear approximation provides better accuracy than the
other difference schemes, such as forward difference, backward
difference, and central difference schemes [33]. This imple-
mentation can probably have better absorbing performance than
some other implementation methods, such as the RC (referred
to as the CPML) [34]. In fact, this prediction will be proved by
the numerical results. For brevity, we take the x-projection of
the Amperes law as an example, specied as
jD
x
=
1
s
y

y
H
z

1
s
z

z
H
y
. (6)
The SC-PML can be matched to the computational domain
automatically based on this equation, i.e., material-independent.
Then, we can get the electric eld from the electric ux density
according to the specic constitutive relationship. By using the
relation j S, the CFS metrics (4) can be written in the S
domain as
s
i
=
i
+

i

i
+ S
0
, i = x, y, z. (7)
Then, applying the bilinear transform to (7) with the relation
S
2
t
1 z
1
1 + z
1
(8)
we can obtain
Z
_
1
s
i
_
=
1
A
i
1 B
i
z
1
1 C
i
z
1
, i = x, y, z (9)
where A
i
=
i
(2 + W
i
t)/(2 + V
i
t), B
i
= (2 V
i
t)/
(2 + V
i
t), and C
i
= (2 W
i
t)/(2 + W
i
t) with V
i
=

i
/
0
, W
i
=
i
/ (
i

0
) +
i
/
0
. Equation (6) can be written
in the Z-domain as
1 z
1
t
D
x
= Z
_
1
s
y
_

y
H
z
Z
_
1
s
z
_

z
H
y
(10)
where t is the time step and Z(s
1
i
) is the bilinear transform
of s
1
i
. By substituting (9) into (10), we obtain
1 z
1
t
D
x
=
1
A
y

1 B
y
z
1
1 C
y
z
1

y
H
z

1
A
z

1 B
z
z
1
1 C
z
z
1

z
H
y
. (11)
Here, we introduce two auxiliary variables F
xy
and F
xz
dened
at the same FDTD grid position as the eld component D
x
F
xy
=
1
A
y

1
1 C
y
z
1

y
H
z
(12a)
F
xz
=
1
A
z

1
1 C
z
z
1

z
H
y
. (12b)
Equation (12) can be rearranged as
F
xy
= C
y
z
1
F
xy
+
1
A
y

y
H
z
(13a)
and
F
xz
= C
z
z
1
F
xz
+
1
A
z

z
H
y
. (13b)
By substituting (12) into (11), we obtain
1 z
1
t
D
x
=
_
1 B
y
z
1
_
F
xy

_
1 B
z
z
1
_
F
xz
. (14)
Since the operator z
1
in the Z-domain corresponds to a delay
of one time step in the discrete time space [35], (13) and (14)
can be written in the FDTD form, respectively, as
F
xy
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
= C
y
(j) F
xy
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
+
1
A
y
(j) y
( H
z
|
n1/ 2
i+1/ 2,j+1/ 2,k
H
z
|
n1/ 2
i+1/ 2,j1/ 2,k
) (15a)
F
xz
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
= C
z
(k) F
xz
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
+
1
A
z
(k) z
( H
y
|
n1/ 2
i+1/ 2,j,k+1/ 2
H
y
|
n1/ 2
i+1/ 2,j,k1/ 2
) (15b)
and
D
x
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
= D
x
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
+ t( F
xy
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
B
y
(j) F
xy
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
F
xz
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
+ B
z
(k) F
xz
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
). (15c)
ZHUANSUN AND MA: BILINEAR TRANSFORM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SC-PML FOR GENERAL MEDIA AND GENERAL FDTD SCHEMES 345
It should be mentioned that when D
x
|
n
i+1/ 2,j,k
is updated,
two previous time step auxiliary components F
xy
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
and
F
xz
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
needtobe storedadditionally. This canbe avoided
either by using two simple temporary variables to store the val-
ues of F
xy
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
and F
xz
|
n1
i+1/ 2,j,k
[14] or by using the
two-step technique [36]. Thus, only two auxiliary variables are
needed to update the corresponding eld component. By adopt-
ing the D-B formulations, these formulations can easily be ex-
tended to media with arbitrary permittivity and permeability.
And the update of the magnetic ux density B is in exactly the
same way as the update of the electric ux density D. All auxil-
iary variables are stored only in the PML regions where they are
needed. Note that the proposed formulations require the same
number of additional auxiliary variables, and hence, the same
numerical cost, as the formulations in [12], [31], and [34], but it
has the advantages of the simplicity and versatility in discretiz-
ing (1) in the PML regions. In the computational domain, (1)
will be reduced to the normal Maxwells equations with s
i
= 1.
The SC-PML was implemented by using the bilinear trans-
form in [16]. But only the conventional PML metric (5) with

i
= 1 was adopted. Theoretically, the conventional PML has
been proved to be ill-posed [29], and it does not satisfy causal-
ity requirements [30]. When used to terminate highly elongated
lattices or simulate elds with very long-time signatures, the
conventional PML will suffer from late-time reections [34].
Furthermore, the conventional PML formulations are ineffec-
tive at absorbing evanescent waves. As a result, this PML must
be placed sufciently far from an obstacle such that the evanes-
cent waves have sufciently decayed [4]. Because of these aws
of the conventional PML, the development of new well-posed
PML is necessary and essential. It has been shown that the CFS-
PML is causal, stable, and efcient in attenuating evanescent
waves and reducing the late-time reections [34]. The bilinear
transform implementation of the CFS-PML can provide higher
accuracy than some other implementation schemes used pre-
viously [33]. Furthermore, when the electric ux density

D is
updated, the corresponding eld components of the previous
two time steps are needed for the implementation of the SC-
PML presented in [16]. Thus, the updating equations presented
here give more straightforward implementation of the SC-PML.
This bilinear transform implementation of the SC-PML is
adaptable to arbitrary FDTD spatial schemes using the second-
order difference in time, and the only necessary modication is
to change the spatial discrete derivatives of the eld components
in (15). The spatial discrete derivatives of the magnetic eld for
general nite-difference schemes will be
H
z
y
=

l
a (l)
H
n1/ 2
z
(i + 1/2, j + 1/2 + l, k)
y
(16a)
H
y
z
=

l
a (l)
H
n1/ 2
y
(i + 1/2, j, k + 1/2 + l)
z
(16b)
where a(l) represents the coefcients for different spatial
schemes. For example, the coefcients for the pth-order
DeslauriersDubuc interpolating bases have been given in [26].
B. Calculation of the Electric Field for Arbitrary
Dispersive Media
In this section, a unied formulation for calculating the elec-
tric eld for general dispersive media is developed. The consti-
tutive equation of the dispersive media can be expressed as

D =
0

E +

N
i=1

P
Li
+

P
NL
(17)
where N is the pole number of the linear polarization, P
L
and
P
NL
denote the linear polarization and the nonlinear polariza-
tion, respectively,
0
is the permittivity of vacuum, and

repre-
sents the permittivity of media in the limit of innite frequency.
We will derive the formulations in terms of the categories of
polarization. Take the x-projection of the constitutive equation
as an example, specied as
D
x
=
0

E
x
+

N
i=1
P
Lix
+ P
NLx
. (18)
The polarization of the linear dispersive media in the frequency
domain can be expressed as a general form
P
Lx
() =
a
b + jc + d
2
E
x
() (19)
where a, b, c, and d are the corresponding coefcients for dif-
ferent linear dispersive media. Equation (19) can be written into
the FDTD form as
P
n
Lx
= C
1
P
n1
Lx
+ C
2
P
n2
Lx
+ C
3
E
n1
x
(20)
where C
1
= (4d 2b(t)
2
)/(2d + ct), C
2
= (2d +
ct)/(2d + ct), and C
3
= (2a(t)
2
)/(2d + ct) are
the corresponding coefcients for each linear dispersion rela-
tion, and all the variables are dened at the same position as
D
x
. If the number of poles is more than one, this calculation
can be done just by adding together the expressions for each
pole.
The nonlinear polarization P
NLx
can be described by the
following convolutional integral in the time domain as
P
NLx
(t) =
0

(3)
0
E
x
(t)
_
t
0
[ (t )
+ (1 ) g
R
(t )] E
2
x
() d (21)
where
(3)
0
is the nonlinear coefcient, is a constant that
parameterizes the relative strength between the Kerr and Raman
interactions, (t) represents the Kerr effect, and g
R
(t) models
the Raman scattering [37]. It will be advantageous to separate
the nonlinearity (21) as
P
K
(t) =
0

(3)
0
E
3
x
(t) (22)
and
P
R
(t) = (1 ) E
x
(t)S
R
(t) (23a)
S
R
(t) =
0

(3)
0
_
t
0
g
R
(t )E
2
x
() d (23b)
where S
R
(t) is a modied version of the auxiliary variables
used in [16] and [28].
346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2012
The difference equation for (22) can be straightforwardly
given as
P
n
K
=
0

(3)
0
(E
n
x
)
3
. (24)
As given in [37], another difference equation for (22) can be
obtained through taking a rst-order Taylor series expansion of
E
3
x
(t), given as
P
n
K
=
0

(3)
0
(3[E
n1
x
]
2
E
n
x
2[E
n1
x
]
3
). (25)
These two difference equations can be used for modeling the
Kerr nonlinearity in the FDTD method.
For the Raman effect, the Fourier transform of (23b) leads
to [28]
S
R
() =
0

(3)
0
g
R
() F[E
2
x
(t)] (26)
where F [. . .] denotes the Fourier transform and g
R
() can be
given as
g
R
() =

2
R

2
R
+ 2j
R

2
. (27)
It can be seen that S
R
() has a similar form as P
L
(). Thus,
the difference equation for S
R
(t) is straightforwardly given by
S
n
R
= C
1
S
n1
R
+ C
2
S
n2
R
+ C
3
_
E
n1
x
_
2
(28)
where C
1
= (2
2
R
(t)
2
)/(
R
t + 1), C
2
= (
R
t 1)/
(
R
t + 1), and C
3
= (
0

(3)
0

2
R
(t)
2
)/(
R
t + 1). By sub-
stituting (28) into (23a), the difference equation for calculating
P
R
can be obtained as
P
n
R
= (1 ) E
n
x
S
n
R
. (29)
And all the variables are also dened at the same position as
D
x
.
Now, we discuss the update of the electric eld for arbitrary
dispersive media. Let us rst consider the linear dispersive me-
dia, the constitutive equation can be written as
D
x
=
0

E
x
+

N
i=1
P
Lix
. (30)
By substituting the difference equation (20) for the linear polar-
ization into (30), the solution for E
n
x
can be obtained as
E
n
x
=
D
n
x

N
i=1
P
n
Lix

. (31)
It can be seen that (31) can be used for arbitrary linear dispersive
media with any number of poles.
By taking the nonlinear polarization into account, we can
write the constitutive equation (18) as
D
n
x
=
0

E
n
x
+

N
i=1
P
n
Lix
+ P
n
K
+ P
n
R
. (32)
By substituting (20), (25), and (29) into (32) and solving it for
E
n
x
, we can obtain the equation for updating the electric eld as
E
n
x
=
D
n
x

N
i=1
P
n
Lix
+ 2
0

(3)
0

_
E
n1
x

+ 3
0

(3)
0
[E
n1
x
]
3
+ (1 ) S
n
R
. (33)
On the other hand, if (24) is adopted for the Kerr nonlinearity,
the equation for updating the electric eld will be
E
n
x
=
D
n
x

N
i=1
P
n
Lix

+
0

(3)
0
(E
n
x
)
2
+ (1 ) S
n
R
(34)
and (34) can be solved numerically by the Newton iteration
technique.
Up to now, we have derived the material-independent D-H
formulations of the SC-PML based on the bilinear transform
technique, and the formulations for calculating the electric eld.
It is clear that this new algorithm enables us to create a single
FDTD code for a variety of simulations of general dispersive
media.
C. Calculation of the Electric Field for Arbitrary
Anisotropic Media
For general anisotropic media, the constitutive equation can
be express as

D =

E (35)
where is the permittivity tensor of the host medium, expressed
as
=

xx

xy

xz

yx

yy

yz

zx

zy

zz

. (36)
The electric eld can be updated through the relationship

E =
[ ]
1

D. When calculating certain coordinate component of



E
such as E
x
, averages of D
y
and D
z
around the position of this
component are used as
E
x
|
n
i+1/2,j,k
=
(
yy

zz

yz

zy
)
| |
D
x
|
n
i+1/2,j,k
+
(
xz

zy

xy

zz
)
4 | |
_
D
y
|
n
i,j1/2,k
+ D
y
|
n
i,j+1/2,k
+
D
y
|
n
i+1,j1/2,k
+ D
y
|
n
i+1,j+1/2,k
_
+
(
xy

yz

xz

yy
)
4 | |
_
D
z
|
n
i,j,k1/2
+ D
z
|
n
i,j,k+1/2
+
D
z
|
n
i+1,j,k1/2
+ D
z
|
n
i+1,j,k+1/2
_
(37)
where | | is the magnitude of the determinant of the permittivity
tensor. Thus, it can be concluded that this unied algorithm can
easily be applied to arbitrary anisotropic media.
III. NUMERICAL RESULTS
In this section, to validate the proposed algorithm for differ-
ent media and different FDTD schemes, numerical examples
involving the anisotropic media, the Drude media, the Debye
media, the Lorentz media, and the Kerr nonlinear media are
considered. The proposed algorithm adopting both the standard
FDTD scheme and the high-order FDTD scheme is examined.
ZHUANSUN AND MA: BILINEAR TRANSFORM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SC-PML FOR GENERAL MEDIA AND GENERAL FDTD SCHEMES 347
Fig. 1. Relative reection errors versus time of the ten cells ZT-CPML, six
cells ZT-CPML, and ten cells conventional SC-PML for the Drude media.
A. Drude Media
Consider a Gaussian pulse g(t) = e
(t )
2
/t
2
0
with t
0
= 3
10
11
and = 4t
0
propagating through a 2-D Drude medium
described as

r
() =

2
p

2
j
p
(38)
where

= 1,
p
= 3 10
9
rad/s and
p
= 9 10
7
rad/s.
The space steps are given as x = y = 2 mm and the time
step is 2.34 ps. The computational domain is 30 30 cells grid
with PML layers at all sides of the computational domain. The
relative reection error versus time is computed at an observa-
tion point in the corner of the computational domain and with
two cells away from the nearest two faces of the PML, dened
as
Re(t) = 20log
10
(|E
y
(t) E
yref
(t)|/|E
yref max
|) (39)
where E
y
(t) is the discrete electric eld at the observation
point obtained with various PMLs, E
yref
(t) represents the ref-
erence solution that is obtained by using an extended lattice, and
E
yref max
is the maximum value of the reference solution over
the entire time simulation. In Fig. 1, the relative reection errors
of different PMLs for the Drude media are shown as the func-
tions of time. The ten cells ZT-CPMLshows excellent absorbing
performance, with an improvement around 40 dB, whereas the
ten cells conventional SC-PML, with the same computational
requirement as the ten cells ZT-CPML, has comparatively high
reection errors over the entire time simulation. Then, we re-
duce the number of cells of the ZT-CPML from10 to 6. It can be
seen that the six cells ZT-CPML still outperforms the ten cells
conventional SC-PML by about 20 dB.
B. Debye Media
A second-order Debye model with an added conductivity
term can be expressed as

r
() =

+
a
1
1 + j
1
+
a
2
1 + j
2
+

j
0
(40)
Fig. 2. Relative reection errors versus time of the ten cells ZT-CPML and
the ten cells CPML for the Debye media with a conductivity term (soil).
Fig. 3. Elongated thin PEC plate immersed in soil. The source is at one corner
of the plate, and the observational point at the opposite corner.
where

= 4.15, a
1
= 1.8, a
2
= 0.8,
1
= 3.79 ns,
2
=
0.151 ns, and = 1.11 mS/m (milli-Siemens/meter). This
model has been used in [11] to model the dispersive and con-
ductive soil. This 3-D simulation is done with a computational
domain of 30 30 30 grid with ten cells thick PML layers
terminating the computational domain at all sides. The time step
is 77 ps and the space steps are x = y = y = 50 mm, and
the source is excited at the center by a differentiated Gaussian
pulse, given as
J
y
(t) = 2
t t
0
t
w
exp
_

_
t t
0
t
w
_
2
_
(41)
with t
w
= 1155 ps and t
0
= 4t
w
. The relative reection error
versus time is computed at an observation point located in the
corner of the computational domain and with two cells away
from the nearest three faces of the PML. The results are illus-
trated in Fig. 2. It can be noted that the absorption performance
of the ZT-CPML is better than the CPML, and the ZT-CPML
has good absorption performance in the late-time region. In ad-
dition, these two PMLs need almost the same simulation time.
To further compare the ZT-CPML with the CPML, we sim-
ulate an elongated thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) plate
immersed in soil as a 3-D example shown in Fig. 3. In this sim-
ulation, the absorption of propagating waves for all frequencies
as well as evanescent waves is critical. This structure has been
used in [34]. But the soil surrounding the PEC plate is simply
modeled by a conductor in [34]. Therefore, the second-order
348 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 54, NO. 2, APRIL 2012
Fig. 4. Relative reection errors versus time of the ten cells ZT-CPML and
the ten cells CPML for the 3-D scattering problem.
Debye model with an added conductivity term used here is
more accurate for the simulation of the soil. The time step and
the space steps are the same as the previous simulation of the
soil. The source is excited just above one corner of the plate
by using the differentiated Gaussian pulse (41) as z-directed
electric current. We sample the y component of the electric eld
at the opposite corner. The PMLs are all placed only three cells
from the plate in all directions. The reference solution is ob-
tained by using a grid including an optimized ten-cell CPML at
each of its six sides and 78 free space cells between the plate
and the CPML boundary, yielding a signicantly large FDTD
problem domain of 201 276 176 cells [34]. It is clear from
Fig. 4 that ZT-CPML performs well and has good late-time per-
formance. There is a modest performance gain when compared
with the CPML.
C. Kerr Nonlinear Media
A TE wave in the xy plane propagating in a Kerr nonlinear
medium is considered. The relative permittivity of the Kerr
nonlinear medium can be expressed as

r
() =
lin
+ |

E|
2
(42)
where
lin
= 2.4025 is the relative low-intensity permittivity
and = c
0

lin
nwith n = 10
9
m
2
/Wis the nonlinear optical
coefcient. The computational domain is 30 30 cells grid
with PML layers at all sides of the computational domain, the
time step is t = 12.5 ps, and the space steps are given as
x = y = 6 mm. The source is excited at the center by D
y
with a smooth compact pulse, given as
D
y
=

0
D
0
32
_
10 15 cos
_
2 10
10
t
_
+6 cos
_
4 10
10
t
_
cos
_
6 10
10
t
_
(43)
with D
0
= 0.25 10
6
, and this pulse will be removed after
80t. The relative reection error versus time is computed at
an observation point located in the corner of the computational
domain, two cells away from the nearest two faces of the PML.
The results are shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the ten cells
Fig. 5. Relative reection errors versus time of the ZT-CPML and the con-
ventional SC-PML for the Kerr nonlinear media.
ZT-CPML has much lower reection error especially in the
late-time region, whereas the ten cells conventional SC-PML
has comparatively high reection errors over the entire time
simulation. It should be noted that the relative reection errors
of the ten and six cells ZT-CPML are always under 80 dB.
So, it can be used as the ABC to truncate the nonlinear com-
putational domain for a large number of problems. In addition,
we have simulated this problem with the ten cells ZT-CPML
for 10 000 time steps and the results show that this PML is
stable. Compared with the ten cells conventional SC-PML, the
ZT-CPML still shows much lower reection error even with six
cells.
D. Anisotropic Media
A TE wave propagating in a 2-D uniaxial anisotropic
medium [24] is considered. The permittivity tensor can be cal-
culated through
xx
=
1
cos
2
+
2
sin
2
,
yy
=
1
sin
2
+

2
cos
2
, and
xy
=
yx
= (
2

1
) sin cos with
1
= 2.0,

2
= 3.0, and = /3. The computational domain is 21 20
with ten cells thick PML layers at all sides of the computational
domain, the time step is t = 12.5 ps, and the space steps are
x = y = 6 mm. The source is excited at the center by D
x
with the smooth compact pulse that has been used for modeling
the Kerr nonlinear medium with D
0
= 1.0. This pulse will also
be removed after 80t. The relative reection error versus time
is computed at an observation point located in the corner of the
computational domain, with one cell away from the nearest two
faces of the PML. It is shown in Fig. 6 that the ZT-CPML has
better absorbing performance, with an improvement of about
15 dB around the time step 500 and much lower reection error
for the late-time simulation, whereas the ZT-PML and SC-PML
have comparatively high reection error over the entire simu-
lation, especially in the late-time region, and the ZT-PML is
slightly better than the conventional SC-PML.
ZHUANSUN AND MA: BILINEAR TRANSFORM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SC-PML FOR GENERAL MEDIA AND GENERAL FDTD SCHEMES 349
Fig. 6. Relative reection errors versus time of the ZT-CPML, ZT-PML, and
the conventional SC-PML for the anisotropic media.
Fig. 7. Relative reection errors versus time of the ZT-CPML and the UPML
for modeling the Lorentz media with the high-order FDTD scheme.
E. Lorentz Media Calculated With High-Order Scheme
The dielectric property of Lorentz media is specied as

r
() =

+

L

2
L

2
L
+ 2j
L

2
(44)
where

= 1,
L
= 0.4916,
L
= 1.74 10
14
rad/s, and

L
= 4.96 10
13
rad/s. The computational domain is 30 30
with ten cells thick PML layers at all sides of the computational
domain. The source is excited at the center by D
y
with a modu-
lated Gaussian pulse. The carrier frequency of the excitation is
500 THz with a 20 dBbandwidth approximately 200 THz. For
the high-order scheme of tenth-order DeslauriersDubuc inter-
polating basis function (denoted by DD10) [26], the space steps
are x = y = 0.03 m and the time step t is 0.2 times the
Courant limit. The observation point is located one cell away
from the nearest two faces between the computational domain
and the PML. The relative reection error versus the frequency
is dened as Re(f) = 20log
10
FFT{E
PML
y
(t) E
ref
y
(t)}/
FFT{E
ref
y
(t)}, where FFT{. . .} denotes the Fourier transform
operator, E
PML
y
(t) is the solution obtained by using various
PMLs, and E
ref
y
(t) is the reference solution obtained by using
an extended lattice. It is demonstrated in Fig. 7 that the relative
reection error of the ZT-CPML is around 120 dB. The most
frequently used ABC for this high-order FDTD scheme is the
UPML [27], [28]. Compared with the UPML, the ZT-CPML has
an improvement of around 20 dB in the absorption performance
for the high-order schemes in a wide range of frequency.
IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper, based on the bilinear transform implementation
of the material-independent SC-PML and a general expression
for the dispersive media, we have developed a unied FDTD-
PML algorithm for modeling wave propagation in general dis-
persive media. This unied algorithm can easily be applied to
arbitrary anisotropic media. The effectiveness of this algorithm
has been demonstrated by several problems involving different
media and different FDTD schemes. It has been shown that the
proposed ZT-CPML has a good performance, and can effec-
tively reduce the late-time reections. Compared with the RC
implementation of the SC-PML, the bilinear transform imple-
mentation allows much more direct FDTD update, has better
absorbing performance with the same computational cost, and
can be applied to arbitrary FDTDspatial schemes more straight-
forwardly. The proposed technique serves as a very convenient
and accurate tool for studying the propagation of electromag-
netic waves in the dispersive media and the anisotropic media.
This unied algorithm will be useful for the development of a
general-purpose FDTD code for arbitrary media and arbitrary
FDTD spatial schemes.
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Xu Zhuansun was born in Anhui, China, in 1986.
He received the B.Sc. degree in measurement and
control engineering from Xidian University, Xian,
China, in 2007. He is currently working toward the
Ph.D. degree at Xian Jiaotong University, Xian.
He is currently engaged in developing efcient
algorithm and absorbing boundary condition for the
complex media in the nite-difference time-domain
(FDTD) method. His current research interests in-
clude numerical methods for solving electromagnetic
problems.
Xikui Ma was born in Shaanxi, China, in 1958. He
received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical
engineering from Xian Jiaotong University, Xian,
China, in 1982 and 1985, respectively.
In 1985, he joined as a Lecturer in the Faculty
of Electrical Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University,
where he became a Professor in 1992. During the
academic year 19941995, he was a Visiting Scien-
tist in the Department of Electrical Engineering and
Computer, University of Toronto. He is the author or
coauthor of more than 140 scientic and technical
papers on these subjects, and also the author of ve books in electromagnetic
elds. His current research interests include electromagnetic eld theory and
its applications, analytical and numerical methods in solving electromagnetic
problems, chaotic dynamics and its applications in power electronics, and the
applications of digital control to power electronics.