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The need to rehabilitate a structure may arise at any time from the beginning of the construction phase until the end of the service life. During the construction phase, it may occur because of * design errors * deficient concrete production * bad execution processes During the service life, it may arise on account of: * an earthquake * an accident, such as collisions, fire, explosions * situations involving changes in the structure functionality * the development of more demanding code requirements.

Concrete section enlargement :

Section Enlargement (Concrete jacketing) is a common strengthening method. Section enlargement can be defined as the placement of additional concrete and reinforcing steel on an existing structural member. It is important to mention that beams, slabs, columns, and walls, if necessary, can be enlarged to add stiffness or load-carrying capacity. In most cases, the enlargement must be bonded to the existing concrete to create a monolithic member for additional shear or flexural capacity. Method A will accomplish efficient load transfer if the new portion is cast with a bond breaker between the new and old concrete. After most of the drying shrinkage has occurred, the ties that link the old and new concrete can be installed. The gap between the new portion of the column and the existing member (to be partially supported by this column) can be filled with dry packing material. This will allow the new material to share its portion of the load. When Methods B and C are used , extreme care should be exercised to select concrete mix designs with very low shrinkage rates. Pre placed aggregate concrete generally offers the lowest drying shrinkage; it is, therefore, an excellent material for column enlargements.

Composite construction:
Construction in which an additional foreign material is attached to an existing substrate in order to increase its load carrying capacity or for rehabilitation is known as composite construction. It can be carried out in following techniques: 1. Steel plating 2. RC jacketing 3. FRP wrapping 4. Sprayed concreting 5. Additional reinforcement Steel Plating: Many strengthening and stabilization techniques utilize steel to strengthen connections or provide additional tensile capacity. Attachment methods utilize mechanical connection and/or adhesives, permitting load transfer (shear, tension, or compression) between the steel and concrete. Use of adhesive as a connecting mechanism provides for uniform load transfer and corrosion protection at the concrete steel interface. For maximum bond, the steel requires a high level of abrasive cleaning (white metal, near white, commercial).The concrete surface requires roughening by mechanical or abrasive/liquid blast methods and removal of surface requires maintenance. Mechanical anchorage methods utilize different types of anchor devices. Where vibration exists in the connection, resin anchors or through-bolting should be utilized. In critical applications, a combination of adhesives and technical systems should be considered.

RC Jacketing: In the case of a damaged and/or deteriorated RC element, strengthening must be associated with structural repair. The strengthening process must be preceded by the repairing operation. This strengthening technique, unlike other methods where steel elements are used, does not have a specialized work demand. Its simplicity of execution makes any construction company, capable of building with quality new RC structures, also competent to execute structural rehabilitation using RC jacketing. One advantage of RC jacketing strengthening is the fact that the increased stiffness of the structure is uniformly distributed, in contrast to the addition of shear walls or steel bracing. In fact, for these procedures, it is usually necessary to execute new foundations or, at least, to strengthen the existing ones.

The most important aspect of RC jacketing is interface preparation to achieve a good bond between the original column and the added jacket so that the resulting element behaves monolithically. The current practice in several countries consists in increasing the surface roughness of the original column, followed by the application of a bonding agent. In some cases, steel connectors are also considered. Several methods are used to increase the roughness of the interface surface: hand chipping, sand-blasting, jack-hammering, electric hammering, water demolition, iron brushing, etc.

FRP Wrapping: Carbon fiber has very high tensile strength and is also very lightweight. When bonded to the exterior of a concrete column, beam, or slab, it can add significant strength without adding weight that would increase the load on foundations and other structural members. The composite material is called fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). FRP wraps are easy to apply and can be used on any size or shape of structural member. In appropriate applications, FRP strengthening can be 30% to 50% less expensive than traditional strengthening due to the ease of installation. One application for FRP strengthening gaining in popularity is strengthening of concrete tanks, culverts, and prestressed concrete water pipes. The FRP layer not only strengthens the structure but provides an impermeable layer. Surface preparation is the most important step , starting with simply cleaning the concrete to remove any chemicals or dirt. For most applications, this is followed by shot blasting or water blasting to achieve a roughened surface profile. There are two types of applications to consider: bond critical and contact critical. Bond-critical applications rely completely on the bond of the material to the surface of the concrete to transfer the stresses. Contact-critical applications are where the FRP is bonded to itself and creates confinement of the structural member.

An important characteristic of FRP in repair and strengthening applications is the speed and ease of installation. Labor, shutdown costs, and site constraints typically offset the higher material cost of FRP. In general, concrete structures may need strengthening due to deterioration, design/ construction errors, a change in use or loading, or for a seismic upgrade. Bonded FRP essentially works as additional reinforcement to provide tensile strength. The matrix is considered the secondary material in FRPs. Its major roles are transferring stresses between the fibers and protecting fibers against the environmental and mechanical conditions. The importance of the matrix in a composite is its effect on interlaminar and in-plane shear strengths. It also provides support against buckling of the fibers under compressive loads. These matrices can be of thermoplastic or thermosetting type.

Sprayed Concreting: Sprayed concrete is a method of applying concrete that is generally self supporting without the need for form work. The concrete mix will be sprayed with or without admixture or polymers to the defected areas under high air pressure. This process is done by means of nozzle gun. Depending upon when the water is added into the mix, it is broadly classified as dry spray concreting and wet spraying concreting, where in the water is mixed at high pressure at the nozzle for the former, while the water is mixed along with dry ingredients before hosing it in the later one.

Shotcreting: Shotcreting is a sprayed concrete, which consists of smaller size of coarse aggregate, this is mainly done to increase the thickness in one operation and to reduce the consumption of cement. Usually the mixture obtained from this type is zero slump and can support itself without sagging or peeling off. Sometimes set retarders are used. Guiniting: Guiniting comprises applying cement mortar under high pressure directly on a surface. The high pressure application ensures dense surface of high strength and low permeability. Besides, the technique ensures good bond between old surface and low permeability, better bond between old concrete and fresh concrete, when adequate care is taken in surface preparation, mix design and application.

Wet shotcreting Micro concreting:

Dry shotcreting

Micro concrete is a dry ready mix cementetious based composition formulated for use in repairs of areas where the concrete is damaged & the area is restricted in movement making the placement of conventional concrete difficult., It is supplied as a ready to use dry powder which requires only addition of clean water at site to produce a free flowing non shrink repair micro concrete. This is a cementitious material, with additives, which impart controlled expansion characteristics in the plastic state with reduced water demand. By this method, the contaminated or damaged concrete are removed and replaced by the fluid micro concrete. Admixture such as shrinkage compensators are used to control shrinkage in both plastic and hardened state. From the practicality point of view , it needs special design and formwork with leak proof. Further the formwork and substrate is required to be soaked. And aggregates used are not greater than 10mm, and off rounded shape to increase its workability. It is mainly used in congested working place, such as dense reinforcement or narrow patch work or thin sections, where they are out of reach of trowels.

Post tensioning:
Post-Tensioning is a method of reinforcing concrete, masonry, and other structural elements. Post-Tensioning is a method of prestressing. Prestressed concrete or masonry has internal stresses or forces induced into it during the construction phase for the purpose of

counteracting the anticipated external loads that it will encounter during its lifecycle. PostTensioned reinforcing consists of very high strength steel strands or bars Externally post-tensioned structures are becoming increasingly popular, because of economic and aesthetic considerations in conjunction with modern construction methods; the possibility of monitoring the prestressing forces in the structure and if necessary modifying them; the ease of inspection; and the replace ability of external tendons. External tendons are also well suited for the strengthening of existing structures. Placement of the tension components can be achieved either internally within the member or externally to the member. Tension components are generally steel plates, rods, tendons or strands. The tension is imparted to the component by jacketing of, less commonly, by preheating. Post-tensioning enhances a member's ability to relieve overstressed conditions in tension, shear, bending and torsion. The post-tensioning technique can also be used to eliminate unwanted displacement in members and to turn discontinuous members into continuous members Strengthening structures with post-tensioning tendons can be a cost-effective solution, because new, external high strength steel tendons can be easily installed in the structure so that strengthening forces are applied where needed. The tendon geometry can easily be adjusted to work around the existing utility pipes and ducts and apply the forces at specific points of the structure.

Grouting techniques:
Grout is a mixture of cementitious material (usually portland cement), aggregate, enough water to cause the mixture to flow readily and without segregation into cores or cavities in the masonry and sometimes admixtures Grout are used to increase the wall's fire rating, acoustic effectiveness, termite resistance, blast resistance, heat capacity or anchorage capabilities. Grout may also be used to stabilize screen walls and other landscape elements.

Types of grouts: Epoxy grout: Epoxy grout forms an impermeable barrier to liquids and doesnt require additional sealing of the joint. This grout type prevents the growth of bacteria and limits the amount of cracking. Epoxy grout offers water resistant properties and bacteria growth. The only drawback of epoxy grout would be the price. Cement based grouts: This type of grout can either be sanded or non sanded. Both mixtures are acidsensitive and absorbent. Cement-based grout tends to be polymer-modified which helps to prevent cracking while adding strength. But for repair mostly non shrink grouts are used which may be of epoxy or cement based, depending upon the substrate condition, whether dry or wet or extent up to which stiffness is required.

A concrete overlay is best described as a polymer modified cementitious topping that will cover an existing concrete surface. A concrete overlay is used for concrete repair and concrete resurfacing. Overlays are used when a concrete substrate is unsightly; a concrete overlay would be used to make the old or defective concrete surface to look new again or to give different aesthetic view, but the main reason it has been developed was for repair. The concrete overlay makes it possible to perform concrete repair instead of concrete replacement. This saves money and time. A concrete overlay is made from 3 main ingredients. They are silica quartz, Portland cement and a binding polymer. Some factors that vary in concrete overlay

formulations are the size and blend of the silica quartz. The different types of cement as the hardener also vary. The type of polymer used determines a lot of the qualities or lack of in a concrete overlay. Also, the additives that give greater performance for workability and longevity determine the quality of the concrete overlay. A concrete overlay that is designed specifically for concrete repair usually has a greater overall strength than a concrete overlay designed for decorative concrete resurfacing. The workability is also less forgiving with a concrete repair mix because it is intended for a stronger faster application as opposed to a decorative concrete overlay mix that will need to be finessed to achieve the desired finish and texture. Most concrete repair mixes set relatively fast and are able to open to intended use quickly. Bonded Overlay - Bonded concrete overlays are relatively thin (50-100 mm [2-4 in.]) and used where surface distress exists, but the structural condition of the existing pavement is good. Bonded together, the overlay and existing pavement perform as one monolithic pavement. When used in conjunction with existing asphalt pavements they have been referred to as ultra-thin whitetopping. Unbonded Overlay Unbonded concrete overlays are typically 100 to 280 mm (4 to 11 in.) thick depending upon desire life, anticipated traffic loading and condition of underlying pavement. The overlay performs as a new pavement with the existing pavement serving as a stable uniform base. When the underlying pavement is asphalt or a composite pavement, no attempts are made to separate the overlay from the existing asphalt surface. In fact some bonding generally adds some structural capacity to the system.

Shear wall:
A shear wall is a rigid vertical diaphragm capable of transferring lateral forces from exterior walls, floors, and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their planes. They are usually provided along both length and width of buildings.

Shear walls provide large strength and stiffness to buildings in the direction of their orientation, which significantly reduces lateral sway of the building and thereby reduces damage to structure and its contents. Since shear walls carry large horizontal earthquake forces, the overturning effects on them are large. Thus, design of their foundations requires special attention. Shear walls in buildings must be symmetrically located in plan to reduce illeffects of twist in buildings Steel reinforcing bars are to be provided in walls in regularly spaced vertical and horizontal grids. Under the large overturning effects caused by horizontal earthquake forces, edges of shear walls experience high compressive and tensile stresses. To ensure that shear walls behave in a ductile way, concrete in the wall end regions must be reinforced in a special manner to sustain these load reversals without loosing strength. End regions of a wall with increased confinement are called boundary elements. RC walls with boundary elements have substantially higher bending strength and horizontal shear force carrying capacity, and are therefore less susceptible to earthquake damage than walls without boundary elements.