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CHAPTER 5: VARIATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS - Somniloquy: talk while sleeping - Narcolepsy: serious sleep disorder; sleep uncontrollably while doing

everyday routine - Figure: William Dement- sleep disorder is the only disorder that is caused by a flaw in the primary sleep systems in the brain - sleep deprivation has been linked to various negative outcomes (negative emotional stimuli) - sufficient sleep is critical to well-being 1) THE NATURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS - Consciousness: awareness of external and internal stimuli - Figure: William James stream of consciousness because our consciousness is constantly changing 1.1 Variations in Awareness and Control - Koch and Tsuchiya: can have either attention or consciousness - Mind wandering concept: peoples experience of task-unrelated thoughts -- thoughts that are unrelated to what they are trying to do at the moment - Automatic Process: happens without intentional control or effort - Controlled Process: happens with intentional control or effort - Figure: Malcolm Gladwell with his book of Blink- how effortlessly some judgments and choices seem to be made 1.2 Unconscious Thought Effects >Theory of Unconscious Thought: - proposed by Ap Dijksterhuis of University of Amsterdam - when people are unconscious, the decision made will be better than when they are conscious - Attention is the key to distinguish between conscious and unconscious thought - conscious is a thought with attention while unconsciousness is a decision without attention -unconscious thought is said to be better because it doesnt have information constraint compared to conscious thought 1.3 Consciousness and Brain Activity - consciousness doesnt originate from brain structure, but rather from activity in distributed network of neural pathway - brain imaging method: explore level of brain activity and consciousness -- through EEG: monitor brain electrical activity over time as the purpose to record by attaching electrodes to the scalp surface -- summarize line tracing known as brain-wave (they vary in height and frequency) - brain wave is divided into 4 principal bands : alpha (relaxing), beta (problem-solving), delta (dreamless sleep), theta (light sleep) 2) BIOLOGICAL RHYTMS AND SLEEP - Kenton Crocker- sleep was originally thought as the absence of phenomena -- all activities become inactive -William Dement of Stanford University: transform the lab research for sleep from study of dreams to the study of the nature of sleep - Joseph de Koninck important links between sleep quality and the bodys natural rhythm - Biological rhythm: periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning

2.1 The Role of Circadian Rhythms - Circadian rhythm: 24 hour biological clock found in human and other species - Influence: regulation of sleep, blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretion, alertness, shortterm memory - Without exposure to light, circa cycles run longer (24.2) because daily exposure to light readjust peoples biological clocks -during the exposure, retina send inputs to small structure in hypothalamus called suprachiasmatic neucleus (SNC) - Ralph Mistlberger and Mary Harrington- SCN send signals to pineal gland whose secretion of melatonin plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks - Benjamin Rustak- mammalian circa system is more complex 2.2 Ignoring Circadian Rhythms - William Dement: sleep debt must be paid by hours missed - getting out of sync also means jet lag - when fly westward the adjustment is easier (because the day is longer) and fly eastward is harder (because the day is shorter) 2.3 Melatonin and Circadian Rhythms - Melatonin is said to regulate human biological clock (but the finding isnt consistent) - contributing by the fact that it is difficult to optimize the right timing for melatonin intake 3) THE SLEEP AND WAKING CYCLE - sleep is generally thought as the phase of shut down - devices used to study sleeping phenomena: EEG (electroencephalograph), electromyography (EMG) which records muscular activity and tensions, electrooculograph (EOG) which records eye movements -- other instruments: monitor heart rate, breathing, pulse rate and body temperature 3.1 Cycling through the Stage of Sleep - there 5 stages during sleep 3.1.A Stages 1-4 - Stage 1: brief transitional stage of light sleep that lasts for 1-7 mins (alpha dominates) -- breathing and heart rate slow as muscle tension and body temperature decline -- alpha gives way to theta (light sleep) -- Hypnic jerks: brief muscular contractions occur as people fall asleep - Stage 2: brief bursts (higher frequency brain waves) called sleep spindles occur. Period: 10-25 mins -- amplitude becomes higher and slower in frequency -- gradually descend into deep sleep (delta comes in) - Stage 3 and 4 (DEEP SLEEP) - slow-wave sleep consists of 3 and 4 where high amplitude, lower frequency, delta waves dominate - period: 30 minutes Then the recycle reverses 3.1.B REM sleep - 5th stage: rapid eye movement (REM) where EOG is used

- Nathaniel Kleitman and REM term coined by William Dement - REM is the deep stage of sleep where muscle movement is minimal (paralyzed) irregular breathing and pulse rate - dreams mostly occur at this stage - Carlyle Smith: brain activity during sleep consolidates information during the day and different stages of sleep may be implicated by different types of tasks or information -- Stage 2: consolidate procedural motor-type tasks -- REM: important for complex logic-type tasks Conclusion - REM: deep stage of sleep, rapid eye movement, high frequency, low-amplitude and vivid dreaming - Non-REM (NREM): consists 1-4, absence of REM, little dreaming and varied EEG activity 3.2 Repeating the Cycle - repeated 4 times - 1st REM is short and gets longer (40-60 mins) - on contrary: NREM becomes shorter 3.3 Age Trends in Sleep - 2 types of sleep: REM and NREM - infant spends longer REM but decreases from 50% to about 20% as they grow - young adults need more sleeps - elderly needs less sleep 3.4 Culture and Sleep - sleep does not vary from culture - co-sleeping: family sleeping together (in Japan) 3.5 Neural Bases of Sleep - subcortial structures that lie deep within the brain is responsible for regulating sleep rhythm and waking - reticular information is in the core of the brainstem (responsible for wakefulness and sleep) - Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) consists of afferent fibers running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal Other brain structures: - pons and adjacent areas in the midbrain: critical to the generation of REM sleep - hypothalamus: regulation of sleep and wakefulness - medulla, thalamus and basal forebrain : control of sleep and various neurotransmitters 3.6 Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation - 2 types: Partial deprivation (sleep restriction) and selective deprivation 3.6.A Sleep Restriction - when people is okay with getting less sleep than the usual amount - study: the effect depends on the amount of sleeping period deprived and the nature of the job - deprived subjects rate their performance higher than those who get enough sleep - results: sleep deprived people are bad at predicting

- sleep is important for our emotional well being 3.6.B Selective Deprivation - subjects are awakened when they fall into REM or NREM stages - Deprived REM: shift sleeping patterns as they tend to shift into REM more frequently -- experience rebound effect: they try to make up for the loss - Deprived of slow wave sleep (during stage 3 and 4): - Importance of getting enough REM and SWS: firming up the learning process, each promotes different types of memory -- sleep enhances subjects memory of specific learning activities -- foster creative insights - REM sleeps fosters neurogenesis (the generation of new neuron) which facilitates learning - Hippocampus facilitates formation of memories 3.6.C Sleep Loss and Health - sleep restriction triggers hormonal changes that increase hunger - short sleep duration with increased obesity - impaired immune system functioning - but: the studies largely depend on self-report for which the result may be distorted 3.7 Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders 3.7.A Insomnia - Mean: chronic problems in getting adequate sleep -3 patterns: difficult to fall asleep, difficulty in remaining asleep and persistent early-morning awakening Prevalence - the study on this is rather inaccurate as it totally depends on respondents subjective judgments - nearly everyone has sleep difficulty problem (stress, disturbed circa rhythm) - pseudo-insomnia: they underestimate their total duration when it is actually enough Causes - many, like anxiety, tension that keep them awake - study: some people just have higher physiological arousal - Hyperarousal model of insomnia suggests that some people exhibit hormonal patterns associated with arousal Treatment - 2 types: benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine - Benzodiazepine ( Dalmane, Halcion, Restoril) : to relieve anxiety - Nonbezodiazepine (Ambien, Sonarata Lunesta): designed for sleep problems - poor long term solutions, overdose with alcohol and opiate drugs, less effective with frequent intake, will increase insomnia problem - can be overcame with: relaxation procedure and behavioral interventions -- cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

3.7.B Other Sleep Problems - there are 6: - Narcolepsy: sudden irresistible onset of sleep during normal waking periods -- suddenly fall into REM state while doing daily routine (10-20 mins) - Sleep apnea: frequent, gasping for air while sleeping -- people stop breathing for a minimum of 10 sec -- heart failure problem - nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening during REM stage -- victim cant recall but may remember one frightening image -- associate with neuroticism, trait anxiety, state anxiety and depression - Night terrors (sleep terrors) : abrupt awakening from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic - remarkable heart acceleration which occurs during stage 4 - Somnambulism: sleepwalking occurs when a person arises and wanders around while remaining asleep, REM stage - REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD): troublesome dream enactment during REM period -- yell, gesture, leap out while sleeping -- causes: deterioration in the brainstem structure as it is responsible for immobilization of human during REM 4. WORLD OF DREAMS - Van de Castle: dreams have important influence on history and culture - Dreams: mental experience during REM sleep that have story-like quality, vivid images (often bizarre) and considered real by the dreamer - Studies have counter this assumption - Discovery: Dreams in NREM are less vivid, imagery and story-like than REM dreams 4.1 The Content of Dreams - tend to unfold in familiar settings with characters dominated by friends, family and colleagues - humans are more tolerant of logical discrepancies and implausible scenarios in our dreams than waking thought - usually from 1st person perspective - women: negative dream - dream: positive dream - ability to recall dream at REM increases with age - therefore: dreaming is a cognitive ability that develops gradually 4.2 Links Between Dreams and Waking Life - Freud: day residue- content of waking life spills into dreams -- peoples dreams are not entirely separated from real words -- Dement experiment by spraying water on REM sleep-staged subject - Lucid dream: people realize that they are dreaming while in dream-state

-- maybe useful in nightmare treatment 4.3 Culture and Dreams - Western perceives it as meaningless - For Aborigines, it determines the way their life works 4.4 Theories of Dreaming - 3 theories of functions of dreams: Wishful fulfillment, problem solving and neural activity - Sigmund Freud: people fulfill unsatisfied needs from waking hours through wishful thinking in their dreams - Rosalind Cartwright: dreams provide opportunities to work through everyday problem -- cognitive problem-solving view: there is considerable continuity between waking and sleeping thought -- suggest: dreams allow creative thinking about problems as they are not restrained by logic or realism -- critics: people dream about problems doesnt mean that they dream about the solutions - J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley: dreams are byproduct of bursts of activity emanating from subcortial areas in the brain -- Activation-synthesis model: dreams are side-effects of the neural activation that produces wide awake brain waves during REM sleep -- neurons fire up in lower brain centres >> send random signal to cortex >> cortex constructs a dream to make sense of the random signals - this theory rejects the emotional factor - critics: do not accommodate dreams that occur at NREM 5. HYPNOSIS: ALTERED CONSCIOUSNESS OR ROLE PLAYING? - Began in 18th century in Austria by Franz Anton Mesmer - Made famous by Scottish physician, James Braid who popularized hypnotism (sleep) 5.1 Hypnotic Induction and Susceptibility - process that heightens the state of suggestibility - not everyone can be hypnotized - people can get in and out of the state of hypnosis without realizing it - 3 Factors of high hypnotizability: Absorption, dissociation and suggestibility - Absorption: capacity to block peripheral awareness and focus on ones attention - Dissociation: ability to separate identity, perception of memory - Suggestibility: tendency to accept directions and information relatively uncritically 5.2 Hypnotic Phenomena - Anesthesia: participants can withstand pain - Sensory distortion and hallucination: experience auditory or visual hallucination -- see, hear things that are not present - Disinhibition: increases the likeliness for participants to do things that unusually would be done; socially unacceptable - Posthypnotic suggestion and amnesia: commanded to forget the information absorbed but when pressed they do actually remember

5.3 Theories of Hypnosis 5.3.A Social Cognitive Theory of Hypnosis: Hypnosis as Role Playing - subjects act as the role given are supposed to act; role as 5 years old, they act like one but those arent what happened in their past - it is not because the person is in a trance state but rather it is from their expectations and attitudes - hypnotized participants make more errors than non-hypnotized but they are more confident with their memory 5.3.B Hypnosis as an Altered-State of Consciousness Arguments that counter role-playing view - hypnotized participants continue to show the state of hypnotic when they are not being observed - brain imaging shows change in brain-activity - Ernest Hilgard: Dissociation which is a splitting off of mental processes into two separate simultaneous stream of awareness - 1 for communication and external world and the other is hidden observer 6. Meditation: Pure Consciousness or Relaxation - heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control - 2 main styles: focused attention and open monitoring - focused attention: focus on a specific image, sound, bodily sensation - open monitoring: content of ones moment-to-moment experience in a nonjudgmental and nonreactive way -- become a detached observer of the flow of ones own sensation, thoughts and feelings 6.1 Physiological Correlates - alpha and theta become more prominent in EEG recording - heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination decline - meditation leads to potentially beneficial physiological state characterized by suppression of bodily arousal 6.2Long Term Benefits - lower level of stress hormone, enhanced immune response reduce anxiety, drug abuse, blood pressure, self-esteem, mood. - enhance human potential by improving focus, heightening awareness, building emotional resilience and moral maturity - increase tolerance in pain (pain tolerance) 7. ALTERING CONSCIOUSNESS WITH DRUGS 7.1 Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects - Psychoactive drugs: chemical substances that modify mental, emotional or behavioural functioning - Binge drink: 5 or more alcohol drinks in a session - 6 types: Narcotics, sedative, stimulant, hallucinogen, cannabis, alcohol - Non-traditional drug: MDMA (ecstasy) combination of amphetamine and hallucinogens - Narcotics (opiates): derived from opiates to relieve pain- morphine and heroine - Sedative: Increases sleepiness and reduces CNS activity

-- produces euphoria similar to alcohol -- side effect: drowsiness, mood swing, impairment in motor coordination and functioning - Stimulants: Increase CNS activity, mental alertness, energy - mild: caffeine and nicotine, strong: cocaine, synthesized: amphetamine - free-basing: to extract pure cocaine from street cocaine (crack) - metamphetamine called ice/crystal/meth -- side effect: insomnia, restlessness, anxiety, paranoia - Hallucinogen: have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, distort sensory and perceptual experience - principal hallucinogens: LSD, mescaline and psilocybin - causes increased sensory awareness, distorted sense of time, euphoria -- side effect: nightmarish feeling of anxiety and paranoia called bad trip, impaired judgment and jumbled thought process - cannabis: hemp plant where THC, marijuana and hashish are derived (mixture of seeds, stems, flowers, dried leaves taken from plant) - marijuana and hashish are smoked - THC are chemical ingredients in cannabis are used for research purposes (for animal who cant smoke marijuana) - enhanced sensory awareness, relaxed euphoria - side effect: sluggish mental functioning and impaired memory - Alcohol: beverages containing ethyl alcohol - boost self-esteem (confidence), relaxed euphoria, reduce inhibition - MDMA: compound drug related to amphetamine and hallucinogen -- side effect: increase blood pressure, muscle tension, sweating, blurred vision, insomnia, transient anxiety 7.2 Factors Influencing Drug Effects - factors depend on: weight, previous experience with drug, motivation, personality, physiology, dose and potency of drug, method of administering drug, setting in how drug is taken - Tolerance: reduced effectiveness of drug effect on oneself 7.3 Mechanisms of Drug Action - psychoactive drugs alter neurotransmitter activity in the brain - Amphetamine: increases norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) release at presynaptic neurons and also prevent the reuptake - Cocaine: prevent the reuptake of NE, DA and serotonin - THC: hijacks brains cannabinoid receptors >> increase the release of endorphins and activation of dopamine circuits associated with rewards - all abused drug increase the activity in mesolimbic dopamine pathway > it runs from midbrain > nucleus acumbens > prefrontal cortex

7.4 Drug Dependence - Physical dependence: a person must continue with drug to prevent withdrawal illnesses - such as: tremor, fever, convulsion, cramp, diarrhea, aches, pains, vomiting - caused by stimuli that have been paired with the drug in the past - Cues accompanying the drug: conditional stimuli (CS), stimulus learn to emit response that used to be emit by other stimulus > tolerance to drug - Direct effect constitute unconditional stimulus (US) - Phsyiological dependency: a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy mental and emotional craving for the drug - Both of them demonstrates an alteration in synaptic transmissions - dysregulation in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway < the main cause for drug craving 7.5 Drugs and Health - affect in 3 ways: overdose, direct and indirect effect 7.5.A Overdose - CNS depressants: sedatives, narcotics and alcohols are prone to overdose - causes coma, brain damage, heart attack, stroke or cortical seizure 7.5.B Direct Effect - cause tissue damage directly, damage nasal membranes, heart attack, lung problem, ulcer, hypertension, stroke disease, liver damage, neurological disorder 7.5.C Indirect Effect - impact attitudes, attention and behavior - tend not to eat or sleep properly, impair motor coordination, engage in unprotected sexual activity, physical abuse 7.5.D Controversies Concerning Marijuana - increase risk for lung cancer - impair driving less than alcohol - may cause schizo - Does marijuana effect immunity system? NO - Does marijuana lead to infertility? NO - Does marijuana have long term effect on cognitive function? YES, it impairs attention, learning and memory ability 7.5.E New Finding Regarding Ecstasy - Heavy use leads to sleep disorders, depression, anxious and hostile - memory deficits